Article

The Health Risk of Formaldehyde to Human Beings

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Abstract

Problem statement: Formaldehyde was classified as a potential human carcinogen, identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency and International Agency for Research on Cancer as a Class 2A carcinogen. It also can cause irritation to human. However, formaldehyde present in biological fluids or tissues and environment as a result of natural processes or from man-made sources and can be emitted slowly into the air. Formaldehyde was used in many industries, hospitals and research as a sterilizing and preserving agent. The utmost concern of this study was about the present of formaldehyde in seafood product. Approach: A review was done on the health effect adverse by formaldehyde, formaldehyde toxicity to human, formaldehyde in seafood and methods to control formaldehyde in food and seafood. Google, Pubmed, Science Direct and Scopus were used in preparation of this review. Results: This review clarified that one of the formaldehyde source to human was seafood. Previous study showed that seafood contained high amount of formaldehyde because of natural production by postmortem enzymatic reaction besides the used of formaldehyde as preservative. Based on prior studies, exposure to formaldehyde can cause irritation and genotoxicity effect. For cancer effect studies, formaldehyde was long considered as a potential human carcinogen based on experimental animal studies and limited evidence of human carcinogenicity. Conclusion: Several mefinding of many health effect of formaldehyde, suggests that the investigation of level of formaldehyde in seafthods have been suggested to reduce formaldehyde in food such as cooking and washing. The ood should be done and also the level of formaldehyde natural production.

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... Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are low molecular weight aldehydes contained in foods, have received a special attention due to their high toxicity and carcinogenicity [12] . Formaldehyde is used as a preservative, reducing agent, and a sterilizing agent in food industry [13] . In this study it was found that number of flies in all samples of fruits and fishes was decreased gradually with the increase of concentration of formalin indicating that flies can detect the presence of formalin in fruits and fishes even in the lowest concentration (250 ppm). ...
... It indicates that flies are habituated to the presence of low concentration of formaldehyde in fruits and fishes. This behavior of flies may be resulted from natural presence of formaldehyde as a product of normal metabolism in many foods including fruits, vegetables, meats, fish, crustacean, and dried mushrooms [13] . Hence, flies can ignore the low concentration of formalin in fruits and fishes. ...
... However, the initial concentration of formalin which was significantly avoided by flies was different for different types of fruits and fishes. It has been reported that the level of formaldehyde is different among the species and between frozen and fresh seafood due to their different amount of trimethylamine oxide from species to species and depending on bacterial activity [13,14] . It may be a reason of different initial concentration of formalin for significant avoidance of formalin contaminated foods by flies as found in this study. ...
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Article
Formalin, a carcinogenic agent, is illegally used for preservation of fruits and fishes in Bangladesh. It is often observed that flies are avoiding some fruits and fishes for an unknown reason in fruits and fish markets. Therefore, it was assumed that flies may avoid the contaminated fruits and fishes by detection of presence of formalin in those items. Hence, this study was designed to uncover relationship between rate of avoidance of the fishes by flies and the concentration of formalin for contamination. For this study, five types of fruits viz. Mango, Orange, Apple, Papaya and Banana, and two types of fishes, viz. Puthi, Puntius titus (Hamilton, 1822) and Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus were soaked with normal water (Control) and 120 ppm, 250ppm, 500ppm, 750ppm, 1000ppm and 2000ppm solution of formaldehyde for 1 minute. Then fruits and fishes were kept in different Petridis separately in open place for 1 hour to count the flies available on fruits and fishes. Finally, the counted number was analyzed with Graph Pad Prism software. It was found that number of flies in all samples of fruits and fishes was decreased gradually from the lowest concentration of formalin (250ppm) to the higher concentration indicating that flies can detect the presence of formalin in fruits and fishes even in the lowest concentration (250 ppm). However, the initial concentration of formalin which was significantly avoided by flies was different for different types of fruits and fishes. Altogether, it can be concluded that formalin contamination is one of the reasons of avoidance of fruits and fishes by flies.
... During deterioration of some fish species, high concentrations of formaldehyde may form but do not accrue in the tissue because of subsequent conversion to other compounds. However, it may accumulate in some species such as cod, Pacific hake, Pollack, and haddock during the frozen storage as a result of the difference in the levels of trimethylamine oxide and its degradation [8]. Trimethylamine oxide demethylase (TMAOase) is an enzyme very active at low temperatures such as -20 ∘ C and is accountable for the demethylation of trimethylamine oxide to dimethylamine and FA [9]. ...
... It is an important metabolic mediator in mammalian cells, which are formed during amino acids metabolism in the body [22]. The presence of formaldehyde in human system can cause minor to serious problems such as irritation of the respiratory tract, pain, vomiting, cancer, abnormalities in chromosomes, blindness, asthma, damage to the kidney, uncontrolled cell development or cancer in the stomach and gastrointestinal tract, coma, and possible death with large formaldehyde dosage [2,4,8,23]. ...
... Consumption of formaldehyde-contaminated foods can lead to oxidative stress on the reproductive system due to disparity among extreme production of reactive oxygen species and inadequate antioxidant defence [24]. The enzyme formaldehyde dehydrogenase, which is found in all human tissues like red blood cells and liver, quickly transform formaldehyde to formate after which the carbon atom can be further oxidised to CO 2 or integrated into biological macromolecules through tetrahydrofolate-dependent onecarbon biosynthetic pathway [8,22,25]. Commercial fish may be contaminated with formaldehyde used as a preservative in order to keep the freshness of wet fish and seafood because they are very perishable and can only be kept fresh in ice for a few days depending on the species [7]. In addition there have been media reports of late in Ghana of alleged use of formaldehyde to aid preservation in the processing of salted fish which is a delicacy in Ghana, by the fishermen and fish mongers. ...
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Article
This study evaluates the exposure of the Ghanaian population of the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana to formaldehyde through the consumption of fish using 3-Methyl-2-Benzothiazoline Hydrazone method, with trichloroacetic acid as an extracting agent. A total of sixty (60) fish species comprising both local and imported fish were bought from cold stores and fish ponds were analysed. Formaldehyde was found in all the species analysed with concentration ranging from 0.174 to 3.710 μ gg ⁻¹ . However, the levels were still lower than 5 mg/kg, which is the maximum limit established by the Malaysian Food Act and Regulation for formaldehyde in fish. The estimated daily intake values for formaldehyde in the fish species analysed ranged between 4.233 × 10 ⁻⁴ and 3.661 × 10 ⁻³ mg/kg BW/day and this was less than the acceptable daily intake of 0.15 and 0.2 mg/kg BW/day suggested by World Health Organization and the United States Environmental Protection Agency for formaldehyde intake, respectively. The results for the hazard quotient calculated for all the species were less than one suggesting that the amount of formaldehyde in the fish is not likely to pose any potential adverse health effects to consumers. Thus, wet fish from Kumasi may be considered safe for consumption because of low formaldehyde content.
... Reports of illegal use of formaldehyde as food preservative are becoming a global problem (Shahdat et al., 2008;Norliana et al., 2009;Emdadul and Mohsin 2009;Riaz et al., 2011). In 2012, the state news agency; Xinhua reported that vegetable sellers in China were caught spraying cabbages with formaldehyde solution to keep them fresh in transit, (BBC, 2012). ...
... Naturally, production of formaldehyde can occur by enzymatic activity of trimethylamine oxide aldolase (TMAOase) in meat preserved in frozen form for long periods and also during the ageing and deterioration of fish flesh. However, high levels of formaldehyde do not accumulate in fish tissues due to its subsequent conversion to other chemical compounds (Norliana et al., 2009). Obviously, there is paucity of information on formaldehyde content of frozen poultry meat. ...
... The health risk of exposure to formaldehyde has been extensively studied with the main concern being its genotoxic and carcinogenic potentials, (Speit et al., 2006, Norliana, 2009, WHO 2002. The significantly higher formaldehyde content of imported poultry meat compared to the locally produced poultry in Ibadan, Nigeria, implies a higher formaldehyde exposure level in people who consume such smuggled imported poultry products which are relatively cheaper. ...
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Article
Importation of frozen poultry meat is currently banned in Nigeria however; reports have it that such products are readily available in the market due to the activities of smugglers who are alleged to illegally add formalin to the smuggled poultry meat as a preservative. Exposure to high levels of formalin has deleterious health consequences. Therefore, assessment of formaldehyde contents in imported frozen chicken and turkey on sale in five major markets located in Ibadan, South west Nigeria, were studied between October, 2012 and February, 2013; in three batches using spectrophotometry. Result reveals a range of 0.063 mg/kg to 7.47 mg/kg (mean±SD; 2.82±2.4 mg/kg) of formaldehyde content in the imported raw poultry meat which is significantly higher (P<0.01) than that of poultry meat obtained from a local farm (0.02 mg/kg).
... The international Agency for Research on Cancer, grouped formaldehyde as carcinogenic to humans, with justification that there was enough evidence for causing nasopharyngeal cancer in humans [9]. According to [10], low dose exposure to formaldehyde by the general population results in headache, rhinitis and dyspnoea while high dose exposure causes severe mucous membrane irritation, pulmonary distress, bronchitis, renal injury, lacrimination and even death. [11] stated that children exposed to the same levels of formalin as adults may receive larger doses because they have greater lung surface area resulting from smaller body weight ratio and stature. ...
... The health risk of exposure to formalin has been extensively studied with main concern being its genotoxic and carcinogenic potentials [10]. According to [19], apart from the implications of formalin on health, it reacts in the protein muscle resulting in the muscle hardness, protein denaturing and subsequently, protein solubility. ...
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Article
Studies were carried out to evaluate the levels of formalin in the locally produced and imported meat and fish samples from meat shops situated within Enugu metropolis, Enugu State, using analytical procedures and instrumentation. The samples were thawed, homogenized with trichloroacetic acid and assayed for formalin determination using UV/ Visible spectrophotometer. Formalin were not detected in the locally produced cow and goat meat samples. The mean levels of formalin in the locally produced chicken meat, imported chicken meat, imported turkey meat, imported horse mackerel fish, imported mackerel fish, locally produced cat fish, imported chicken gizzard, and locally produced chicken gizzard samples were 12.16± 0.01, 114.22±10.25, 106.02±8.42, 146.42±6.36, 130.06±15.43, 80.17±7.26, 85.29±4.11 and 3.02±0.24µg/g respectively. The food samples contained mean formalin levels in the following decreasing order; imported horse mackerel fish > imported mackerel fish> imported chicken meat> imported turkey meat > imported chicken gizzard>locally produced cat fish> locally produced chicken meat> locally produced chicken gizzard. The formalin levels in the imported meat and fish samples were statistically higher than the locally produced samples. The mean levels of formalin in the imported mackerel horse, chicken meat, turkey meat and mackerel fish samples from the meat shops situated within Enugu metropolis were above the recommended permissible limits. The consumption of these food items is therefore a serious health risk especially over a prolonged exposure, considering the health debilities associated with high dose of formalin to animals and by extension humans.
... Formaldehyde is toxic for people, causes irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract, headaches, nausea, drowsiness, and allergic skin reactions [2][3][4]. It is considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a carcinogen as well as classified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a probable human carcinogen (the EPA's B1 classification). ...
... It is considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a carcinogen as well as classified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a probable human carcinogen (the EPA's B1 classification). Most of the research on the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde focuses on chronic respiratory exposure because this is the main way of industrial and household exposure [4,5]. Over the years, analytical methods based mainly on high-performance liquid chromatography [6][7][8][9][10][11][12], gas chromatography [13][14][15][16], spectrophotometry [17][18][19], and spectrofluorimetry [20] have been developed to determine formaldehyde in different kinds of samples. ...
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Article
A thin-film solid-phase microextraction method with a sorbent composed of a deep eutectic solvent was developed for the preconcentration of formaldehyde from river and lake water samples. Four new deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were synthesized, each in molar ratios 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. Among prepared compounds, the greatest efficiency in the proposed method of preconcentration of formaldehyde derivatized with Nash reagent was demonstrated by DES-3 consisting of benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride and lauric acid, in a molar ratio of 1:3. For the proposed method, the parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of formaldehyde were optimized (including the choice of DES-based sorbent and desorption solvent as well as the sample volume and pH, the salting-out effect, the extraction time, and the desorption time). Under optimal conditions, the proposed method achieved good precision between 3.3% (for single sorbent) and 4.8% (for sorbent-to-sorbent) as well as good recovery ranging from 78.0 to 99.1%. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.15 ng mL−1 and 0.50 ng mL−1, respectively. The enrichment factor was equal to 178. The developed method was successfully applied to determine formaldehyde in environmental water samples.
... Recent trends in global food production, preparation, processing and distribution are creating an increasing demand for food safety research to ensure safe food supply globally (Bianchi et al. 2007, Norliana et al. 2009, Hoque et al. 2018. The supply of quality foods mainly interrupted by the different types of physical, chemical, and biological hazards present in food (Erondu and Anyanwu 2005, Bianchi et al. 2007, Ahmed et al. 2012, Chiou et al. 2015, Handford et al. 2016. ...
... The supply of quality foods mainly interrupted by the different types of physical, chemical, and biological hazards present in food (Erondu and Anyanwu 2005, Bianchi et al. 2007, Ahmed et al. 2012, Chiou et al. 2015, Handford et al. 2016. Among the different chemical contaminants in food, great attention has been paid towards volatile toxic aldehydes like formaldehyde (FA) (Bianchi et al. 2007;Norliana et al. 2009, Zhang et al. 2015. In fish, FA could be accumulated naturally upon postmortem changes and during frozen storage from the enzymatic reduction of trimethylamine-Noxide (TMAO) to dimethylamine and FA (Sotelo 1995, Bianchi et al. 2007) as shown in Fig. 1. ...
