Article

Antioxidant potential and oxidative dna damage preventive activity of chrysanthemum indicum extracts

Authors:
  • Konkuk University, Chungju
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to characterize the antioxidant properties of the extracts from Chrysanthemum indicum flower (CIF). The water and ethanol extracts were prepared from CIF and its antioxidant activity was investigated in vitro by different methods including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals and nitrite scavenging, reducing (Fe3+ to Fe2+) power, linoleic acid oxidation inhibition as well as free radical-induced DNA damage prevention activity. The cytotoxic effect of the ethanol extract was determined on chang normal liver cell. The ethanol-based extract prevented free radical-induced DNA damage and did not show any cytotoxicity. The antioxidant activity was highly correlated with the observed phenolic and flavonoid contents. The present study suggests that the extracts of CIF could be considered as a potent source of natural antioxidants. Chrysanthemum indicum Linné has been used as a traditional medicine for various immune-related diseases as well as in mixed spices and alcoholic beverages in Korea, China and Japan. The tea prepared from chrysanthemum flower could prevent sore throat and promote the reduction of fever. Recently, Chrysanthemum indicum flower (CIF) extracts has been reported to have therapeutic potential in a variety of immune-related cutaneous diseases and lowering blood pressure activity. In this context, we studied antioxidant activities and DNA damage preventive activity of CIF. The results suggest that the extract may have potential as a new source of natural antioxidant.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Extraction method for SeCM and TCM were modified from Debnath et al. (2013). In brief, flower samples of 40 g were mixed with deionized water of 280 ml, and the mixture was heated at 85°C for 3 h with occasional stirring. ...
... Reducing power of aqueous extracts from SeCM and TCM was determined using the method of Debnath et al. (2013). In negative and positive controls, deionized water and ascorbic acid solution were used instead of C. morifolium extracts, respectively. ...
... And OH radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using the method reported by Debnath et al. (2013). Ascorbic acid solution and deionized water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
Chrysanthemum morifolium is a well‐known edible medicinal plant in Asia and some other regions. Content of selenium in Se‐enriched C. morifolium (SeCM) is significantly higher than that in traditional C. morifolium (non‐Se‐enriched C. morifolium, TCM). In order to understand health effects of SeCM, its chemical composition, lifespan‐prolonging activities, and impacts on antioxidant defense‐related gene expressions of model organism D. melanogaster were systematically studied. A total of eight phenols, including luteolin‐7‐O‐glucoside, linarin, luteolin, apigenin, diosmetin, acacetin, 3‐caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5‐dicaffeoylquinic acid, were identified in SeCM extract. Compared with TCM, SeCM exhibited superior antioxidant properties. Intake of SeCM dramatically reduced malondialdehyde level and increased activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes in fruit flies. SeCM was able to upregulate gene expressions of Cu/Zn‐superoxide dismutase, Mn‐superoxide dismutase and hydrogen peroxide catalase, and extend lifespans of fruit flies. Comparatively high antioxidant capacities and lifespan‐prolonging activities of SeCM might be attributed to its abundant phenols and selenium, which probably ameliorated accumulation of free radicals and susceptibility to oxidative stress. These findings provide clues on further exploitation and utilization of Se‐enriched C. morifolium. Practical applications Chrysanthemum morifolium has been used for nutraceutical and curative purposes in China for thousands of years. Se‐enriched C. morifolium typically contains more selenium than traditional C. morifolium, and is widely consumed in Asia and some other regions. Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans, and selenium deficiency may result in several diseases such as myocardial infarction. SeCM is one of important selenium supplements. In this study, SeCM was found to upregulate gene expressions of Cu/Zn‐superoxide dismutase, Mn‐superoxide dismutase, and hydrogen peroxide catalase, and extend lifespans of experimental animals. These results provide supporting information for developing SeCM‐based functional foods with distinct health benefits.
... The SOD-like scavenging activities of water and ethanol extracts of blueberry were determined following the method described by Tian et al. with a few modifications [16] . Briefly, 200 µL of different sample solutions (0.125-2.000 mg/mL) were mixed with 200 µL of pyrogallol solution (7.2 mL mol/L in water) and 3 mL of 50 mL mol/L Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.5) containing 10 mmol/L EDTA. ...
