Improved current era outcomes in patients with heterotaxy syndromes

Pediatric Heart Center, The Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ 85006, USA.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery (Impact Factor: 3.3). 03/2009; 35(5):871-7; discussion 877-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejcts.2008.12.018
Source: PubMed


Patients with heterotaxy syndrome have a myriad of visceral and cardiac malformations historically resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. We sought to assess whether current era management strategies have improved outcomes in patients with visceral heterotaxy.
A retrospective review (1994-2008) of our database identified 45 consecutive heterotaxy patients who underwent surgical palliation. There were 29 patients with right atrial isomerism (RAI) and 16 patients with left atrial isomerism (LAI). Functional single ventricle was present in 32 patients. Pulmonary outflow obstruction was present in 29 of the patients. Twenty patients had total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR), of which 9 were obstructed. An initial neonatal surgical approach was performed in 27 patients. Thirty patients had systemic to pulmonary artery shunt. Mean follow-up was 43.6+/-47 months in RAI and 41.0+/-40.8 months in LAI patients (p=0.4).
There were three hospital deaths, all after the first operation, and four interstage deaths (six RAI; one LAI). There were no deaths after cavopulmonary shunt, Kawashima or Fontan operation. A multivariate Cox regression identified greater than moderate atrioventricular valve regurgitation (Hazard Ratio (HR) 17.5, p=0.017) and obstructed TAPVR (HR 17.5, p=0.007) as factors associated with increased RAI mortality. Due to the absence of late mortality in both groups, patient survival at 3 years were 79% in RAI and 94% in LAI patients and remained stable after that (p=0.22). All survivors but one are in NYHA class I or II, without significant cardiovascular related symptoms. LAI patients have a higher incidence of sinus node dysfunction than RAI patients (47% vs 12.5%, p=0.009).
Surgical outcomes in heterotaxy patients are improving in the current era. The risk for operative mortality and attrition is highest between the first and second stage palliation procedures. Significant atrioventricular valve regurgitation and obstructed TAPVR remain risk factors for RAI mortality. Survivors are doing well with no activity restrictions, although LAI patients maintain a higher proclivity of sinus node dysfunction.

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    • "Residual atrioventricular valvular regurgitation was not a risk factor for our patients even though it was reported as a risk factor for late mortality in right isomerism [7]. There was another report that described moderate atrioventricular valvular regurgitation and obstructed pulmonary venous anomaly as risk factors in right isomerism [25]. We tried to correct atrioventricular valvular regurgitation over mild degree as soon as possible and many of correction were performed when BCPS was achieved. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background In spite of improved survival after palliation for single ventricle, interstage mortality for a single ventricle with heterotaxy syndrome is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify interstage mortality and influence mortality risk factors. Methods From November 1994 until February 2012, all patients that had a functional single ventricle and heterotaxy syndrome who underwent palliative operations at our center were included. Patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and operative mortality cases were excluded. The factors that influenced interstage mortality were determined by multivariate Cox analysis. Results There were 16 patients with interstage mortality (41.0%), much higher than the non-heterotaxy group (vs. 11.3%, P = 0.001, OR = 5.478). The major presumptive causes of death were infection or sepsis (37.5%) and unknown sudden death (31.3%). When we compared the survival group and the mortality group with heterotaxy syndrome, Blalock-Taussig shunt as a 1st palliation is most common for both groups but there were more for the mortality group (81.2% vs. 52.2%), and there were more with bidirectional cavo-pulmonary shunt as a 1st palliation in the survival group (10 patients vs. 2 patients). The existence of pulmonary vein stenosis at initial diagnosis was more common for the mortality group. In multivariate Cox analysis, however, the duration of hospitalization at palliation, the duration of intensive care unit stay after palliation and the existence of pulmonary vein stenosis at diagnosis were significant risk factors. Conclusion Interstage mortality for a functional single ventricle with heterotaxy syndrome is significantly higher than for non-heterotaxy syndrome. Therefore more attention should be given to the prevention of interstage mortality in these patients with risk factors.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
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    • "Anomalous positioning of pectoral structures, such as systemic veins, great arteries and even bronchi, is common and varied, which can easily cause kinking and/or distortion in the pulmonary venous drainage pathway. As a result, preoperative pulmonary venous obstruction (PVO) is common [10] [13] [14]. In addition, unusual morphology of atria and pulmonary venous drainage system is another property seen in this group. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Surgical outcomes of patients with functional single ventricle have improved, though those for patients whose condition is complicated by extracardiac type total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) remain poor. We retrospectively reviewed our 21 years of surgical experiences with this challenging group. Methods: From 1990 to 2010, 48 consecutive patients with functional single ventricle complicated by extracardiac TAPVC (26 males, 46 with right atrial isomerism) underwent initial surgical palliation at our centre. The median age and body weight at surgery were 69 days and 3.5 kg, respectively. The type of TAPVC was supracardiac in 31 patients, infracardiac in 14 and mixed type in 3. TAPVC was repaired in 25 patients before bidirectional Glenn (BDG) and 18 at BDG, while it remained in 3 patients. Since 2007, stent implantation for obstructive drainage veins for patients with preoperative pulmonary venous obstruction and sutureless marsupialization for relief of postoperative pulmonary venous stenosis (PVS) have been initiated. The mean follow-up period was 4.2 ± 5.1 years. Results: The overall survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years after the initial surgical intervention were 58.3, 41.1 and 31.3%, respectively. Sixteen patients achieved the Fontan operation (33.3%). The freedom from postoperative PVS rates at 1 and 3 years after repair was 68.7 and 63.4%, respectively. Univariate analysis detected that infracardiac TAPVC (P = 0.036), coexisting major aortopulmonary collaterals (P = 0.017), and TAPVC repair before BDG (P = 0.036) all reduced survival, and multivariable analysis indicated the repair of TAPVC before BDG as the only risk factor (P = 0.032). Whereas the occurrence of postoperative PVS did not reduce survival, which had a significant negative impact on achieving the Fontan operation (P = 0.008). The cumulative survival rate did not improve by surgical era. Conclusions: Surgical outcomes of patients with functional single ventricle undergoing the repair of extracardiac TAPVC in the neonatal period due to obstruction of the venous drainage pathway remain poor. Stent implantation for obstructive drainage veins to delay the timing of surgical correction and sutureless marsupialization as relief of postoperative PVS are expected to improve the late outcomes; however, the effect is still limited.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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