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Article
The study was conducted in aims to investigate the effects of frozen storage and cooking conditionson proximate compositions and formaldehyde content (FA) in some selected fish from three different sourcesin Bangladesh. Proximate composition in fresh and final frozen samples was determined by standard AOACmethod and FA content in fresh, frozen stored, and cooked samples was determined by spectrophotometricmethod. Among the studied fishes, marine fish contained higher protein (except Rita), lipid, and ash followedby estuarine and culture fish samples. Protein, moisture and ash content decreased and lipid content increasedsignificantly (p<0.05) during frozen storage for all samples and sources. The FA was lower in cultured fishsamples compared to that of the river and marine fish samples, both at fresh and end of frozen storage. Atfresh condition, FA content in all samples ranged from 0.41 to 0.71µg/g, 0.51 to 0.89µg/g, and 0.73 to1.69µg/g which increased to 0.95 to 2.11µg/g, 1.74 to 1.95µg/g, and 3.22 to 5.20µg/g at end of the storageperiod, respectively (p<0.05). Further, FA content significantly decreased after cooking in all the fishsamples (p<0.05). However, irrespective of fish species and sources, the FA content was higher than WHOrecommended value (0.2 µg/g). The study findings revealed that longer frozen storage of fish could be apublic health concern to the consumers.
... Recent trends in global food production, preparation, processing and distribution are creating an increasing demand for food safety research to ensure safe food supply globally (Bianchi et al. 2007, Norliana et al. 2009, Hoque et al. 2018. The supply of quality foods mainly interrupted by the different types of physical, chemical, and biological hazards present in food (Erondu and Anyanwu 2005, Bianchi et al. 2007, Ahmed et al. 2012, Chiou et al. 2015, Handford et al. 2016. ...
... The supply of quality foods mainly interrupted by the different types of physical, chemical, and biological hazards present in food (Erondu and Anyanwu 2005, Bianchi et al. 2007, Ahmed et al. 2012, Chiou et al. 2015, Handford et al. 2016. Among the different chemical contaminants in food, great attention has been paid towards volatile toxic aldehydes like formaldehyde (FA) (Bianchi et al. 2007;Norliana et al. 2009, Zhang et al. 2015. In fish, FA could be accumulated naturally upon postmortem changes and during frozen storage from the enzymatic reduction of trimethylamine-Noxide (TMAO) to dimethylamine and FA (Sotelo 1995, Bianchi et al. 2007) as shown in Fig. 1. ...
Full-text available
Article
The study was conducted in aims to investigate the effects of frozen storage and cooking conditions on proximate compositions and formaldehyde content (FA) in some selected fish from three different sources in Bangladesh. Proximate composition in fresh and final frozen samples was determined by standard AOAC method and FA content in fresh, frozen stored, and cooked samples was determined by spectrophotometric method. Among the studied fishes, marine fish contained higher protein (except Rita), lipid, and ash followed by estuarine and culture fish samples. Protein, moisture and ash content decreased and lipid content increased significantly (p<0.05) during frozen storage for all samples and sources. The FA was lower in cultured fish samples compared to that of the river and marine fish samples, both at fresh and end of frozen storage. At fresh condition, FA content in all samples ranged from 0.41 to 0.71µg/g, 0.51 to 0.89µg/g, and 0.73 to 1.69µg/g which increased to 0.95 to 2.11µg/g, 1.74 to 1.95µg/g, and 3.22 to 5.20µg/g at end of the storage period, respectively (p<0.05). Further, FA content significantly decreased after cooking in all the fish samples (p<0.05). However, irrespective of fish species and sources, the FA content was higher than WHO recommended value (0.2 µg/g). The study findings revealed that longer frozen storage of fish could be a public health concern to the consumers.
... Acetaldehyde can cause damage at the cellular and genomic levels which is associated with neurological pathological stroke, Wernicke encephalopathy, Alzheimer disease, and alcohol-induced impairment of the brain structure and function, localized cancers, esophageal tumors, brain damage in prenatal infants, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, cancer of the digestive tract, and growth suppression (in chicken embryos) [33,34]. Formaldehyde-an essential metabolic intermediate in mammalian cells-is produced during the metabolism of amino acids (serine, glycine, methionine, and choline) [35]. Due to the consumption through oral and nasal breathing, formaldehyde depositions and absorption occur in the upper respiratory tract (nasal passages, oral cavity, trachea, and bronchus), allergies, irritation (eye, nose, and throat), nasopharyngeal cancer, and gastrointestinal tract ulcer; in extremely rare cases, formaldehyde has formed DNA-protein crosslinks, once it reaches the nuclear DNA, and thus due to incomplete repair of DPX chromosome mutations and micronuclei that have been observed in those proliferating cells [35]. ...
... Formaldehyde-an essential metabolic intermediate in mammalian cells-is produced during the metabolism of amino acids (serine, glycine, methionine, and choline) [35]. Due to the consumption through oral and nasal breathing, formaldehyde depositions and absorption occur in the upper respiratory tract (nasal passages, oral cavity, trachea, and bronchus), allergies, irritation (eye, nose, and throat), nasopharyngeal cancer, and gastrointestinal tract ulcer; in extremely rare cases, formaldehyde has formed DNA-protein crosslinks, once it reaches the nuclear DNA, and thus due to incomplete repair of DPX chromosome mutations and micronuclei that have been observed in those proliferating cells [35]. ...
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Article
In recent years, we are having mixed feelings regarding the use of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles for storing water. The aim of this study is to determine any associations between bacterial load and the physical condition of the water bottle. For this study, bottled water was purchased, and parameters like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), heterotrophic plate count (HPC), total coliform count, and Pseudomonas spp. count were determined as per the American Public Health Association, 2005. The pH value of water samples tested ranged from 5.2 to 6.8. The majority of samples (96%) were found to contain pH values that were unacceptable as per the Department of Food Technology and Quality Control (DFTQC) guideline. Value of electrical conductivity (EC) ranged from 5 to 199 μS/cm. HPC revealed that, out of 100 samples, 48 (48%) samples were found to be acceptable as per the DFTQC guideline value (<25 cfu/mL). Among 100 samples, Pseudomonas spp. was found to be present in 23% of bottled water. Acidic pH and elevated concentrations of TDS and EC may lead to the survival of extremophiles present in HPC which may lead to degradation of PET. Extremophile bacteria that survive in bottled water for a long time rely on several survival mechanisms including evolutionary development (evo-devo) and solely survive on complex polymers like PET.
... Formaldehyde (FA) (CH 2 O, CAS 50-0-0) is a colourless, flammable gas that is commercially available as a 35 -40% aqueous solution (formalin), as formol (a mixture of formaldehyde, formic acid and methanol in water) or as the precursor hexamethylenetetramine (a complex of formaldehyde with ammonium) (Claeys et al. 2009). FA is commercially produced from methanol and used as a preservative, reducing agent, and a sterilizing agent in food industry (Norliana et al. 2009). Formaldehyde is produced industrially for a large number of applications such as the production of resins that act as adhesive and binders for wood products, pulp, paper, glass wool and rock wool, plastics, paints, industrial chemicals and textile finishing. ...
... Furthermore it is also used in vaccines as a biocidal agent and to prevent bacterial or fungal contamination. It is a naturally occuring product of normal metabolism in many foods including fruits, vegetable, meats, fish, crustacean and dried mushrooms (Norliana et al. 2009). ...
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Article
An HPLC-DAD method was developed for the determination of formaldehyde in animal feed and silage. The method is based on the determination of the product of chemical reaction between formaldehyde and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. A 3 g of feed or silage were extracted with Milli-Q water with phosphoric acid and next formaldehyde was derivative with the use 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine in acetronitrile solution. The extract was purified with 0.45 µm syringe filters and separeted on Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 column and detection was carried out at 360 nm. Formal-dehyde was eluted with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/water in isocratic elution. This method provided average recoveries of 90.6% to 102.2%, with CVs of 2.6% to 6.4% for feed and from 91.3% to 108.7% with CVs of 1.1% to 4.1% for silage in the ranged of 50 to 1000 mg/kg feeds and silage. The LOD and LOQ for formaldehyde in feed and silage ranged from 1.6 to 2.6 and 2.7 to 5.7 mg/kg, respectively. The methodology was applied for the analysis of feed and silage samples collected from poultry, pigs and cows farms.
... The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number of formaldehyde is 50-00-0. Table 1 represents the chemical and physical characteristics of formaldehyde [21]. Formaldehyde is an achromatic gas at room temperature with strong irritating smell [40]. ...
... As it is very reactive reagent when it reacts with water and it constructs various chemical compounds with different properties and characteristics. Sometimes for its reactive behavior it can made the different self-association reaction without any external catalyst [18], [21]. ...
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Thesis
https://erepo.uef.fi/handle/123456789/20066
... Besides, public conjointly suggested to clean and cook food merchandise completely as aldehyde is water soluble and will dissipate upon heating. The aldehyde concentration was bated when cooking and boiling [6]. Twenty Human studies have shown that chronic inhalation exposure to aldehyde is related to metabolism symptoms and eye, nose and throat irritation [7]. ...
... moreover, many ways are urged to cut back aldehyde in food equivalent to change of state and laundry. The finding of the many health impact of aldehyde, suggests that the investigation of level of aldehyde in food ought to be done and additionally the extent of aldehyde natural production [6]. Even those that spray or inject over a protracted amount of your time can seemingly suffer health complications equivalent to cecity, respiratory disorder and even carcinoma [14] Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), most daily dose reference (RfD) aldehyde is zero. 2 μg/g body weight per day [1]. ...
... A slow increase in formaldehyde content was observed in frozen beef sample (Fig. 6c). Formaldehyde accumulation during the frozen storage of meat could be a possible reason [30,49]. Formaldehyde might be formed during the aging and deterioration of flesh [50]. ...
... It was reported that proteins of muscle undergo chemical and physical changes during frozen storage which may result in, loss of quality, change in flavor, odor and color; most of which changes are caused by the production of formaldehyde in the muscle [51]. It was also reported that the accumulation of formaldehyde and the resulting deterioration of different meat products during frozen storage are primarily caused by the enzymatic activity of trimethylamine oxide aldolase (TMAOase) [49]. The amount of formaldehyde formed depends mainly on the temperature of frozen storage and storing time [52]. ...
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Article
Background In recent years, formaldehyde is reported to be widely used as a food preservative to increase the shelf life of fruits and fishes in tropical countries. Formaldehyde is detrimental to human health. Hence, use of formaldehyde as a food preservative is legally prohibited in most of the countries. To regulate formaldehyde application in foods, the regulatory bodies often conduct on-the-spot analytical tests to detect artificially added formaldehyde in food items. However, formaldehyde is ubiquitous in the environment and is present in many animal and plant species as a product of their normal metabolism. This naturally occurring formaldehyde may interfere in the detection of artificially added formaldehyde in foods. It is, therefore, important to study the concentration and formation mechanism of naturally occurring formaldehyde in food items. Results In this study, the formaldehyde contents of food samples were determined using spectrophotometric technique. The naturally occurring formaldehyde contents of a wide range of fruit, vegetable, milk, poultry, mutton and meat samples were determined. In addition, formaldehyde contents of processed food items, such as: cooked beef and poultry, beverages, and commercially available UHT milk and powdered milk samples, were also assessed and analyzed. The naturally occurring formaldehyde contents of fruit, vegetable, milk, poultry, mutton and meat samples were found up to 58.3, 40.6, 5.2, 8.2, 15.2 and 8.5 ppm, respectively. Formaldehyde contents of commercially available UHT milk, powdered milk, beverages, cooked beef and poultry were found up to 187.7, 194.1, 21.7, 4.3 and 4.0 ppm, respectively. This study also analyzed the time dynamic behavior of the formation of endogenous formaldehyde content of banana (AAB genome of Musa spp.), mandarin and beef. Conclusions The experimental results provide a baseline data of natural occurring formaldehyde content of the analyzed food items. The formation behavior of formaldehyde may vary according to food types, storage temperature, storing time, and aging pattern of the food items. The findings of this study will be useful for the consumers, researchers, legal authorities and other stakeholders working on food safety and preservation.
... A slow increase in formaldehyde content was observed in frozen beef sample (Fig. 6c). Formaldehyde accumulation during the frozen storage of meat could be a possible reason [30,49]. Formaldehyde might be formed during the aging and deterioration of flesh [50]. ...
... It was reported that proteins of muscle undergo chemical and physical changes during frozen storage which may result in, loss of quality, change in flavor, odor and color; most of which changes are caused by the production of formaldehyde in the muscle [51]. It was also reported that the accumulation of formaldehyde and the resulting deterioration of different meat products during frozen storage are primarily caused by the enzymatic activity of trimethylamine oxide aldolase (TMAOase) [49]. The amount of formaldehyde formed depends mainly on the temperature of frozen storage and storing time [52]. ...