... Plant phenolics and flavonoids compounds are found to be shown antioxidative activities [1,16] . So the content of both compounds were investigated in blueberry extracts. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To investigate in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Methods: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the Korean blueberry water and ethanol extracts were determined before determining the potential of the extracts as antioxidant. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by following some well established methods for free radical scavenging such as 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl hydrate, 1,2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid), free radical induced DNA damage, superoxide dismutase-like and catalase assay etc. Furthermore, 1-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan and nitric oxide assay were performed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts. Results: Total phenolic contents were found (115.0±3.0) and (4.2±3.0) mg GAE/100 g fresh mass for both extracts, respectively and flavonoid contents were (1 942.8±7.0) and (1 292.1±6.0) mg CE/100g fresh mass for water and ethonal extracts, respectively. Both the extracts displayed significant scavenging activity of some radicals such as 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (IC50 at 1.8 mg/mL and 2.05 mg/mL, respectively), 1,2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid) (IC50 at 1.5 mg/mL and 1.6 mg/mL, respectively) and nitrite (IC50 at 1.7 mg/mL and 1.5 mg/mL, respectively) etc. The extracts were found to prevent inflammation as well by reducing nitric oxide production and cytotoxicity in cell. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the fresh Korean blueberry could be used as a source of natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents.
... Extracts of this plant were shown to possess certain pharmacological properties, including inhibiting lens aldose reductase activity and nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages [2], and antimicrobial [11][12][13], antibacterial [14], anti-inflammatory [15,16], analgesic, antipyretic [11], and anticancer properties [2,5,17]. Furthermore, C. indicum has been shown to possess antioxidant properties [18,19] neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress [20], and hepatoprotective effects [21]. It also relieves hypertension and respiratory diseases [22,23]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Chrysanthemum indicum is an important ornamental and medicinal plant that is often difficult to propagate commercially because of its poor germination and low seed viability. This plant is mostly propagated by cutting, but the rooting is slow and non-uniform. The present investigation evaluated the regeneration capacity of stem cutting by examining the influence of auxins, growth medium, temperature, and explant type on adventitious root formation in C. indicum. The auxin-treated cuttings were planted in different growth substrates under greenhouse conditions. Among the different auxins tested, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) more effectively induced roots. The cutting position of stock plants influenced rooting capacity. Cutting the stock plants from the apical region enhanced root number and length in the explants. Among the different explant types, apical stem cuts with 2000 ppm IBA produced a significantly higher number of adventitious roots when grown in vermiculite and perlite (V + P) at a ratio of 1:1 at 25 °C. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, biochanin A, salicylic acid, caffeic acid, glycitein, and luteolin were the most dominant phenolic compounds present in C. indicum. These results indicate that IBA treatment promoted the synthesis and accumulation of phenolic compounds in C. indicum stem cuttings at the time of root formation. The present results demonstrate that applying auxins is essential for early root initiation and higher rooting success and thus may be beneficial for vegetative C. indicum propagation.
... The hepatoprotective activity of CEE may be attributed to the antioxidant potential of flavonoid compounds [1]. This antioxidant effect was also detected in some other closely related plant species such as Chrysanthemum balsamita [39,40], Chrysanthemum fontanesii [41], Chrysanthemum indicum [42,43]. Moreover, a number of scientific studies on other plant products indicated that flavonoids, exert protective effects on the liver due to its antioxidant properties [38,[44][45][46][47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Chrysanthemum trifurcatum is common to Mediterranean countries and widely-used in traditional medicine. Due to the scarcity of data about the pharmacological properties of C. trifurcatum, this present study was designed to determine the effects of C. trifurcatumethanolic extract (CEE) for its anti-nociceptive, anti-epileptic, anti-in-flammatory, and hepatoprotective activities in mice and rat models. We demonstrate that CEE contains alka-loids, carbohydrates, and flavonoids, and in a dose-dependent (300 and 500 mg/kg) manner exhibited significant reductions in paracetamol (PCM; 500 mg/kg)-induced increased serum AST, ALT and ALP levels, similar to as seen by silymarin (25 mg/kg). Additionally, CEE (300 mg/kg) elicited inhibition in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes, delayed latency time to paw's licking in hot plate tests, exerted an anti-convulsant effect by prolonging the onset of clonic and tonic convulsions, and reduced pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 80 mg/kg)-induced mortality. Moreover, CEE (500 mg/kg) exhibited a prominent reduction in carrageenan-induced paw edema. These studies indicate that CEE possesses profound central and peripheral analgesic, anti-convulsant, anti-in-flammatory, and hepatoprotective activities.