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Conference Paper
In recent years, in spite of being legally prohibited, formaldehyde is reported to be widely used as a food preservative to increase the shelf life of fruits and fishes in tropical countries. The hot and humid weather of the tropical countries tends to quickly deteriorate fruits, vegetables, fishes, meat and other food items. Formaldehyde is detrimental to human health and reported as a human carcinogenic. To prohibit formaldehyde application in foods, the regulatory bodies often conduct on the spot analytical tests to detect artificially added formaldehyde in food items. However, formaldehyde is ubiquitous in the environment and is present in many animal and plant species as a product of their normal metabolism. Formaldehyde can be found naturally in food items including fruits, vegetables, meats, marine fishes and crustaceans. The formation and concentration of natural occurring formaldehyde may vary according to food types and conditions. The naturally occurring formaldehyde may interfere in the detection of artificially added formaldehyde in foods. It is therefore important to study the concentration and formation mechanism of naturally occurring formaldehyde in food items. The objective of this study is to determine naturally occurring formaldehyde levels in different fruits, vegetables and (cow) milk samples. In addition, time dynamic behavior of the formation of endogenous formaldehyde content in food sample (banana sample; AAB genome of Musa Spp.) was studied in this study
... It is readily soluble in water, alcohol, and other polar solvents. FA is commercially produced from methanol and used as a preservative, reducing agent, and a sterilizing agent in food industry (12). It is naturally present as a product of normal metabolism in many foods including fruits, vegetables, meats, fish, crustacean, and dried mushrooms (12). ...
... FA is commercially produced from methanol and used as a preservative, reducing agent, and a sterilizing agent in food industry (12). It is naturally present as a product of normal metabolism in many foods including fruits, vegetables, meats, fish, crustacean, and dried mushrooms (12). In some sea foods and crustaceans, FA is known to develop postmortem from the enzymatic reduction of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) in their bodies to FA and dimethylamine (13). ...
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Article
The aim of this study was to develop an efficient quantitative method for the determination of acetaldehyde (AA) and formaldehyde (FA) contents in solid and liquid food matrices. The determination of those compounds was validated and performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined by solid phase micro-extraction after derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-benzyl)-hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Validation was carried out in terms of limit of detection, limit of quantitation, linearity, precision, and recovery. Then their contents were analyzed in various food samples including 15 fruits, 22 milk products, 31 alcohol-free beverages, and 13 alcoholic beverages. The highest contents of AA and FA were determined in a white wine (40,607.02 ng/g) and an instant coffee (1,522.46 ng/g), respectively.
... However, the chemicals currently used, such as formalin, bronopol and copper sulphate, also have significant toxicity and are therefore not sustainable in the long term. Formalin, for example, is dangerous to fish farm personnel who apply it in therapeutic concentrations (Wooster et al., 2005), but also to consumers of the fish meat that contains its residues (Norliana et al., 2009). Bronopol, copper sulphate and peracetic acid, although considered less potent pollutants, have been shown to have toxic effects on aquatic biota (Cui et al., 2011;Jacob et al., 2016;Jussila et al., 2011). ...
Article
The pathogenic oomycetes Saprolegnia parasitica, causative agent of saprolegniosis in salmonid fish, and Aphanomyces astaci, causative agent of crayfish plague, have a negative impact on freshwater aquaculture. As they are controlled worldwide with chemicals that are harmful to humans and the environment, there is a growing need to replace them with ecologically acceptable alternatives. Propolis has documented antimicrobial activity as well as positive effects on the immune response, growth performance and/or reproductive capacity of fish and crayfish. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the possible inhibition of S. parasitica and A. astaci by fluid propolis formulations. Chemical analysis showed that the propolis formulations were rich in volatile and non-volatile phenolic bioactive components (chrysin was the dominant flavone and pinocembrin the dominant flavanone). Overall, the fluid propolis formulations showed good in vitro inhibition of mycelial growth and zoospores of both pathogens, but we found differences in sensitivity depending on species and life cycle stage. Mycelial growth was more sensitive for A. astaci, with EC50 values (the samples concentrations causing 50% inhibition) up to 8.59 μg/mL, compared to 206.60 μg/mL for S. parasitica. Zoospore motility was more affected in S. parasitica, where MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values were up to 61.88 μg/mL, compared to 154.68 μg/mL for A. astaci. Zoospore germination of both pathogens was similarly sensitive to the fluid propolis preparations, with EC50 values of up to 19.52 μg/mL for A. astaci and up to 23.62 μg/mL for S. parasitica. In addition, molecular docking was used to analyze the binding of selected propolis components to oomycete proteins suggested to play a role in pathogenesis. Apigenin, chrysin and pinocembrin were predicted to bind strongly to the endochitinase of A. astaci, which is mainly expressed in the mycelium, and to the thrombospondin of S. parasitica, mainly expressed in the cysts, which is consistent with the results of the in vitro inhibition experiments. Overall, our results suggest that propolis could be used in salmonid and crayfish aquaculture not only as an immunostimulant but also as an antioomycetic agent.
... Formaldehyde has been classified as a potential human carcinogen by the US EPA and International Agency for Research on Cancer as a Class 2A carcinogen. Also, it irritates humans mostly in the upper airways, mucosae, and eyes [62]. Formaldehyde is a sensitizing agent that can cause an immune system response and sensory irritation [63]. ...
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Article
CO2 is customarily used to control ventilation as it is a proxy for bio-effluents and pollutants related to the presence and activity of people in the room. However, CO2 could not be a satisfactory indicator for pollutants that do not have a metabolic origin, i.e., emissions from building materials or emissions from traffic. A methodology to select pollutants besides or instead of CO2 is presented in this article. This methodology sets to study (i) the suitable location to measure air pollutants and (ii) which parameters to measure. The answers to these two questions are based on correlation analysis between pollutants and indoor/outdoor ratios. Measurements of CO2, air temperature, relative humidity, formaldehyde, and particulate matter have been taken in an office, an industrial kitchen, and a gym and are used to show how to apply the methodology. Correlations were studied in detrended (pre-whitened) time series. Studying correlations in detrended time series via cross-correlation functions is recommended because correlation coefficients may be overestimated because of the trends in the time series. In contrast to Pearson's correlation coefficient, the cross-correlation function studies the correlation between pollutants concurrently (as Pearson) but also at different time lags. From the measurements we can conclude on the need to measure at least one parameter representing: 1) pollutants related to human activities 2) pollutants that infiltrate from processes like combustion or traffic outdoors, 3) pollutants related to combustion indoors, 4) pollutants related to degassing from building materials, 5) pollutants related to other “non-combustion-related activities” indoors and moisture loads. https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1eEtu1HudN4EEL
... This formaldehyde can also be formed through direct N-demethylation of TMA to give DMA and formaldehyde, catalyzed by TMA dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.8.2) (Colby & Zatman, 1973). The health risk from the accumulation of other TVB-N products was also studied (Norliana et al., 2009). Accumulation of endogenous formaldehyde in meat could be toxic to humans. ...
Article
The use of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB‐N) as a quality parameter for fish is rapidly growing to include other types of meat. Investigations of meat quality have recently focused on TVB‐N as an index of freshness, but little is known on the biochemical pathways involved in its generation. Furthermore, TVB‐N and methylated amines have been reported to exert deterimental health effects, but the relationship between these compounds and human health has not been critically reviewed. Here, literature on the formative pathways of TVB‐N has been reviewed in depth. The association of methylated amines and human health has been critically evaluated. Interventions to mitigate the effects of TVB‐N on human health are discussed. TVB‐N levels in meat can be influenced by the diet of an animal, which calls for careful consideration when using TVB‐N thresholds for regulatory purposes. Bacterial contamination and temperature abuse contribute to significant levels of post‐mortem TVB‐N increases. Therefore, controlling spoilage factors through a good level of hygiene during processing and preservation techniques may contribute to a substantial reduction of TVB‐N. Trimethylamine (TMA) constitutes a significant part of TVB‐N. TMA and trimethylamine oxide (TMA‐N‐O) have been related to the pathogenesis of noncommunicable diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancers, and diabetes. Proposed methods for mitigation of TMA and TMA‐N‐O accumulation are discussed, which include a reduction in their daily dietary intake, control of internal production pathways by targeting gut microbiota, and inhibition of flavin monooxygenase 3 enzymes. The levels of TMA and TMA‐N‐O have significant health effects, and this should, therefore, be considered when evaluating meat quality and acceptability. Agreed international values for TVB‐N and TMA in meat products are required. The role of feed, gut microbiota, and translocation of methylated amines to muscles in farmed animals requires further investigation.
... It is a highly reactive chemical which can undergo quick polymerization. It is also known as methanal, methylene oxide, oxymethylene, methyl aldehyde, oxomethane, and formic aldehyde (Norliana et al., 2009). The other trade names of formaldehyde include Formol, Fannoform, Lysoform, Morbicid acid and Superlysoform. ...
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Article
Seafood is a nutrient rich commodity accepted all over the world. Illegal addition of formalin (37% formaldehyde) to seafood for extending shelf life affects the health of consumers as it is identified as a potential carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The occurrence of naturally varying levels of formaldehyde present in different food materials including seafood due to post-mortem enzymatic reaction makes the monitoring of illegally added formalin difficult. Understanding the natural levels of free formaldehyde along with proper regulation and monitoring of this harmful chemical is essential for safeguarding health of seafood consumers.
... The amount of formaldehyde released from wood-based panels is affected by exterior factors such as air humidity, air exchange and temperature and production conditions, as well as endogenous factors such as raw material types and resin types [3]. There are several reports about the negative effects of formaldehyde on human health [4,5,6]. Indoor products including core panels of doors, sub flooring, and furniture are made using composite wood products including plywood, particleboard, and MDF [7]. ...
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It was found that that the addition of Alfa-x to the adhesive mixture used on the plywood slightly decreased strength properties of plywood that is bonded using this resin  It was concluded that, since formaldehyde emissions hold a significant importance for human health, Alfa-x, which decrease the levels of this emission Graphical Abstract Kontrplaklarda Üre-formaldehit (UF) tutkalına ilave edilen Alfa-x'in formaldehit emisyonu ve mekanik özellikleri üzerine etkileri incelenmiştir. Figure. Experimental design Aim This study investigated the effect of adding Alfa-x to the of urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive. Design & Methodology The content of free formaldehyde, withdrawal shear strength, and bending strength were studied in the experimental plywood. Originality Alfa-x was added to the adhesive (UF) in 0, 10, and 20 wt% ratio of the total amount of the solid content. Findings There were higher withdrawal-shear strength and bending strength values of the ekaba plywood than the poplar plywood values.X There were higher values of free formaldehyde in the ekaba plywood than the poplar plywood, and the free formaldehyde content value in both samples was reduced by adding Alfa-x to the adhesive. Conclusion Formaldehyde emission, which is important for human health, without reducing the mechanical properties of plywood, has been successfully reduced. ÖZ Bu çalışmada, üre-formaldehit (UF) tutkalına ilave edilen Alfa-x'in formaldehit emisyonu ve mekanik özellikleri üzerine etkileri incelenmiştir., üre-formaldehit tutkal karışımlarına belirli miktarlarda alfa-x ilave edilerek üç katlı kavak (Populus x eureamericana) ve ekaba (Tetraberlinia bifoliolata) kontrplakları hazırlanmıştır. Üretilen kontrplaklarda formaldehit emisyonu, çekme-makaslama ve eğilme direnci deneyleri yapılmıştır. Tutkal karışımına ilave edilen ilen Alfa-x kontrplak mukavemet özelliklerini çok az oranda düşürmüştür. Formaldehit emisyonu değerlerini ise istatistiksel anlamda önemli oranda düşürmüştür. Anahtar Kelimeler: Formaldehit emisyonu, konik yay, alfa-x, eğilme direnci, çekme makaslama direnci. ABSTRACT This study investigated the effect of adding Alfa-x to the of urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive. The content of free formaldehyde and the bonding specifications were examined. The three-layered plywood of poplar (Populus x eureamericana) and ekaba (Tetraberlinia bifoliolata) was prepared by adding alfa-x to adhesive mixtures in specified amounts. The content of free formaldehyde, withdrawal shear strength, and bending strength were studied in the experimental plywood. The strength specifications of plywood bonded with this resin were slightly reduced by adding the Alfa-x to the adhesive mixture. There was also a moderate decrease in the content of free formaldehyde.
... Moreover, it also can cause accident or incident in animal house. In the laboratory, the chemical storage system should follow the safety guidelines set [11]- [12]. Storage according to its type and chemical reaction is very important so that no incident or explosion occur. ...
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Article
Orthopaedics Research Laboratory accommodate with biocompatibility testing to meet the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 for medical device. Towards the implementation of the guideline, laboratory safety is the main issue encountered to reduce the risk of hazardous among the laboratory personal This study aimed to ensure the good practices in safety, health and environment are implemented in ORL according to ISO/IEC 17025: 2017 standard guidelines. The hazard identification at ORL starts from the receiving of laboratory animal, New Zealand White Rabbit (NZWR), animal surgery, radiology assessment and euthanasia. There are many dangers found in all these procedures. In this study, only four safety hazards, two health hazards and one environmental hazard was taken and discussed therein by taking risk assessment rating in ORL. Next, the risk control for each danger was identified and recorded. Only four risk controls were highlighted for each hazard encountered by each procedure. The amounts that the average risk level in the procedures studied in ORL are 2.46 which is in tolerate level. However, since the value is close to 3.0, the level of risk is relatively low and is approaching to moderate. The various risk levels for this study are 2.0. The difference between the highest (operating procedures) and the lowest (euthanasia) which showed the difference of non-essential data. There was no significant difference between the hazards found in ORL with all the procedures studied in one-way ANOVA analysis (F:(3,20) = 0.649, p = 0.592, η2p = 0.09). However, risk assessment may change from time to time depending on the hazard detection and it is strongly recommended that some of the stated control measures be taken to reduce future risk levels that could harm to individuals, organizations and countries.
... Recent developments in international food manufacturing, processing, distribution and education are creating an increasing call for for meals safety research, so that, it will make sure a more secure global meals supply, however, chemical contamination in meals results in the primary sources of the foodborne sickness among them, terrific attention has been paid towards volatiles poisonous aldehydes like formaldehyde which has been suggested by way of the global agency for research on cancers carcinogenic to human beings. (Bianchi et al., 2007, Cui et al., 2007, Norliana et al., 2009. Food safety has grown to be a crucial trouble and a broadly talked phrase of contemporary age. ...
... Formalin is included in the first group of causes of cancer in the body. 13,14 The human body's tolerance threshold for formalin is 0.2 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. 15 Borax or known as "bleng" (Javanese) is a white crystalline powder containing boron. ...
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Article
Misuse of formalin and borak is still common, including processing and preserving fish. Therefore, this study aims to identify the presence of formalin and borax in tuna on the market Ngemplak Tulungagung. The samples used in this study were fresh tuna in the Ngemplak market originating from the beaches of Prigi, Sine, Tambakrejo, Popoh and Sidem. The samples were tested qualitatively using the colorimetric method by Schryver reagent for formalin and curcumin paper for borax. The results obtained in this study, from the five tuna samples not detected contained formalin and borax which were marked by no change in color in the test. Tuna sold in the Ngemplak Tulungagung market negatively contains formalin and borax, making it safe for consumption. It is hoped that the relevant office will carry out routine checks on the misuse of food additives, especially preservatives circulating in the community and the public should always be careful in choosing safe food.
... Sufficient evidence showed that formaldehyde causes nasopharyngeal cancer, sinonasal cancer, and leukemia in human. However, formaldehyde is not considered to be a reproductive or developmental toxicant (Abdollahi & Hosseini, 2014;Aminah et al., 2013;EFSA, 2014;Tang, Bai, Duong, Smith, & Zhang, 2009;IARC, 2012;Norliana, Abdulamir, Bakar, & Salleh, 2009). ...
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Article
The demand for Indonesian opah fish as an export product is increasing in the international market. Three countries (Malaysia, Mauritius, and Taiwan) recorded as the leading export destination of Indonesian opah fish. However, as the fish kept in a frozen state during export transportation, the endogenous formaldehyde may increase over time. This research presented the health risk assessment of population in the leading export destination countries that consumed opah fish from Indonesia. The study aimed to reveal the most potential export destination country that may accept an increasing volume of opah fish supply from Indonesia. The potency was determined from current export volume, the amount of endogenous formaldehyde content, and fish consumption at each country. The data were calculated with @Risk®7.0 software. The results showed opah fish consumed by Malaysian can be categorized as safe. Increasing the number of opah fish imported by Malaysian as much as six times, 12 times, 18 times, 27 and 36 times relatively does not cause health risks related to the presence of its endogenous formaldehyde. Moreover, opah fish consumed by Taiwanese is also safe, but with increasing the number of consumptions by more than 26 times is suspected to be potentially causing a health problem. However, opah fish consumed in Mauritius was categorized as unsafe and potentially caused health risks. Based on these results, Indonesia may consider to increase the opah fish export to Malaysia and Taiwan in the future.
... Inhalation and/or skin contact with formamide can cause respiratory tract irritation, headache and nausea, and long-term damage to internal organs, as well potential embryotoxic and teratogenic effects during pregnancy (Sinigaglia et al. 2018, and literature therein). In turn, formaldehyde vapor is known to cause eye and respiration irritation, dermatitis, asthma, pulmonary edema, and respiratory cancer and to accelerate the speed of leukemia development (Norliana et al. 2009;Swenberg et al. 2013). ...
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Article
The major drawbacks of standard plant fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) designed for double-stranded DNA probes include requirement for experimentally determined heat denaturation of chromosomes at high temperatures and at least overnight hybridization. Consequently, processing with chromosomal preparations may easily result in heat-induced deterioration of chromosomal structural details, is time-consuming, and involves the use of toxic formamide and formaldehyde. Here, I have described a simple and appealing non-toxic procedure with ethylene carbonate (EC)—a formamide-substituting solvent and double-stranded repetitive DNA probes. Applying EC as a component of the hybridization solution at 46 °C not only allowed successful overnight hybridization but also gave a possibility to reduce the hybridization time to 3 h, hence converting the technique into a 1-day procedure. Importantly, the EC-FISH tended to preserve well chromosome structural details, e.g., DAPI-positive bands, thus facilitating simultaneous FISH mapping and chromosome banding on the same slide. The procedure requires no formaldehyde and RNA-se treatment of chromosomes, and no heat denaturation of chromosomal DNA. The key condition is to obtain high-quality cytoplasm-free preparations. The method was reproducible in all the plants studied (Allium, Nigella, Tradescantia, Vicia), giving a species-specific signal pattern together with clear DAPI bands on chromosomes. The procedure described here is expected to give a positive stimulus for improving gene-mapping approaches in plants. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s00709-019-01345-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... [1] Free formaldehyde is mainly produced from the following three sources: solid wood (furniture), medicine, and food [1][2][3][4][5]. With increased improvement in living conditions, a premium is imposed on the importance of a healthy environment, including the level of indoor free formaldehyde [6][7][8][9][10]. Therefore, degradation of free formaldehyde in habitable spaces is of great significance. ...
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Article
A simple and versatile route for industrial scale synthesis of adipicdihydrazide (ADH)/polymer hybrids with excellent performance of formaldehyde degradation is proposed in this paper. The ADH compound is uniformly dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid) (P(MMA-BA-MAA)) latex, which is validated by UV and dispersibility tests. The results illustrate that ADH has excellent compatibility and dispersion stability without affecting the film formation of the polymer latex. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and mapping analysis of the hybrid films also demonstrate that ADH is homogenously dispersed in the polymer matrix. Compared with neat polymers, the thermal properties of hybrid films are improved, for example, T0.5 increases by 8.3 °C. According to qualitative tests of the 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazol-red/green/blue (AHMT-RGB) method, the hybrid films demonstrate high formaldehyde removal efficiency. On the basis of the semi-quantitative test of Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements, the rate of formaldehyde degradation can reach 1.034 × 102 mol/(h·m3) for the hybrid film with 5 wt% ADH.
... Sufficient evidence showed that formaldehyde causes nasopharyngeal cancer, sinonasal cancer, and leukemia in human. However, formaldehyde is not considered to be a reproductive or developmental toxicant (Abdollahi & Hosseini, 2014;Aminah et al., 2013;EFSA, 2014;Tang et al., 2009;IARC, 2012;Norliana, Abdulamir, Bakar, & Salleh, 2009). ...
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Article
Opah fish(Lampris guttatus) is one of the bycatch products of Tuna fish captured originally from Indonesia that currently has become as one of the exported commodities. However, it is stated that these fish contains high formaldehyde up to 200 ppm, which is strongly suspected naturally due to deterioration. Furthermore, the aim of this study is to obtain the data of probabilistic health risk assessment due to consumption of opah fish that contaminated with natural formaldehyde. The study was conducted on opah fish (Lampris guttatus) that were analyzed the formaldehyde concentration in it. Along with the consumption data, body weight and the formaldehyde concentration included two others simulations of two times and four times of formaldehyde value, probabilistic dietary exposure was calculated by @Risk and produced some data regard to health risk. The result showed that Opah fish caught in Indonesian waters could produce formaldehyde naturally due to deterioration process ranged from 4,62 ± 0,00 mg/kg to 58,10 ± 0,46 mg/kg. Consequently, the residents of female children in Jakarta and Surabaya considered as in health risk problems. Extremely, the further simulations of two times and four times of formaldehyde concentration showed the health risk to all residents in Jakarta and Surabaya included male, female, children, and adult. Therefore, the stakeholders included government and policymakers should take some priorities to formulating a proper risk management strategy on the basis of knowledge of endogenous formaldehyde present in Opah fish and risk management strategies for the fish consumer in Indonesia.
... The content of formaldehyde can depend upon fish species and storage conditions (Chanarat and Benjakul, 2013). Formaldehyde content noticed in the control samples can be attributed to the conversion of trimethylamineoxide (TMAO) to formaldehyde and dimethylamine (DMA) and its formation is determined by the duration and temperature of storage (Norliana et al., 2009). Leelapongwattana et al. (2005) reported on the conversion of trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase (TMAOase) to dimethylamine (DMA) and formaldehyde during ice storage. ...
Article
Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta dip-treated with different concentrations of formaldehyde (0.2, 0.5 and 1%) was stored in ice along with untreated control fishes and evaluated the formaldehyde residue level as well as changes in pH, total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), aerobic plate count (APC) and sensory quality, during the 24 days storage period. Formaldehyde residue levels of 7.61±0.5, 13.83 ±2.21 and 20.7±2.02 mg kg-1 were recorded in 0.2, 0.5 and 1% treatments. Initial decrease in APC and its slow increase during storage was noticed. Shelf life of 18 days for 0.2 and 0.5% formalin treated fishes and 22 days for 1% treated fishes as compared to just 10 days in control fishes was observed. Marketed fishes with fresh appearance having higher values of TVBN, lower microbial load and with a higher formaldehyde residue can be considered as clear indications of formaldehyde treatment. Since fresh appearance of treated fishes can mislead the consumers, monitoring of formaldehyde residue, microbial and biochemical indices of ice stored fishes coming in markets needs to be undertaken in order to control marketing of fishes treated with the harmful chemical.
... There are several reports about the negative impacts of formaldehyde on human health (Tang et al. 2009;Vosoughi et al. 2012;Norliana et al. 2009). For this reason, researchers have focused on this problem to try to solve or minimize it. ...
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Article
To eliminate toxic formaldehyde from wood based panels, glyoxal, a low volatility and nontoxic aldehyde, was used to react with urea and lignin to prepare a glyoxalated lignin- urea-glyoxal (LUG) wood adhesive resin. Moreover, another objective of this research work was to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the new LUG resins by nanoclay addition. For the preparation of LUG resin, glyoxalated lignin (15 mass%) was added instead of second urea to the urea-glyoxal resin synthesis under acid conditions. The LUG resin so prepared was mixed with 1, 2 and 3 mass% nanoclay by mechanically stirring for 5 min at room temperature. Then, the physicochemical and structural properties of the prepared resins as well as the water absorption and the mechanical properties of the plywood panels bonded with it were measured according to standard methods. The physicochemical test results indicated that the gel time of the LUG resin was markedly slower than that of the UF resin. Plywood panels prepared with the LUG resin also presented lower water absorption as well as weaker shear strength than those prepared with the UF resin. Addition of nanoclay changed the physicochemical properties of the resins as the gelation time of the LUG resin was shorter when adding sodium montmorillonite (NaMMT). Higher shear strength values and lower water absorption were achieved by continuously increasing nanoclay proportion from 1 to 3 mass%. Furthermore, addition of nanoclay had more influence on panels bending strength than their flexural modulus. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also indicated that NaMMT exfoliated completely when mixed with LUG resin.
... Formaldehyde was detected at the levels of a minimum 3.3 ppm to a maximum 7.46 ppm in fishes (Nomanuzzaman et al., 2012). However, formaldehyde present in biological fluids or tissues and environment as a result of natural processes or from man-made sources and can be emitted slowly into the air (Norliana et al., 2009). Its detrimental effects may harm all tissues and organs of the body. ...
... Among aldehydes, adverse health effects of formaldehyde are well known. Exposure to this compound may increase the risk to develop a myeloid leukemia [38]. Levels of formaldehyde found in the six sampling sites were lower than the short-term guideline value of 100 mg/m 3 (30- minutes average concentration), and the long-term guideline value of 200 mg/m 3 established by WHO [30]. ...
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Article
We aimed to assess, for the first time, the nature of the indoor air contamination of hospitals. More than 40 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, ethers and terpenes were measured in a teaching hospital in France, from sampling in six sampling sites - reception hall, patient room, nursing care, post-anesthesia care unit, parasitology-mycology laboratory and flexible endoscope disinfection unit - in the morning and in the afternoon, during three consecutive days. Our results showed that the main compounds found in indoor air were alcohols (arithmetic means ± SD: 928±958 µg/m(3) and 47.9±52.2 µg/m(3) for ethanol and isopropanol, respectively), ethers (75.6±157 µg/m(3) for ether) and ketones (22.6±20.6 µg/m(3) for acetone). Concentrations levels of aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes and limonene were widely variable between sampling sites, due to building age and type of products used according to health activities conducted in each site. A high temporal variability was observed in concentrations of alcohols, probably due to the intensive use of alcohol-based hand rubs in all sites. Qualitative analysis of air samples led to the identification of other compounds, including siloxanes (hexamethyldisiloxane, octamethyltrisiloxane, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane), anesthetic gases (sevoflurane, desflurane), aliphatic hydrocarbons (butane), esters (ethylacetate), terpenes (camphor, α-bisabolol), aldehydes (benzaldehyde) and organic acids (benzoic acid) depending on sites. For all compounds, concentrations measured were lower than concentrations known to be harmful in humans. However, results showed that indoor air of sampling locations contains a complex mixture of VOCs. Further multicenter studies are required to compare these results. A full understanding of the exposure of healthcare workers and patients to complex mixtures of chemical compounds can then be related to potential health outcomes.