... mg/mL [11]. Others findings reported a potent antioxidant activity of Chrysanthemum genus such Chrysanthemum morifolium [30], Chrysanthemum coronarium [31], Chrysanthemum indicum [32], Chrysanthemum balsamita [33] and Chrysanthemum fuscatum [34]. However, Tahri et al. reported that methanol extracts of C. trifurcatum were rich in flavonoidslike luteolin and phenolic acid like caffeic acid [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To investigate the antioxidant and glucosidase properties and phytochemical constituents of roots, stems, leaves and flowers extracts and aerial parts oil of Chrysanthoglossum trifurcatum (Desf.) (C. trifurcatum). Methods: For extraction from roots, stems, leaves and flowers of C. trifurcatum, methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether solvents were used. Phenols, flavonoids, flavonols and tannins contents were evaluated. More, C. trifurcatum aerial parts oil composition was determined using chromatography/mass spectrometry. The antioxidant effect was estimated by DPPH, ABTS and reducing power test systems. The glucosidase inhibition was determined by colorimetric assay using the enzyme from Aspergillus Niger and the p-nitrophenyl glucopyranoside (pNPG) as substrate. Results: The highest amounts of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols and tannins were shown by the methanolic extract of leaves. The main components of the aerial parts oil were limonene (29.21%), γ -terpinene (12.96%), 4-terpenyl acetate (12.18%) and pinene (5.76%). The activity evaluated by DPPH, ABTS and reducing power tests was important for stems (IC50=0.68 mg/mL) and flowers (IC50=0.67 mg/mL) methanolic extracts and essential oil (IC50=0.72 mg/mL). Findings of glucosidase activity revealed that petroleum ether extracts of leaves and roots together with aerial parts oil showed a highest activity with IC50 of 0.044, 0.045 and 0.049 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Observed antioxidant and glucosidase activities of oil and extracts are attributed to the presence of the active phytochemicals in C. trifurcatum organs. Thus, the C. trifurcatum can be used as a source of antioxidant compounds and dietary supplement to treat patients with type 2 diabetes.
... It suggests that the C. indicum flowers are a good source of natural quercetin and myricetin for the development of potential pharmaceuticals (Liang-Yu et al., 2010 ). Methanolbased extracts of flowers yielded flavones, flavone glycosides, sesquiterpenes (Yoshikawa et al., 1999; Kumar, 2005; Bi et al., 2010), and ethanol extracts of flowers yielded chlorogenic acid, vanilinic acid, acacetin, linarin and other compounds (Debnath et al., 2013). Alantolactone, eudesmanolid-type sesquiterpene lactones, have been found to have pharmacological actions including antiinflammatory , antimicrobial and anticancer properties (Chadwick et al., 2013; Rasul et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Chrysanthemum indicum L. (Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul) became useful as herbs and curatives in different parts of the world. In the current study, the chemical profile of outdoor cultivated Chrysanthemum indicum 'Avalone Red' was investigated for polyphenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, alantolactone and ursolic acid using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Total phenolic content was determined through a classical method and semiquantitative analyses of alantolactone were performed through the HPLC method. Morphological and yield parameters and the chemical profile of plants were registered in two different nutritional statuses (local and enriched soil conditions). The results indicate that the studied cultivar is a potent source of phenolics and that the fertilisation increases the plant biosynthetic capacity for polyphenols (159.74 mg/100 g in leaves and 79.82 mg/100 g in flowers, in unfertilised plants, and 388.54 mg/100 g and 144.86 mg/100 g in leaves and flowers of fertilised plants, respectively, expressed as gallic acid equivalent value). The studied cultivar contains hyperoside (and other derivatives) and four main polyphenol carboxylic acids (including chlorogenic acid). Ursolic acid was not detected. The high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses confirmed the presence of alantolactone identified in TLC chromatogram. Moreover, the fertilised plant samples contain only traces of alantolactone compared to the unfertilised plants. Alantolactone is present in a small amount (less than 0.1 mg %) but its presence alerts to the potential allergenic effect of the plant. Besides their ornamental value, chrysanthemums can have a wide array of uses due to their high amounts of bioactive compounds.
... The oxidative damage caused by reactive species to lipids, proteins and nucleic acids may trigger various diseases including coronary heart diseases, atherosclerosis, cancer and aging [1] . Antioxidants have the ability to inhibit or prevent the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by donating hydrogen or electrons and play a crucial role in preventing oxidative cell damage [2] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of distilled water extract of fresh Polygonatum sibiricum (P. sibiricum) rhizome. Methods: The extracts were tested for antioxidant activity by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), and hydroxyl (OH•) radicals scavenging activity. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined in H2O2 treated chang liver cells. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) protein expression in a lipopolysaccharide stimulated Raw 264.7 murine macrophages cell line. Results: P. sibiricum water extracts scavenged DPPH, OH• radicals and decreased the level ROS. The extracts reduced NO reduction and inhibited the expression of iNOS and TNF-α proteins. Conclusions: The findings indicate that water extracts of P. sibiricum could be considered as natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents for food and drug industries.