Article
The use of formalin and borax as food preservatives is prohibited by the government, because this material is toxic (poison).However, some survey results indicate that several types of food ingredients in traditional markets and other food traders still contain formalin and borax. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce to the general public how to identify formalin and borax use simple materials and tools. Qualitative test of formalin content in food was used fehling A and fehling B solution. While the qualitative test of borax content was used in turmeric which was prepared in the form of tumeric paper. Activities between speakers and trainees were held face-to-face and the practice of identifying food ingredients containing both formalin and borax were carried out directly in the laboratory. From the results of the activities that had been carried out, it can be concluded that although the ingredients for identification of formalin and borax in food ingredients obtained from simple ingredients, cheap and easy to obtain such as fehling A and fehling B and turmeric in the form of tumeric paper, but they can identify food ingredients contains formalin and borax. Fehling A and Fehling B solutions can identify qualitatively with significant results between that contain and not contain formalin. Similarly, tumeric paper can identify qualitatively with significant results between that contain and not contain borax in food ingredients. Participants were very motivated to apply the results of this activity to the community where they live especially after seeing the results of qualitative tests using fish purchased at the Hamadi traditional market during this service. Qualitative test results using fehling A and B solutions identified red snapper purchased at the traditional Hamadi market using preservatives from formalin.Keywords: Formalin, Borax, Preservatives, Fehling A, Fehling B, Turmeric
Article
Corn oil was heated using an infrared cooker, an air fryer, and a cooking oven at similar temperatures, and oxidative stability and physicochemical properties including moisture content, temperature change, the profile of headspace volatiles, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde of the heated oils were compared. Corn oil heated using the air fryer showed the lowest degree of oxidation, followed by that heated using the infrared cooker and the cooking oven. However, the content of headspace volatiles in 120 min heated oil using the infrared cooker was higher by 2.57 and 5.37 times than that in oil heated using the cooking oven and the air fryer, respectively. The profiles of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in oils showed patterns inconsistent with those of headspace volatile and oxidation parameters. Generally, the air fryer-treated oil underwent slow lipid oxidation, whereas oil from the infrared cooker had more volatiles and imparted odor to foods.
Article
Single-atom nanozymes (SAzymes) show distinct advantages in catalytic activity and selectivity owing to their stability and special characteristic of maximum atomic utilization. Inspired by the structure of natural horseradish peroxidase (HRP), we developed a simple method for specific determination of both propyl gallate (PG) and formaldehyde (HCHO) by utilizing the intrinsic peroxidase mimics activity of hemin (hem) loaded Zn−nitrogen−carbon single-atom nanozymes (Zn−N−[email protected] SAzymes). Zn−N−[email protected] was prepared via a salt-template strategy and self-assembly, where hemin exhibits enhancing peroxidase-like activity can catalyze oxidation of colorless PG to yellow product. Upon introduction of HCHO into Zn−N−[email protected]/PG system, complete suppression of PG oxidation was showed, resulting in distinguished decrease in absorbance. The colorimetric sensors of PG and HCHO based on Zn−N−[email protected]/PG were developed at their respective linear range of concentration 1.25-200 mg/kg and 5-250 mg/kg. The practicability of the rapid analysis of PG and HCHO in food samples has been verified with reliable results.
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Saprolegnia parasitica, the causative agent of saprolegniosis in fish, and Aphanomyces astaci, the causative agent of crayfish plague, are oomycete pathogens that cause economic losses in aquaculture. Since toxic chemicals are currently used to control them, we aimed to investigate their inhibition by essential oils of sage, rosemary, and bay laurel as environmentally acceptable alternatives. Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis showed that the essential oils tested were rich in bioactive volatiles, mainly monoterpenes. Mycelium and zoospores of A. astaci were more sensitive compared to those of S. parasitica, where only sage essential oil completely inhibited mycelial growth. EC50 values (i.e., concentrations of samples at which the growth was inhibited by 50%) for mycelial growth determined by the radial growth inhibition assay were 0.031–0.098 µL/mL for A. astaci and 0.040 µL/mL for S. parasitica. EC50 values determined by the zoospore germination inhibition assay were 0.007–0.049 µL/mL for A. astaci and 0.012–0.063 µL/mL for S. parasitica. The observed inhibition, most pronounced for sage essential oil, could be partly due to dominant constituents of the essential oils, such as camphor, but more likely resulted from a synergistic effect of multiple compounds. Our results may serve as a basis for in vivo experiments and the development of environmentally friendly methods to control oomycete pathogens in aquaculture.
Article
A derivatization and air-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure with organic phase solidification on a paper template was developed for the first time. The procedure was used for the spectrofluorometric determination of formaldehyde in milk samples. The Hantzsch reaction of formaldehyde with acetylacetone in the presence of ammonia to form a derivative (3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine) was implemented for the microextraction and detection of analyte. Thymol was investigated as the extraction solvent for the air-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the first time. In the developed procedure, molten thymol was added to the thermostated aqueous sample solution containing reagents for formaldehyde derivatization, and cloudy solution of fine thymol droplets was formed by air bubbling. After separation of phases the liquid extract phase was withdrawn with a dispenser and distributed on the black paper template in a thin layer to be solidified. The solidified extract phase on the template was inserted to a sample holder of a spectrofluorometer and fluorescence intensity was measured without using cuvettes. Under optimal experimental conditions the linear detection range was found to be 45 – 500 µg L⁻¹ with LOD calculated from a blank test, based on 3σ, 15 µg L⁻¹. The developed procedure does not require the dilution of the solid extract phase in organic solvent to be introduced in an analytical instrumentation and the use of cuvettes for spectrofluorometric detection.
Article
Analytical methods were validated for the evaluation of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, which are harmful chemicals, using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in four different matrices. Typical home-cooking methods including boiling, pan-frying, and stir-frying, were applied to beef, rapeseed oil, canned pork ham, egg, and rice wine. In addition, monosaccharides, disaccharides, alanine, and glycine were heated for the formation of both aldehydes. All validation parameters, including accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and uncertainty, for four different matrices were within recommended ranges, confirming the validity of the current method. Acetaldehyde contents ranged from undetectable to 17.92 μg/g and formaldehyde contents ranged from undetectable to 0.27 μg/g. Generally, boiling decreased both aldehydes except acetaldehyde in egg. Pan- and stir-frying increased both aldehyde content substantially in rapeseed oil whereas pan-frying increased acetaldehyde content in canned pork ham and egg. Fructose and sucrose produced higher content of both aldehydes than maltose and glucose when heated. Depending on food type, the cooking process had slightly different effects on the contents of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde.
Article
Extensive research and practice on anti-crease of cotton fabric has been made in the past few decades because of its easy creasing properties. However, it has not achieved a good balance between anti-crease performance, strength loss, hydrophilicity and formaldehyde release until now. In this study, for the first time, α-lipoic acid (ALA) which contains bifunctional groups, carboxyl group and disulfide bond, has been successfully used as an innovative cross-linking agent in the anti-crease functionalization to prepare high crease resistant and hydrophilic cotton fabric without strength loss and formaldehyde release. The mechanism between ALA and cellulose through esterification, disulfide breaking and reconstruction, and anti-crease mechanism based on topological disulfide bridges among cellulosic molecules were illustrated in terms of the characterization analyses of cross-linked ALA and poly(α-lipoic acid). This study provides a completely different idea for the preparation of anti-crease cotton fabric with high strength and hydrophilic without negative environmental impact.
Chapter
In aquaculture (shrimp, mollusk, and fish farming), particularly in intensive systems, infectious diseases are always a hazard and can cause significant stock losses and problems with animal welfare. Increasing occurrence of bacterial and fungal diseases whose treatment requires the intensive use of antimicrobials have become common. Even though the aquaculture industry has changed its practices dramatically in order to reduce the use of antimicrobial agents, these agents have contributed and are still important for the advancement of aquaculture. In this chapter, we addressed the main antimicrobial agents used to treat bacterial and fungal diseases in aquaculture. In addition, antimicrobial resistance, a subject of concern not just for clinical microbiologists, but for the whole human population, is also discussed.
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The safety issues of biomedical applications have been a major concern in recent years. Drug delivery associated with microencapsulation technology has been focused on as microencapsulated drugs are believed to promote comparative therapeutic efficiency on human absorption and prolong the life cycle of drugs. The most commonly applied crosslinker is formaldehyde in a gelatin microencapsulation system, which is considerably toxic to the human body. To reduce the risks involved when using formaldehyde, agar was associated with gelatin as the wall matrix materials of microcapsules as it could crosslink with gelatin to give a gel network in the microcapsules formation. Here we report the development, characterization and safe use of agar–gelatin microcapsules. We further demonstrate that both oral and topical applications are possible using the berberine HCl and gallic acid loaded microcapsules respectively. Microcapsules containing both drugs were prepared combining the optimal parameters identified. The mean drug loading efficiency and the mean particle sizes of the berberine HCl loaded microcapsules were 78.16% and 16.75 μm respectively, while those of gallic acid loaded microcapsules were 70.28% and 21.98 μm respectively. The compositions and surface morphology of berberine HCl and gallic acid containing microcapsules were examined using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in vitro controlled release models demonstrated that the drugs could be gradually released from the microcapsules. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity also proved that the berberine HCl loaded microcapsules exhibited better antibacterial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus when compared with those of the original drugs. The in vitro drug delivery model also demonstrated the delivery of berberine HCl from microcapsule treated textiles into nude mice skin. The in vivo mice disease model also showed that gallic acid loaded microcapsules were helpful in the treatment of acute liver and kidney toxicity after an overdose administration of acetaminophen. The development of agar–gelatin microcapsules was demonstrated to be an efficient, deliverable tool for both oral and topical applications.
Article
The occurrence of formaldehyde in sap and wood tissue of treated and untreated maple sugar trees was investigated using GC/MS. Samples were collected at different periods of the 2009 season and at different locations in Quebec, Canada. The natural concentration of formaldehyde found in untreated samples varied according to periods and locations and ranged from below the LOQ to 1.82 mg/kg for sap samples and from 2.39 to 8.92 mg/kg of fresh tissue for wood samples. Late season samples tended to have higher concentrations of formaldehyde. Samples of sap and wood tissue from tapholes treated with solutions of formaldehyde showed increased concentrations of formaldehyde for many days after treatment and were clearly distinct from untreated samples. These results will be useful to elaborate new inspection procedures for sugarbushes to control the illegal use of formaldehyde.
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Over the past decade there has been a growing recognition of the involvement of the home in several public health and hygiene issues. Perhaps the best understood of these issues is the role of the home in the transmission and acquisition of foodborne disease. The incidence of foodborne disease is increasing globally. Although foodborne disease data collection systems often miss the mass of home-based outbreaks of sporadic infection, it is now accepted that many cases of foodborne illness occur as a result of improper food handling and preparation by consumers in their own kitchens. Some of the most compelling evidence has come from the international data on Salmonella species and Campylobacter species infections. By its very nature, the home is a multifunctional setting and this directly impacts upon the need for better food safety in the home. In particular, the growing population of elderly and other immnocompromised individuals living at home who are likely to be more vulnerable to the impact of foodborne disease is an important aspect to consider. In addition, some developed nations are currently undergoing a dramatic shift in healthcare delivery, resulting in millions of patients nursed at home. Other aspects of the home that are unique in terms of food safety are the use of the home as a daycare centre for preschool age children, the presence of domestic animals in the home and the use of the domestic kitchen for small-scale commercial catering operations. At the global level, domestic food safety issues for the 21 st century include the continued globalization of the food supply, the impact of international travel and tourism, and the impact of foodborne disease on developing nations. A number of countries have launched national campaigns to reduce the burden of foodborne disease, including alerting consumers to the need to practice food safety at home. Home hygiene practice and consumer hygiene products are being refined and targeted to areas of risk, including preventing the onward transmission of foodborne illness via the inanimate environment. It has been said that food safety in the home is the last line of defense against foodborne disease, and it is likely that this will remain true for the global population in the foreseeable future.
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Liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to search for esters of DSP toxins in Portuguese bivalves. Hexane-soluble derivatives of okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) were found. Presumably they are acyl derivatives, globally known as 'dinophysistoxin-3' (DTX-3). In certain instances DTX-3 content surpassed 50% of the total amount of DSP toxins. A human diarrhetic poisoning (DSP) incident with Donax clams (Donax trunculus) harvested at Fuzeta (Algarve coast) was confirmed where the apolar (DTX-3 type) and other esters remaining in the polar aqueous methanol layer were implicated. The percentage of acyl esters of OA was always higher than those of DTX-2. An enzymic mechanism for the conversion of OA and DTX-2 seems to be implicated in some kind of detoxification process because the percentage of esters increases with the toxin amount ingested by the bivalve and there is some degree of selectivity as DTX-2 seems more difficult to acylate. These findings pose a problem for the current assay methods used to detect DSP because mainly they are able to detect the parent toxins but not their esters. The current bioassay method [Le Baut, C., Bardin, B., Bardouil, M., Bohec, M., Masselin, P., Truquet, P., 1990. Etude de la decontamination de moules toxiques. Rapport IFREMER DERO-90-02 MR. 21 pp.] used in Portugal includes a hexane washing step that prevents interference from free fatty acids. However, it cannot detect the presence of acyl derivatives because they are highly soluble in hexane.
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Concentrations of three non-essential elements (cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb)) were determined in sediment and fish from several locations in Alaska (AK) and California (CA) and used to examine differences in bioaccumulation within and between geographic locations. We analyzed tissue (liver, muscle, gill, and stomach contents) from white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus) and English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus) in California and flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) in Alaska, in addition to several species of invertebrates (mercury only). As found in previous work on arsenic (As) [Meador et al., 2004], Cd in fish liver exhibited a negative correlation with sediment concentrations. No such correlations were found for Hg and Pb when fish liver and sediment were compared; however, these metals did exhibit a positive relationship between liver and organic carbon normalized sediment concentrations, but only for the CA sites. Sediment concentrations of Hg at the AK sites were lower than those for the CA sites; however, AK invertebrates generally bioaccumulated more Hg than CA invertebrates. Conversely, Hg bioaccumulation was higher in CA fish. Even though ratios of total metal/acid volatile sulfides (AVS) in sediment were one to two orders of magnitude higher for the AK sites, bioaccumulation of these elements was much higher in fish from the CA sites. Bioaccumulation factors ([liver]/[sediment]) (BAFs) were highest at relatively clean sites (Bodega Bay and Monterey), indicating that elements were more bioavailable at these sites than from more contaminated locations. The observation of high BAFs for As in fish from Alaska and low BAFs for the California fish, but reversed for Cd, Hg, and Pb in this study, implies that differences in fish species are less important than the unique geochemical features at each site that control bioavailability and bioaccumulation and the potential sources for each element. Additionally, these data were also used to examine the metal depletion hypothesis, which describes the inverse relationship between elements and organic contaminants documented in some monitoring studies. Our results suggest that the enhanced bioavailability of the metals at some uncontaminated sites is the main determinant for the inverse correlation between metal and organic contaminants in tissue.
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Exposure to formaldehyde may lead to exacerbation of asthma. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether exposure to a low level (500 microg/m(3)) of formaldehyde enhances inhaled allergen responses. Twelve subjects with intermittent asthma and allergy to pollen were exposed, at rest, in a double-blind crossover study to either formaldehyde or purified air for 60 min. The order of exposure to formaldehyde and air-only was randomized, and exposures were separated by 2 weeks. We also performed an allergen inhalation challenge after each exposure. Airway responsiveness to methacholine and lower airway inflammation (induced sputum) were assessed 8 hr after allergen challenge. The median dose of allergen producing a 15% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (PD(15)FEV(1)) was 0.80 IR (index of reactivity) after formaldehyde exposure compared with 0.25 IR after air-only exposure (p = 0.06). Formaldehyde exposure did not affect allergen-induced increase in responsiveness to methacholine (p = 0.42). We found no formaldehyde-associated effect on the airway inflammatory response, in particular the eosinophilic inflammatory response, induced by the allergen challenge 8 hr before. In this study, exposure to 500 microg/m(3) formaldehyde had no significant deleterious effect on airway allergen responsiveness of patients with intermittent asthma; we found a trend toward a protective effect.
Article
DNA-protein crosslinks were measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes of chrome-platers and controls from Bulgaria in order to evaluate a genotoxic effect of human exposure to carcinogenic Cr(VI) compounds, Chrome-platers and most of the unexposed controls were from the industrial city of Jambol; some additional controls were recruited from the seaside town of Burgas, The chrome-platers had significantly elevated levels of chromium in pre- and post-shift urine, erythrocytes and lymphocytes compared with the control subjects, The largest differences between the two groups were found in erythrocyte chromium concentrations which are considered to be indicative of Cr(VI) exposure, Despite the significant differences in internal chromium doses, levels of DNA-protein crosslinks were not significantly different between the combined controls and exposed workers, Individual DNA-protein crosslinks, however, correlated strongly with chromium in erythrocytes at low and moderate doses but at high exposures, such as among the majority of chrome-platers, these DMA adducts were saturated at maximum levels, The saturation of DNA-protein crosslinks seems to occur at 7-8 pg I-1 chromium in erythrocytes whereas a mean erythrocyte chromium among the chrome platers was as high as 22.8 mu g I-1. Occupationally unexposed subjects exhibited a significant variability with respect to the erythrocyte chromium concentration, however erythrocyte chromium levels correlated closely with DNA-protein crosslinks in lymphocytes, The controls from Jambol had higher chromium concentrations in erythrocytes and elevated levels of DNA-protein crosslinks compared with Burgas controls, Occupational exposure to formaldehyde among furniture factory workers did not change levels of DNA-protein crosslinks in peripheral lymphocytes. DNA-protein crosslink measurements showed a low intraindividual variability and their levels among both controls and exposed indivduals were not affected by smoking, age or weight.
Article
Chemical and physicochemical changes of muscles from hard and soft shell mud crabs (Scylla serrata) were monitored during 12 weeks of storage at -20 degrees C. Ca(2+) -ATPase activity of natural actomyosin (NAM) from both crabs decreased continuously during storage, regardless of muscle types. After 8 weeks of storage, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of NAM from lump muscle of soft shell crab decreased to a greater extent than that of hard shell crab (P < 0.05). An increase in disulfide bonds was observed with the coincidental decrease in sulfhydryl group content during extended storage (P < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of all samples increased up to 8 weeks, being this sampling time followed by a gradual decrease. Formaldehyde content of all samples increased throughout the storage (P < 0.05). Slightly higher formaldehyde content was found in soft shell crab muscle, compared with hard shell counterpart (P < 0.05). Claw muscle generally contained a greater amount of formaldehyde than lump counterpart (P < 0.05). Protein solubility of all samples decreased continuously throughout the 12 weeks of frozen storage (P < 0.05). Lipid oxidation took place during the extended storage as evidenced by the increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The pH of all samples generally decreased during frozen storage. Cooking loss of all crab muscles increased as storage time increased (P < 0.05) and was more pronounced in claw muscle, particularly from soft shell crab. (c) 2008 Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) in the muscle of squid may be reduced by endogenous and bacterial enzymes to trimethylamine and demethylated in enzymatic or chemical reactions to dimethylamine (DMA) and formaldehyde (FA). The rate of TMAO degradation in heated Baltic cod and in squid extract and flesh, as well as the effect of FA generated in the tissues on the texture of cooked squid were investigated. The content of DMA in uncooked frozen stored mantle of 51 Illex argentinus, from three different shipments, was 88–452 μmoles/100 g meat. Boiling for 45 min resulted in a large accumulation of DMA and a lesser increase in free FA in squid, but only negligible changes in cod. The decomposition of TMAO could not have been caused by enzymatic reactions. In a series of experiments with squid of different lots no consistent correlations were found between the shear force required to cut the cooked squid mantle and the contents of free FA. The rate of increase in free FA in the heated samples of the water-soluble fraction of squid flesh did not correspond to that of DMA.
Article
Abstract Industrial, commercial, and domestic levels of formaldehyde (HCHO) exposure range from 0.1 to 8 ppm. Irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract predominates as undesirable effects. The original research discussed in this article was published in the Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association in 1987. It demonstrated significant (p < .05) dose-response relationships for eye irritation and odor sensation with borderline significance (p = .054) for nose/throat irritation, without observing significant dose-response in pulmonary function. Nineteen subjects were randomly exposed to 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 0.5 or 3.0 ppm at rest, plus 2.0 ppm with exercise for 3 hours each. The dose-response relationship showed that the subjective symptoms significantly increased as HCHO concentration increased; however, threshold concentrations for these symptom responses could not be determined. There presently is a need for this information because of current efforts to revise the standards for HCHO exposure. This article reexamines the symptomatic response data in the 1987 paper and, using additional statistical methodology, estimates the threshold levels for odor and irritant responses to HCHO. In addition, the effects of sex (male versus female) on the symptom responses are examined. Estimated thresholds were less than 0.5 ppm HCHO for odor sensation, 0.5–1.0 ppm HCHO for eye irritation, and 1.0 ppm HCHO for nose/throat irritation. No substantial differences were seen between the male and female symptom responses.
Article
The seafood dipped with formaldehyde to prevent from spoiling by dishonest mongers is a big danger to the physical health of consumer. An E-nose with six TGS gas sensors was used for spoiling and formaldehyde-containing detection of seafood in this paper. Two static features R0 (resistance in the air), S (sensor response), and one dynamic feature DR (desorption rate) were extracted. Fresh octopus samples dipped in water solutions with different formaldehyde concentrations were measured. In these measurements, the stability of sensors and features was evaluated and compared. The mean relative errors of these three features were 23.6%, 19.7%, and 4.1%, respectively. The results showed that the dynamic feature was more stable. With principal component analysis, the spoilage of seafood could be easily detected. And the correct recognition rate of different octopus samples was 93.1%. The results showed that electronic nose analysis could be an efficient method for seafood quality assessment.
Article
Proteins of fish muscle undergo chemical and physical changes during frozen storage which may result in, under certain conditions (i. e. long periods of storage, poor freezing practices, temperature fluctuations, etc), loss of quality, reflected mainly by an unacceptable texture as well as an undesirable flavour, odour and colour.In frozen gadoid fish species, most of these changes are caused by the production of formaldehyde in the muscle. Formaldehyde is produced, along with dimethylamine, by the enzymatic reduction of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO). Many aspects of formaldehyde production by TMAO demethylase (TMAOase) have been studied throughout the last decade. In addition, different approaches have been used to investigate the effect of formaldehyde production on protein denaturation and the associated muscle textural changes.Some insight into the reaction between protein and formaldehyde has clarified the possible mechanism of formaldehyde-mediated denaturation. However, evidence of covalent bonding between proteins and formaldehyde, to form crosslinks, has not explained fully the changes observed in fish proteins during frozen storage. The study of cold-induced denaturation of proteins might give new clues for further investigation of the problem.The implications of formaldehyde in toxicological and nutritional issues is also reviewed, as general concern about the safety of food products is a growing field in food science.Finally, different approaches have been proposed to avoid the detrimental action of formaldehyde during frozen storage of gadoid fish; they are some of the practical applications of the knowledge acquired after years of study of different workers in the field.Die Proteine des Fischmuskels unterliegen whrend der Gefrierlagerung chemischen und physikalischen Vernderungen, die unter gewissen Bedingungen (lange Lagerzeiten, mangelnde Gefriertechniken, Temperaturschwankungen usw.) zu einem Verlust an Qualitt fhren knnen, was sich hauptschlich in nicht akzeptierbarer Konsistenz und unerwnschten Aromen, Farben und Gerchen manifestiert. In tiefgefrorenen Gadiden (Kabeljauartigen) werden die meisten dieser Vernderungen durch die Entstehung von Formaldehyd (FA) im Muskel hervorgerufen. FA wird, zusammen mit Dimethylamin (DMA), durch die enzymatische Reduktion von Trimethylaminoxid (TMAO) gebildet. Whrend der letzten Dekade wurden viele Aspekte der Bildung von FA aus TMAO untersucht. Verschiedene Versuche zur Aufklrung des Effektes der FA-Bildung auf die Proteindenaturierung und die damit verbundenen Vernderungen der Muskelkonsistenz wurden unternommen. Einige Einblicke in die FA-Protein-Reaktionen haben den mglichen Mechanismus der durch FA bewirkten Denaturierung erhellt. Die wahrscheinlich vorliegenden kovalenten Bindungen zwischen Proteinen und FA, die als Quervernetzungsbildner agieren, konnten aber die Vernderungen, die in Fischproteinen whrend der Gefrierlagerung beobachtet werden, nicht vollstndig erklren. Die Untersuchung der Kltedenaturierung von Proteinen knnte neue Anhaltspunkte fr eine weiter Untersuchung dieses Systems geben. Die Beteiligung von FA bei toxikologischen und ernhrungswissenschaftlichen Fragestellungen wird ebenfalls kritisch betrachtet. Letztlich werden verschiedene Mglichkeiten vorgeschlagen, um die schdliche Wirkung von FA whrend der Gefrierlagerung von Gadiden zu verhindern.
Article
Seafood is high on the list of foods transmitting disease. However, the food safety issues are highly focussed and more than 80% of all seafood-borne outbreaks are related to biotoxins (ciguatoxin), scombrotoxin or the consumption of raw molluscan shellfish. The safety hazards in seafood production are listed and discussed. It is pointed out that there are serious safety concerns related to the consumption of raw fish and shellfish due to the presence of biological (bacteria, virus, parasites) and chemical (biotoxins) hazards. These hazards are present in the fish and shellfish pre-harvest and are difficult or impossible to control by applying presently available preventive measures. In contrast, the hazards related to contamination, recontamination or survival of biological hazards during processing are well-defined and can be controlled by applying Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), Good Hygiene Practice (GHP) and a well designed HACCP-programme. Similarly, the means to prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms during distribution and storage of the final products are – with a few exceptions – available. Proper application of well-known preservative parameters including temperature is able to control growth of most pathogens. When this is not the always case, for example inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved fish products, it is recommended to limit the stated shelf-life of these products to a period of no-growth for the pathogen of concern. There is a good agreement between the trends shown in disease statistics, the hazard analysis and the qualitative risk assessment of the various fish products. It is recommended that consumers should be informed of the risk of eating raw seafood – particularly molluscan shellfish and certain freshwater fish.
Article
In the frame of a study aimed at investigating the transfer of metal contaminants through the food chain and the effects of food processing, five elements, namely Cd, Pb, Fe, Ni and Cr, were accurately determined in (i) durum wheat grain and derived products, (ii) wheat-based reference materials, (iii) drinking water, used both as an ingredient and for technological purposes in the investigated industrial process. Microwave closed vessel digestion was selected as the dissolution technique for solid samples, whereas water samples were acidified with ultrapure nitric acid and analysed directly. As several analytes had to be quantified at trace or ultratrace levels, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was resorted to for analytical determinations. Overall, this straightforward analytical approach enabled to detect the often small changes in element concentration associated with the different technological steps of processing. Nevertheless, detection of heavily interfered elements, especially Cr, as well as analyte quantification at ultratrace-level level in water, posed analytical challenges that required suited analytical solutions.Changes in the sample introduction system and complementary use of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) straightforwardly overcame the difficulties in determining the analytes in the selected food matrixes. The benefits of ultrasonic nebulization in reducing the effects of problematic spectral interferences were demonstrated. Overall, a robust and high-throughput analytical method was outlined.