... It has been traditionally used for the treatment of cancer, pneumonia, colitis, stomatitis, sore, and fever. This plant is known to possess antibacterial, antioxidant, and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity (Jung 2009; Debnath et al. 2013). In the present study, silver nanoparticles are synthesized using a floral extract of C. indicum and tested for its larvicidal and pupicidal properties on A. stephensi. ...
Article
Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides synthesized of natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were green-synthesized using a floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum screened for larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by using UV–vis absorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The textures of the yielded Ag NPs were found to be spherical and polydispersed with a mean size in the range of 25–59 nm. Larvae and pupae were exposed to various concentrations of aqueous extract of C. indicum and synthesized Ag NPs for 24 h, and the maximum mortality was observed from the synthesized Ag NPs against the vector A. stephensi (LC 50 =5.07, 10.35, 14.19, 22.81, and 35.05 ppm; LC 90 = 29.18, 47.15, 65.53, 87.96, and Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues V. Dineshkumar contributed equally to this work.
... It has been traditionally used for the treatment of cancer, pneumonia, colitis, stomatitis, sore, and fever. This plant is known to possess antibacterial, antioxidant, and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity (Jung 2009;Debnath et al. 2013). In the present study, silver nanoparticles are synthesized using a floral extract of C. indicum and tested for its larvicidal and pupicidal properties on A. stephensi. ...
Article
Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides synthesized of natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were green-synthesized using a floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum screened for larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-vis absorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The textures of the yielded Ag NPs were found to be spherical and polydispersed with a mean size in the range of 25-59 nm. Larvae and pupae were exposed to various concentrations of aqueous extract of C. indicum and synthesized Ag NPs for 24 h, and the maximum mortality was observed from the synthesized Ag NPs against the vector A. stephensi (LC50 = 5.07, 10.35, 14.19, 22.81, and 35.05 ppm; LC90 = 29.18, 47.15, 65.53, 87.96, and 115.05 ppm). These results suggest that the synthesized Ag NPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi. Additionally, this study provides the larvicidal and pupicidal properties of green-synthesized Ag NPs with the floral extract of C. indicum against vector mosquito species from the geographical location of India.
... Therefore, additional in vivo research will be needed to determine their effects and to find which specific factors are involved in improving IBD in humans. Debnath et al. [89] Chrysanthemum indicum ...
Article
Full-text available
Accumulating epidemiological and clinical study indicates that inflammation is a significant risk factor to develop various human diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and psoriasis. Suppressing inflammation is therefore important to control or prevent various diseases. Among them, IBD is one of the major problems affecting people worldwide. IBD affects at least one in a thousand persons in many Western countries. Various natural products have been shown to safely suppress pro-inflammatory pathway and control IBD. In vivo and/or in vitro studies indicate that anti-IBD effects of natural products occur by inhibition of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule expression and pro-inflammatory mediators (such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), master transcription factors (such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by improving the antioxidant activity. In this review, we summarize recent research focused on IBD and the effects that natural products have on IBD factors.
... ) power, inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation, as well as the prevention of free radical-induced DNA damage [81]. The authors suggested that the C. indicum extract was a potent source of natural antioxidants. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multifactorial disease marked by extensive neuropathology in the brain with selective yet prominent and progressive loss of mid-brain dopaminergic neurons. The etiological factors involved in the development of PD are still elusive, but oxidative stress arising when reactive oxygen species (ROS) exceed amounts required for normal redox signaling is considered one of the major factors. ROS cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA and are one of the most prominent factors related to neurodegeneration. Pre-clinical and clinical studies clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of PD. Therefore, regulation of redox signaling and inhibiting excess ROS would contribute greatly not only to extend longevity but also to ameliorate the progression of dopaminergic cell death seen in patients with PD. Several herbal products are beneficial for maintaining nerve cell function and for treating various neurodegenerative disorders by reducing oxidative stress. Here, we summarize the recent knowledge concerning promising herbs that have shown significant beneficial effects based on regulation of redox status and ROS inhibition in toxin-induced PD models.
... Scavenging effects of the water extracts from Chinese C. morifolium cultivars were in the range of 71.7-95.1% (Duh et al. 1999), while Zeng et al. (2014) reported lower radical scavenging activity (11.97%) for ethanolic extract of Chinese C. morifolium. Debnath et al. (2013) reported the reducing power activities from 0.07 to 0.55 and 0.09 to 0.68 for the water and ethanol extract of C. indicum, respectively at the concentration range from 0.125 to 2 ppm. In the present study, the reducing power of methanolic extracts, was higher than those reported in C. indicum. ...
Article
This study was conducted to evaluate the responses of Iranian commercial genotypes of maize (hybrids and their inbred lines) to callus induction and plant regeneration, using mature embryos. Twenty five genotypes comprising of 12 inbred lines, 11 single cross hybrids, 1 double cross hybrid and 1 composite cultivar were used. Mature embryos of the genotypes were plated on MS and N6 media. Callus induction rates were evaluated using relative growth rate of callus (RGR), callus fresh weight (CFW), callus dry weight (CDW) and callus growth rate (CGR). The results indicated that genotypes highly varied in both callus induction and plant regeneration. IL8 inbred line, SC7 (IL4×IL8) and SC9 (IL6×IL10) hybrids had the highest callus production capacity (based on CFW and CDW), whereas the highest RGR and CGR were obtained for ILl inbred line and SC9 hybrid. The estimated heterosis based on superior parent showed the highest heterosis for CFW, CDW, RGR and CGR in SC9 hybrid. Genotype × medium interactions for CWD, RGR and CGR were significant. For instance, SC9 hybrid on MS medium and IL8 on N6 medium produced the highest CGR. There was a significant difference between the observation periods [8, 12, 16 and 20 days after planting (DAP)], so that CGR was the least at 8 DAP and increased gradually till 16 DAP, but declined afterward. CGR had a range of 0.51 in IL8 inbred line to 0.74 in SC9 hybrid. Comparisons of the genotype for plant regeneration percent indicated that ILl and IL10 inbred lines as well as SC2 and SC4 single cross hybrids had the highest regeneration rates. Considering plant regeneration as a critical and genotypic dependent factor, it can be concluded that ILl and IL10 inbred as well as SC4 (IL4×IL5, ‘single cross 301’), SC2 (IL2×IL3, ‘single cross 704’) and SC7 hybrids are recommended for use in tissue culture-based breeding programs in maize.
Article
Chrysanthemum is a dicotyledonous genus belonging to the family Asteraceae. These herbaceous annual or perennial plants originated in East Asia and are of great ornamental, medicinal, environmental and industrial values. Chrysanthemum is amongst the most valuable floricultural crops in the world, and is extremely popular for its wide range of flower color and structure. The Chrysanthemum species have long been praised in traditional Chinese medicine history, and continue to be used as valuable drugs, food additives or herbal teas. Various phytochemical compounds, including flavonoids, terpenoids, polysaccharides and unsaturated fatty acids have been identified in the genus Chrysanthemum. This genus has also displayed multiple biological features including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-allergic, anti-obesity, immune regulation, hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activities. In the present review, we aim to extensively investigate the therapeutic potential, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the genus Chrysanthemum with a particular focus on the introduction of the new isolated compounds through summarizing scientific evidence released in a period of ten years (2010–2020). The taxonomic characteristics, distribution, horticultural and traditional uses of this genus are also presented. Moreover, research gaps in pharmacological and phytochemical studies, as well as future opportunities for medicinal exploitation of the genus Chrysanthemum have been discussed.
Article
Background: We investigated the antioxidant, anti-wrinkles, whitening, and moisturizing properties and amounts of phenolic compounds of ethanol extracts from flowers of 10 resource plants from Namwon and Mt. Jiri., Korea. Methods and Results: We measured antioxidant efficacy based on the total polyphenol, and total flavonoid content, and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. We evaluated the inhibi-tory effect on melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity for the whitening effect. Furthermore, we analyzed the elastase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibition activity for anti-wrinkle capacity. To evaluate the moisturizing effect, we examined hyaluronan synthase (HAS) mRNA expression. In addition, the 19 phenolic compounds were detected using high performace liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among the 10 flowers, the antioxidant effect was high in the order of Rosa multiflora, Nelumbo nucifera, and Elsholtzia splendens. Whitening effect was high in the order of N. nucifera, R. multiflora, and Dendranthema zawadskii. As for the anti-wrinkle property, N. nucifera was the most effective followed by R. multiflora. Taraxacum coreanum was the best for moisturizing effect, followed by D. zawadskii, and E. splendens. Seven phenolic compounds were detected in the extracts of the 10 flowers. Conclusions: Overall, the extracts of five flowers extracts showed strong potential as antioxidant, whitening, anti-wrinkle, and moisturizing functional cosmetic agents. © 2020, Korean Society of Medicinal Crop Science. All rights reserved.