Article
Formalin is widely used for treating fungal infections of fish eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. The use of formalin in the United States is only allowed on salmonid and esocid eggs unless a special exemption is granted for use on other species. This study was conducted to determine the safety of formalin treatments on eggs of representative warm- and coolwater fish species and data was used to support a request to allow the use of formalin on the eggs of warmwater and additional coolwater fish species. Non-eyed eggs of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) were cultured in miniature egg hatching jars and treated for 45 min every-other-day with 1500, 4500, or 7500 μL L−1 formalin up to hatch. For all species tested, the percent hatch was greater in 1500 μL L−1 treatment groups than in untreated controls. Walleye eggs were the least sensitive species and had a hatch of 87% in the 7500 μL L−1 treatment. Lake sturgeon were the most sensitive species with a mean hatch of 54% in 1500 μL L−1 treatments. Adequate margins of safety exist for standard treatments (1500 μL L−1 for 15 min) on eggs of all species tested except lake sturgeon. Fungal infections drastically reduced or eliminated hatch in most control groups whereas most treated groups were free of infections. This confirms the efficacy of formalin as an fungicide.
Article
The formaldehyde (FA) content in different fish products was evaluated using a solid phase microextraction (SPME)-GC–MS method based on fiber derivatisation with pentafluorobenzyl-hydroxyl-amine hydrochloride. LOD and LOQ values of 17 and 28 μg kg−1, respectively were calculated. Fish quality was assessed by the analysis of 12 species (sea-fish, freshwater-fish and crustaceans), revealing variable FA levels. Fresh, deep frozen, canned, boiled and roasted fish were analysed; cooking always produced a decrease in the analyte content. Fish belonging to the Gadidae family were the samples with the highest FA concentration (from 6.4 ± 1.2 mg kg−1 to 293 ± 26 mg kg−1), in four cases out of 14 exceeding the value of 60 mg kg−1 proposed by the Italian Ministry of Health. Storage on ice was also investigated, showing moderate FA production also at temperature around 0 °C. FA contents lower than 22 mg kg−1 were finally found in all the other samples.
Article
Simple, sensitive and rapid methods for the determination of formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide were developed. The formaldehyde determination is based on the reaction between formaldehyde and acetylacetone solution, producing yellow 3,5-diacetyl-l-1,4-dihydrolutidine. Sulfur dioxide was detected as the deoxidize of sulfurous acid by zinc in acidic medium, which produces sulfureted hydrogen that make lead acetate paper blackening due to lead sulfide formation. The detection limits were 0.8 μg mL−1 and 6.0 μg mL−1 for formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide, respectively. The linear range were 0.8–20.0 μg mL−1 for formaldehyde and 6.0–100.0 μg mL−1 for sulfur dioxide determination. The main advantages of the new analytical procedure are the low background level, high selectivity, and very little sample preparation for on-site analysis of formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide in food or Chinese herbal samples with reference color card for qualitative or semi-quantitative determination. The results from these methods correlated well with those obtained from the standard methods.
An HPLC method was developed for the determination of formaldehyde in human blood plasma. The method was based on the determination of the fluorescent product of the chemical reaction between formaldehyde and ampicillin. A 0.2-ml aliquot of blood plasma was reacted directly with ampicillin under acidic and heating conditions. The reaction product was extracted from the matrix with diethyl ether and analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of spiked formaldehyde at the low ppm (μg/ml) level were between 93% and 102% with relative standard deviations less than 8%. The limits of detection and quantitation of formaldehyde in blood plasma samples were 0.46 μg/ml and 0.87 μg/ml, respectively.
Article
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by fungi belonging to the Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The natural occurrence of OTA in 18 pure cocoa powder samples marketed in Italy and purchased from supermarkets, organic product shops and retail shops was investigated. Nine samples of the eighteen products had no detectable OTA contamination (below 10 ng/kg). Nine positive samples had a toxin concentration ranging between 0.22 and 0.77 μg/kg with a mean of 0.43 μg/kg. All the organic samples analyzed were negative for OTA; of 14 conventional samples analyzed, four samples (28.56%) were above the suggested legal limit (0.5 μg/kg) because they were contaminated with 0.77, 0.53, 0.67 and 0.62 μg/kg, respectively. The optimization of the extraction protocol and comparison of different brands of immunoaffinity column clean-up were carried out. The incidence (50% of examined samples) of the OTA level in Italian cocoa marketed products is an important signal of attention for consumers, because cocoa is widely used in the production of child snack foods and it contributes to OTA daily intake.
Article
Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations were measured in the muscle tissue of two fish species from the Ionian and Adriatic seas. Higher total mercury and methylmercury concentrations were detected in striped mullet (Mullus barbatus), a benthic species (Ionian sea: Hg=0.40 μg g−1 wet wt, MeHg=0.40 μg g−1 wet wt; Adriatic sea: Hg=0.49 μg g−1 wet wt, MeHg=0.44 μg g−1 wet wt), than in hake (Merluccius merluccius), a pelagic species (Ionian sea: Hg=0.09 μg g−1 wet wt, MeHg=0.09 μg g−1 wet wt; Adriatic sea: Hg=0.18 μg g−1 wet wt; MeHg=0.16 μg g−1 wet wt). Total mercury residues were determined in all samples of both species from the Adriatic sea, while levels below the limit of detection were registered in 25% and 11%, respectively, of striped mullet and hake samples from the Ionian sea. In 18.8% and 22.2% of striped mullet samples from the Ionian and Adriatic seas, respectively, total mercury concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission Decision (Hg=0.5 μg g−1 wet wt). In the two different species, mercury was present almost completely in the methylated form with mean percentages between 60% and 100%. The estimated weekly intake for total mercury was below the established the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for both species, though their consumption provides a methylmercury intake above the WHO safety limit.
Article
Great attention has been paid to volatile toxic aldehydes like formaldehyde in aquatic products. In order to investigate content of formaldehyde in squid and squid products, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for determination of formaldehyde. Based on steam distillation and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization, formaldehyde was analysis by HPLC using ODS-C18 column at UV detector (355 nm). Detection limit was 8.92 microg/L in standard solution and 0.18 mg/kg in sample, and recovery was 83.09-103.20%. By this method, the formaldehyde content of squid muscle and viscera, dried squid thread and boiled squid were determined. The results showed that variable formaldehyde levels were observed among four species squid, which was generally far higher in viscera than in muscle of frozen squid. And cooking accelerated the formaldehyde production of squids. The study indicated that the HPLC method, with a better selectivity, precision and accuracy, was available to determine the formaldehyde in squid products with satisfactory results. Formaldehyde level in muscle and products of squid exceeded the formaldehyde limit by the Ministry of Agriculture in China.
Article
A sensitive FIA method was developed for the selective determination of formaldehyde in alcoholic beverages. This method is based on the reaction of Fluoral-P (4-amine-3-pentene-2-one) with formaldehyde, leading to the formation of 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine (DDL), which fluoresces at lambda(ex)=410nm and lambda(em)=510nm. The analytical parameters were optimized by the response surface method using the Box-Behnken design. The proposed flow injection system allowed for the determination of up to 3.33x10(-5)molL(-1) of formaldehyde with R.S.D.<2.5% and a detection limit of 3.1ngmL(-1). The method was successfully applied to determine formaldehyde in alcoholic beverages, without requiring any sample pretreatment, and the results agreed with the reference at a 95% confidence level by paired t-test. In the optimized condition, the FIA system proved able to analyze up to 60 samples/h.
Article
Formaldehyde is an economically important chemical, to which more than 2 million U.S. workers are occupationally exposed. Substantially more people are exposed to formaldehyde environmentally, as it is generated by automobile engines, is a component of tobacco smoke and is released from household products, including furniture, particleboard, plywood, and carpeting. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently classified formaldehyde as a human carcinogen that causes nasopharyngeal cancer and also concluded that there is "strong but not sufficient evidence for a causal association between leukemia and occupational exposure to formaldehyde". Here, we review the epidemiological studies published to date on formaldehyde-exposed workers and professionals in relation to lymphohematopoietic malignances. In a new meta-analysis of these studies, focusing on occupations known to have high formaldehyde exposure, we show that summary relative risks (RRs) were elevated in 15 studies of leukemia (RR=1.54; confidence interval (CI), 1.18-2.00) with the highest relative risks seen in the six studies of myeloid leukemia (RR=1.90; 95% CI, 1.31-2.76). The biological plausibility of this observed association is discussed and potential mechanisms proposed. We hypothesize that formaldehyde may act on bone marrow directly or, alternatively, may cause leukemia by damaging the hematopoietic stem or early progenitor cells that are located in the circulating blood or nasal passages, which then travel to the bone marrow and become leukemic stem cells. To test these hypotheses, we recommend that future studies apply biomarkers validated for other chemical leukemogens to the study of formaldehyde.
Article
Short-term studies (9 days) in the rat have demonstrated that formaldehyde-induced nasal epithelial lesions are associated with increases in surface epithelial cell proliferation rates. The present studies were designed, in part, to investigate cell proliferation rates in the nasal epithelium of rats exposed to formaldehyde for a longer duration in order to determine if correlations exist between (1) the concentration-response in cell proliferation rate with the previously published formaldehyde bioassay tumor response; (2) sites of increased cell proliferation and the regions of the nasal passages that exhibit formaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity; and (3) sites of increased cell proliferation and the regions of the rat nasal passages previously determined to be most susceptible to neoplasia (i.e., the lateral meatus and nasal septum of the anterior nasal passages). Another important endpoint of this study was to provide data for a comparison of formaldehyde-induced responses in rats with previous findings in rhesus monkeys. Fischer-344 rats were exposed to 0, 0.7, 2, 6, 10, or 15 ppm formaldehyde for up to 6 weeks and pulse labeled with tritiated thymidine prior to each scheduled termination. Exposure to formaldehyde at 6 ppm or higher induced site-specific lesions in the nasal respiratory epithelium and was associated with increases in cell proliferation rate which remained statistically elevated throughout the 6 weeks. While a direct correlation between sites susceptible to formaldehyde-induced nasal cancer and increased cell proliferation was not evident, results from the present studies did demonstrate a clear correlation between sites of cellular injury and increases in cell proliferation and a concentration-dependent response which correlated with the previously published formaldehyde bioassay tumor response. Furthermore, this work demonstrated that formaldehyde-induced responses in rats exposed to 6 ppm were morphologically similar to those reported in the rhesus monkey; however, the distribution of lesions between the two species differed significantly.
Article
This study was undertaken to enlarge our understanding of the adverse health effects of formaldehyde exposure in the workplace and community environment. The respiratory health status of 186 male plywood workers was evaluated by spirometric tests, respiratory questionnaires, and chest x-rays. Area concentrations of formaldehyde were measured in the work environment and found to range from 0.28 to 3.48 ppm. The average personal exposure was to 1.13 ppm of formaldehyde. Exposure to formaldehyde was associated with decrements in the baseline spirometric values, i.e., forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0), forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV/FVC), and FEF25%-75%, and with several respiratory symptoms and diseases, including cough, phlegm, asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chest colds. The results of the study support the hypothesis that chronic exposure to formaldehyde induces symptoms and signs of chronic obstructive lung disease.
Article
A study of 84 funeral service workers and 38 control subjects in Toronto, Canada, revealed that the embalmers reported chronic bronchitis, dyspnea, and nasal, eye, and skin irritation more frequently than controls. Apprentices reported symptoms and exhibited signs of irritation more frequently than experienced embalmers, but both of these groups were more affected than the inactive embalmers or the controls. Airborne formaldehyde levels were 0.36 +/- 0.19 ppm (mean +/- standard deviation) during 22 embalming procedures. General ventilation was shown to significantly lower the levels. No significant change in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, FEF50 or FEF75 was demonstrated with formaldehyde exposure nor were the baseline lung function results significantly different from those 38 unexposed controls. Based on patch testing, 4% and 10% were sensitive to formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, respectively, whereas none of the controls exhibited positive reactions.
Article
One hundred nine workers and 254 control subjects were studied to evaluate the effects of formaldehyde on the mucous membranes and lungs. A modified, respiratory symptom questionnaire and spirometry were administered to all study participants before and after their work shift, and formaldehyde levels were determined for each test subject. Over the course of the monitored work shift, test subjects demonstrated a dose-dependent excess of irritant symptoms and a statistically significant decline in certain lung function parameters. Analysis of test and control subject data combined revealed a correlation between formaldehyde exposure and these pulmonary changes. Baseline spirometry values were not significantly different between test and control groups, and formaldehyde-exposed workers did not report an excess of respiratory symptoms. Formaldehyde is a dose-dependent irritant of the eyes and mucous membranes at low-level exposures. It can exert a small, across-shift effect on airways but after a mean exposure of ten years does not appear to cause permanent respiratory impairment. (JAMA 1988;259:701-707)
Article
The effect of exposure to formaldehyde (CH2O) on the CH2O concentration of the blood was determined. Eight male F-344 rats were exposed to 14.4 +/- 2.4 ppm of CH2O for 2 hours and the blood was collected immediately after exposure. Formaldehyde concentrations in the blood were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The blood of eight rats unexposed to CH2O was collected and analyzed in the same manner. Measured CH2O concentrations (micrograms/g of blood) were: controls, 2.24 +/- 0.07; exposed, 2.25 +/- 0.07 (mean +/- S.E.). Formaldehyde concentrations in human blood were determined by analyzing samples of venous blood collected before and after exposure of six human volunteers (4 M, 2 F) to 1.9 +/- 0.1 ppm of CH2O for 40 min. Average CH2O concentrations (micrograms/g of blood) were: before exposure, 2.61 +/- 0.14; after exposure, 2.77 +/- 0.28. In neither experiment was there a statistically significant effect of exposure on the average CH2O concentration of the blood. However, human subjects differed significantly with respect to their blood CH2O concentrations, and significant differences (either an increase or a decrease) were found between the CH2O concentrations of the blood taken before and after exposure from some of the subjects, suggesting that blood CH2O concentrations may vary with time.