Article
In this study, chemical profiling, phenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of 17 Iranian Chrysanthemum morifolium cultivars were evaluated. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the presence of eight compounds with the major constituents including chlorogenic acid (0–934.7 mg/100 g), ferulic acid (12.7–171.6 mg/100 g), rutin (0–225.8 mg/100 g) and luteolin (2.83–213.5 mg/100 g). The cultivar “Ashna” with 63.6 mg tannic acid equivalents g−1 DW had the highest amount of total phenol, while the highest flavonoid content (13.52 mg quercetin equivalents g−1DW) was observed in cultivar “Shokoh”. The antioxidant activities of the samples were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the reducing power assay. The results showed that the cultivars “Poya3” (IC50 = 385.7) and “Dorna2” (IC50 = 489.4) possessed a higher antioxidant activity than the others in DPPH model system. Antimicrobial activity was also evaluated based on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration values. MIC values were in the range of 5–10 mg ml−1 against Salmonella enterica and Bacillus cereus and 10–20 mg ml−1 against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Finally, Chrysanthemum cultivars with high bioactive compounds were introduced for beneficial usage in food and industrial applications.
Article
Full-text available
Chrysanthemum flowers are rich in phenolic substances. The chrysanthemum flower tea (CT) obtained by simulating the process of hot water brewing as the research object and 80% methanol aqueous extract (ME) as the controls to explore the composition of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of five varieties of chrysanthemum flowers including Xueju, Taiju, Hangbaiju, Gongju and Jinzhanju. Nine phenolic compounds including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid were initially identified and quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). The content of catechin in Xueju, Taiju, Hangbaiju, Gongju and Jinzhanju was 45.6, 50.9, 51.8, 55.0 and 53.2 µg/g, respectively, which is the highest among the nine monomeric phenolic compounds. The Xueju variant had the largest total phenolic content of 123.7 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and total flavonoid content of 92.5 catechin equivalent (CE)/g when compared to other cultivars, which was also consistent with the results from the HPLC-DAD measurements. After 15 min of simulated brewing, the DPPH radical eliminating ability of different varieties of CT was higher than that of the ME which corresponded with the FRAP results. The process of tea making improves the bioactive component and antioxidant activity of the chrysanthemum flower.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (C. indicum), a healthy food and folk medicine in China for thousands of years, has been reported to exert heat-clearing and detoxifying effects and extensively applied to treat various symptoms such as inflammation diseases, hepatitis and headache. Aim of this study The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE) on D-galactose-induced brain and liver damage during aging process and to illuminate the underlying mechanisms. Materials and methods Mice were orally administrated with CISCFE (100, 150 and 300 mg/kg) after injection with D-galactose. 24 h after the last administration, the blood samples, whole brain and liver tissues were collected for biochemical analysis, histological examination and western blot analysis. The body weight, spleen and thymus indexes, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA) in brain and liver, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected. Besides, the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 were determined by western blot assay. Results The results indicated that CISCFE effectively increased the suppressed body weight, attenuated the decline of thymus and spleen indexes, and reduced the elevated levels of ALT and AST induced by D-gal. Furthermore, CISCFE might notably alleviate D-gal-induced abnormal alterations in structure and function of brain and liver dose-dependently via renewing normal antioxidant enzymes activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px), reducing MDA accumulation, decreasing inflammatory cytokines productions (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α), as well as attenuating the increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 activation in the liver and brain. Conclusions Taken together, our present results suggested that CISCFE treatment could effectively mitigate the D-gal-induced hepatic and cerebral injury, and the underlying mechanism might be tightly related to the decreased oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, indicating CISCFE might be an alternative and promising agent for the treatment of aging and age-associated brain and liver diseases.
Article
In the present study, three homogeneous protein bounded acidic polysaccharides fractions (IOPS-1, IOPS-2 and IOPS-5) were isolated from I. obliquus using DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography. The relationship between their physicochemical properties and bioactivities was comparatively investigated. Results showed that IOPS-1, IOPS-2 and IOPS-5 were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose with the molecular weight distribution range from 75.94 kDa to 114.30 kDa. Congo red assay and CD spectra revealed that these three polysaccharides had ordered triple-helical conformations. Among the three polysaccharides, IOPS-2 exhibited the highest enzymes inhibitory activity and protective effects against the H2O2 induced oxidative damages in hepatic L02 cells, which would be related to its specific molecular weight (97.12 kDa), protein and uronic acid contents, rough appearance and triple-helical conformation. These results might facilitate the development of polysaccharides from I. oblqiuus as alternative antioxidants and provide significant insights into the relationship of structure-bioactivity of natural polysaccharides.
Article
It is known that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation to human skin causes photoaging, including increases in skin thickness and wrinkle formation and reduction in skin elasticity. UV induces damage to skin mainly by superfluous reactive oxygen species and chronic low-grade inflammation, which eventually up-regulate the expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this study, the super critical carbon dioxide extract from flowers and buds of Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén (CISCFE), which has been reported to possess free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties, was investigated for its photo-protective effect by topical application on the skin of mice. Moreover, CISCFE effectively suppressed the UV-induced increase in skin thickness and wrinkle grading in a dose-dependent manner, which was correlated with the inhibition of loss of collagen fiber content and epidermal thickening. Furthermore, we observed that CISCFE could obviously decrease UV-induced skin inflammation by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β,IL-6,IL-10, TNF-α), alleviate the abnormal changes of antioxidative indicators (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px), and down-regulate the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-3. The results indicated that CISCFE was a novel photoprotective agent from natural resources against UV irradiation.
Article
Full-text available
Positive health effects of integral cereals consuming is attributed to bioactive substances. This research is conducted to test antioxidant water extract capacity of different kinds of cereals, compared to the values of total phenols. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by FRAP assay. The total phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Antioxidant capacity amounted 50,04-385,71 μmol Fe II /L of extract, and values of total phenols 2,95-20,35 mg GA equiv/L of extract on 20°C. The increase of temperature reaction (40°C) resulted in increased content of total phenols in extract and higher value of antioxidant capacity in all extracts. There was significant linear corelation between total phenolic content and FRAP.
Article
Full-text available
Using ESR spin-trapping techniques we measured the levels of free radical species generated from six different systems (hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase, iron(II)-hydrogen peroxide, iron(III)-hydrogen peroxide, iron(II)-t-butyl hydroperoxide, iron(III)-t-butyl hydroperoxide, and catalase (CAT)-t-butyl hydroperoxide). Six types of radicals (O2-., .OH, .H, .CH3, (CH3)3CO., and (CH3)3COO.) were detected as spin adducts of spin traps 5,5-dimethylpyrroline 1-oxide (DMPO) or 3,5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzene sulfonate (DBNBS). Quantitative analysis of the levels of generated radicals by means of an ESR instrument also presents important information regarding the reduction of peroxides [hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or t-butyl hydroperoxide (ROOH)] by iron(II) or iron(III) as well as catalase. In addition, the scavenging potencies of different water-soluble antioxidants such as L-ascorbic, D-isoascorbic, gallic, sorbic, and protocatechuic acids were evaluated in terms of their ability to reduce the peaks of spin adducts.
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated total phenolics and antioxidative activities of water extracts from different parts of Cudrania tricuspidata (specifically, the leaves, stems, roots, and fruits). The antioxidative activities of these samples were determined using five methods, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging, reducing power, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and -carotene/linoleic acid system. The water extract of leaves exhibited the higher DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activities, reducing power, and FRAP than water extract of stem, roots, and fruits. Inhibition values on linoleic oxidation of water extracts from leaves, stems, roots, and fruits were calculated as 45.98%, 33.03%, 39.73%, and 25.48% at 10 mg/mL, respectively. The water extract of C. tricuspidata leaves had the highest amount of toal phenolics (73.600.28 mg/g). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that quercetin is the predominant phenolic compound in water extract of leaves. Thus, our study verified that the water extract of leaves has strong antioxidant activities which are correlated with its high level of phenolic compounds, particularly quercetin. This water extract of C. tricuspidata leaves can be used as an effective and safe source of antioxidants.
Article
Full-text available
Total equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC) and phenolic contents of 32 spices extracts from 21 botanical families grown in Poland were investigated. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by the following methods: ABTS+ (2,2′azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) expressed as TEAC. The total phenolics were measured using a Folin–Ciocalteu assay. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were also used. Major phenolic acids identified in analyzed species were caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and neochlorogenic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. Myricetin was detected only in Epilobium hirsutum. Many investigated spices had high levels of phenolics and exhibited high antioxidant capacity. The TEAC values of the spices ranged from 1.76 to 346 μM trolox/100 g dw, from 7.34 to 2021 μM trolox/100 g dw, and 13.8 to 2133 μM trolox/100 g dw for ABTS+, DPPH and FRAP, respectively. The total phenolic content, measured using a Folin–Ciocalteu assay, ranged from 0.07 to 15.2 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g dw. The herbs with the highest TEAC values were Syzygium aromaticum, E. hirsutum and the species belonging to the Labiatae and Compositae family. A positive relationship between TEAC (ABTS+ and FRAP) values and total phenolic content, measured by HPLC, was found only in family groups with many representative herbs within Labiatae and Compositae.