Article
Two groups of male workers who were exposed to formaldehyde, the first group in phenol-formaldehyde-plastic foam matrix embedding of fiberglass (batt making), and the second in the fixation of tissues for histology, were studied for work-related neuro-behavioral, respiratory, and dermatological symptoms; and for pulmonary functional impairment. Forty-five male fiberglass batt makers who were studied across the initial work-shift after a holiday had average frequencies of combined neurobehavioral, respiratory, and dermatological symptoms of 17.3 for the hot areas and 14.7 for the cold areas of the process. Their symptom counts were significantly greater than those for 18 male histology technicians who averaged 7.3, and for 26 unexposed male hospital workers who averaged 4.8. During their first workshift after holidays, 58% of the batt makers had a decrease in one or more tests of pulmonary function. Nine nonsmokers had decreases more frequently than did 35 smokers; forced expiratory volume in one second FEV1.0 decreased in 16%, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (sb) decreased in 30%, forced expiratory flow 25-75 decreased in 16%, and forced expiratory flow) 75-85 decreased in 36%. Thirty-five percent of all 44 men had drops in FEV1.0, forced vital capacity, or in diffusing capacity (sb).
Proteins of fish muscle undergo chemical and physical changes during frozen storage which may result in, under certain conditions (i.e. long periods of storage, poor freezing practices, temperature fluctuations, etc), loss of quality, reflected mainly by an unacceptable texture as well as an undesirable flavour, odour and colour. In frozen gadoid fish species, most of these changes are caused by the production of formaldehyde in the muscle. Formaldehyde is produced, along with dimethylamine, by the enzymatic reduction of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO). Many aspects of formaldehyde production by TMAO demethylase (TMAOase) have been studied throughout the last decade. In addition, different approaches have been used to investigate the effect of formaldehyde production on protein denaturation and the associated muscle textural changes. Some insight into the reaction between protein and formaldehyde has clarified the possible mechanism of formaldehyde-mediated denaturation. However, evidence of covalent bonding between proteins and formaldehyde, to form crosslinks, has not explained fully the changes observed in fish proteins during frozen storage. The study of cold-induced denaturation of proteins might give new clues for further investigation of the problem. The implications of formaldehyde in toxicological and nutritional issues is also reviewed, as general concern about the safety of food products is a growing field in food science. Finally, different approaches have been proposed to avoid the detrimental action of formaldehyde during frozen storage of gadoid fish; they are some of the practical applications of the knowledge acquired after years of study of different workers in the field.
Article
The aim of the study was to characterize the nature of the formaldehyde-induced nasal response consisting in symptoms of rhinitis and changes in nasal lavage fluid. Eleven healthy subjects and nine patients with specific skin sensitization were provoked in a toxicological chamber with formaldehyde at a dose of 0.5 mg/m3 over 2 h. Nasal lavage was performed prior to and immediately after provocation and 4 and 18 h later. Provocation with formaldehyde caused transient symptoms of rhinitis and prolonged changes in nasal washings. There were increases in the number and proportion of eosinophils and elevated albumin and total protein levels in nasal lavage fluid 4 and 18 h after provocation. No difference in the nasal response to formaldehyde was found between patients with skin sensitization and healthy subjects. These data confirm the irritative effects of formaldehyde and are also suggestive of nonspecific proinflammatory properties when formaldehyde is inhaled at a low (0.5 mg/m3) dose.
Article
A micronucleus assay employing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a centromeric probe was used on specimens of exfoliated buccal and nasal cells collected from mortuary science students exposed to embalming fluid containing formaldehyde. FISH labeling allowed micronuclei (MN) containing a whole chromosome (centromere-positive, MN+) to be differentiated from those containing only chromosomal fragments (centromere-negative, MN-). Each student was sampled before and after the 90 day embalming class. We determined if an increase in MN frequency could be attributed to formaldehyde exposure and was specific to either MN+ or MN-. In buccal cells, total MN frequency was significantly increased from 0.6/1000 to 2/1000 (p = 0.007) following the course, whereas in nasal cells it was not (2 and 2.5/1000, respectively, p = 0.2). Cells with multiple MN were present only in samples taken after exposure to embalming fluid. Although the baseline frequency was higher for MN+ in both buccal (0.4/1000 for MN+ and 0.1/1000 for MN-) and nasal cells (1.2/1000 for MN+ and 0.5/1000 for MN-), the increase in MN frequency was greater for MN-, (9-fold, p = 0.005 for buccal cells; 2-fold, p = 0.03 for nasal cells) than for MN+ (> 2-fold, p = 0.08 for buccal cells; no change, p = 0.31 for nasal cells) in both tissues. Thus, the primary mechanism of micronucleus formation appeared to be chromosome breakage. This finding is consistent with known clastogenic properties of formaldehyde, the component of embalming fluid most likely responsible for micronucleus induction.
Article
The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in cells of the nasal mucosa, oral mucosa and in lymphocytes was evaluated for 25 students in anatomy classes exposed to formaldehyde (FA) over an 8-week period. Each student served as his or her own control. The time-weighted average concentration (TWA) of formaldehyde in anatomical laboratories and in students' dormitories was 0.508 +/- 0.299 mg/m3 and 0.012 +/- 0.0025 mg/m3, respectively. A higher frequency of micronuclei was observed in nasal and oral exfoliative cells after formaldehyde exposure (3.85 +/- 1.48 vs 1.20 +/- 0.676 and 0.857 +/- 0.558 vs 0.568 +/- 0.317, paired-t test: P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). No significant increase in the frequency of lymphocyte micronuclei was found after formaldehyde exposure (P > 0.05). The present study shows that nasal mucosa cells exposed through respiration are the chief target of FA-induced genotoxic effects.
Article
Pathogenic bacteria, when present in marine seafood and in fresh cultured products, are usually found at fairly low levels, and where these products are adequately cooked, food safety hazards are insignificant. A few bacteria associated with faecal contamination of seafood continue to pose a large-scale health threat through seafood.
Article
The accumulation of formaldehyde and the resulting deterioration of seafood products during frozen storage are primarily caused by the enzymatic activity of trimethylamine oxide aldolase (TMAOase). A screening of muscle samples from 24 species showed TMAOase activity in only the nine gadiform species that were analyzed. Enzyme activities in the major white muscle of gadiform fish showed large variations between species as well as between individuals. A frozen storage experiment showed a similarly large variation in the rate of formaldehyde accumulation, which could be accounted for by the endogenous white muscle in situ TMAOase activity. This TMAOase activity also correlated with the rate of insolubilization of otherwise high ionic strength soluble protein. A simple model describing the accumulation of free formaldehyde during frozen storage of gadiform fish is proposed. The model is based on a storage time-dependent decay of substrate-saturated white muscle TMAOase activity.
Article
The entry of Pb into the food chain is of concern as it can cause chronic health problems. The concentration of Pb was determined in cereal grain samples collected representatively from British Cereal Quality Surveys in 1982 and 1998 (n = 176, 250 and 233 for wheat collected in 1982 and 1998, and barley in 1998, respectively). In addition, paired soil and grain samples were collected from 377 sites harvested across Britain in 1998-2000. Wheat grain Pb ranged from below the analytical detection limit (0.02 mg kg(-1) dry weight, DW) to 1.63 mg kg(-1) DW, and barley grain Pb from <0.02 to 0.48 mg kg(-1) DW. The vast majority of samples (>99% for both wheat and barley, excluding Scottish barley samples collected in 2000) were well below the newly introduced EU limit for the maximum permissible concentration of Pb in cereals (0.2 mg kg(-1) fresh weight, equivalent to 0.235 mg kg(-1) DW). There was a significant reduction in wheat grain Pb in the 1998 survey compared with the 1982 survey. However, 40 barley samples collected from Scotland in 2000 in the paired soil and crop survey showed anomalously high concentrations of Pb, with 10 samples exceeding the EU limit. Washing experiments demonstrated that surface contamination, introduced during grain harvest and/or storage, was the main reason for the high concentrations in these samples. In the paired soil and crop surveys, there were no significant correlations between grain Pb concentrations with total soil Pb and other soil properties, indicating low bioavailability of Pb in the soils and limited uptake and transport of Pb to grain. The Pb in cereal grain is likely to originate mainly from atmospheric deposition and other routes of surface contamination during harvest and storage.
Article
Formaldehyde is a naturally occurring biological compound that is present in tissues, cells, and bodily fluids. It is also a potent nasal irritant, a cytotoxicant at high doses, and a nasal carcinogen in rats exposed to high airborne concentrations. The normal endogenous concentration of formaldehyde in the blood is approximately 0.1 mM in rats, monkeys, and humans, and it is 2- to 4-fold higher in the liver and nasal mucosa of the rat. Inhaled formaldehyde enters the one-carbon pool, and the carbon atom is rapidly incorporated into macromolecules throughout the body. Oxidation to formate catalyzed by glutathione-dependent and -independent dehydrogenases in nasal tissues is a major route of detoxication and generally precedes incorporation.
Article
Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis), endemic to Asia, were first reported in the San Francisco Bay in 1992. They are now established in nearly all San Francisco Bay tributaries. These crabs accumulate more metals, such as mercury, than crustaceans living in the water column. Because their predators include fish, birds, mammals and humans, their mercury burdens have an exceptional potential to impact the ecosystem and public health. We sought to elucidate the potential threat of mitten crab mercury burdens in three adjacent streams in southern San Francisco Bay, one of which is known to be contaminated with mercury. Mitten crabs had hepatopancreas concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury that did not differ among streams. The maximum burden we measured was below the action level of 1 ppm recommended by the USEPA. Hepatopancreas concentrations of methylmercury declined with increasing crab size, suggesting a mechanism for mercury excretion and that predators might reduce mercury exposure if they select larger crabs. Because mercury may be heterogeneously distributed among tissues, estimation of the impacts of crab mercury burdens on the environment requires more data on the feeding preferences of predators.
Article
Exposure to mercury has been linked to elevations in blood pressure (BP), though few data are available. We examined the cross-sectional relationship between blood mercury concentration and BP in a representative US sample of 1240 women, aged 16-49 years, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000. We found no association overall between mercury and BP in multivariate models. We stratified our data by dietary fish intake (presumably reflecting the consumption of long-chain n-3 fatty acids that may reduce BP) resulting in 759 fish consumers and 481 non-fish consumers. We found that for each 1.3 microg/L (interquartile distance) increase in mercury, systolic BP significantly increased by 1.83 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.36, 3.30) among non-fish consumers. A similar pattern was seen for diastolic BP, although it was non-significant. While an adverse effect of mercury exposure at background levels on BP was not present overall, an adverse association was present among non-fish-consuming young and middle-aged women.
Article
Highly toxic mycotoxins like the trichothecenes can be found as contaminants from the metabolism of fungi in food and food preparations. They can be identified and quantified with great accuracy by GC/MS-measurements. Reliable analytical methods are urgently needed because such mycotoxins are not only toxic substances occurring in nature but also are in the list of biological weapons (e.g. T2-toxin, HT-2-toxin) and have some potential for terroristic attacks. By using GC/MS in the EI- and NCI- or PCI-mode and MS(n)-measurements with a 30 m Rtx 5MS fused-silica capillary column it is possible to identify and quantify all relevant mycotoxins either as underivatized substances or as their TMS-derivatives in extracts from food, food preparations or beverages with very complex matrix-derived background. This method can also be used to determine free ricinine as a biological marker for ricine in terroristic attacks. So laborious and time-consuming steps of sample-preparation can often be diminished. The LOD is in the range of 10-50 pg and the LOQ with linear calibration curves is in the range of 50-5000 pg. The high specificity of these methods helps not only to detect the existence of intentional terroristic or natural food contamination but also to avoid faulty alarm with unnecessary panic in the public. Furthermore, these methods have a high potential in ameliorating the safety of basic food and food products.
Article
An automated HPLC method for the simultaneous detection of aflatoxins (AF) and ochratoxin A (OA) has been developed. The method uses an immunoaffinity column containing antibodies specific to both AF and OA. The samples were extracted with an acetonitrile/water mixture and diluted with phosphate buffer saline (PBS). The aqueous extracts were then transferred to an ASPEC HPLC system for automated clean-up using AflaOchra immunoaffinity columns. OA and AF were quantified using HPLC with fluorescence detection, with a run time of approximately 40 min. Limits of quantification were estimated as 0.2 microg/kg for OA and AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2. Initial validation of this method gave average recoveries of 72-101% for OA and AF for a range of food products (maize cereal products and peanut butter). Within laboratory RSDr and RSDR for a 5.0 microg/kg spike level in maize cereals was found to be 7.6-10.1% (AF and OA) and 10.2-13.8%, respectively.