Article
Full-text available
Aerial parts of Justicia spicigera are used in Mexican traditional medicine. Antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts obtained from leaf, stem and flower of J. spicigera and their contents of phenolic compounds and flavonoids were evaluated in this study. Antiradical activity was proven for the capacity to scavenge the DPPH radical of each extract. The amount of total phenolic compounds was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Total flavonoid content was evaluated with aluminum chloride under basic conditions. For a same plant organ, extracts prepared with methanol possess a higher antiradical activity than those obtained with water. The antiradical activity of leaf and flower extracts was superior to that found for the stem extract prepared with the same solvent. Total phenolic content ranged from 1.33-5.01 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g dry weight. Leaf and flower extracts obtained with methanol or water had higher amounts of phenolic compounds than stem extract. Total flavonoid content is between 0.18 and 1.30 g catechin equivalents/100 g dry weight and the order for methanol extracts is leaf>flower>stem, whereas for the aqueous extracts this sequence is stem>flower>leaf. This is the first study describing the antioxidant activity from J. spicigera . Phenolic compounds and flavonoids contribute to this activity. The results suggest that J. spicigera is a source of antioxidant and support its use as an anti-inflammatory for the treatment of uterine cancer and against various free radical-related disorders.
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the effects of Chrysanthemum indicum extract (CIE) on inhibition of proliferation and on apoptosis, and the underlying mechanisms, in a human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) MHCC97H cell line. Viable rat hepatocytes and human endothelial ECV304 cells were examined by trypan blue exclusion and MTT assay, respectively, as normal controls. The proliferation of MHCC97H cells was determined by MTT assay. The cellular morphology of MHCC97H cells was observed by phase contrast microscopy. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze cell apoptosis with annexin V/propidium iodide (PI), mitochondrial membrane potential with rhodamine 123 and cell cycle with PI in MHCC97H cells. Apoptotic proteins such as cytochrome C, caspase-9, caspase-3 and cell cycle proteins, including P21 and CDK4, were measured by Western blotting. CIE inhibited proliferation of MHCC97H cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes and human endothelial cells. CIE induced apoptosis of MHCC97H cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as determined by flow cytometry. The apoptosis was accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome C and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. CIE arrested the cell cycle in the S phase by increasing P21 and decreasing CDK4 protein expression. CIE exerted a significant apoptotic effect through a mitochondrial pathway and arrested the cell cycle by regulation of cell cycle-related proteins in MHCC97H cells without an effect on normal cells. The cancer-specific selectivity shown in this study suggests that the plant extract could be a promising novel treatment for human cancer.
Article
Full-text available
Cytotoxicity of erythromycin base, erythromycin estolate, erythromycin-11,12-cyclic carbonate, roxithromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin was compared in cultured human non-malignant Chang liver cells using reduction of 3-{4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and cellular protein concentration as end points of toxicity. Erythromycin estolate was the most toxic macrolide in all tests differing clearly from all the other macrolides studied. Erythromycin-11,12-cyclic carbonate was also more toxic than the other macrolides. Roxithromycin and clarithromycin were the next toxic derivatives, while erythromycin base and azithromycin were least toxic. Thus, cytotoxicity of the new semisynthetic macrolides, roxithromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin, is not substantially different from that of erythromycin base. In view of the low level of hepatotoxicity of macrolides hitherto reported in humans, the results do not suggest any substantial risk for hepatic disorders related to the use of azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin.
Article
Full-text available
Flavonoids are nearly ubiquitous in plants and are recognized as the pigments responsible for the colors of leaves, especially in autumn. They are rich in seeds, citrus fruits, olive oil, tea, and red wine. They are low molecular weight compounds composed of a three-ring structure with various substitutions. This basic structure is shared by tocopherols (vitamin E). Flavonoids can be subdivided according to the presence of an oxy group at position 4, a double bond between carbon atoms 2 and 3, or a hydroxyl group in position 3 of the C (middle) ring. These characteristics appear to also be required for best activity, especially antioxidant and antiproliferative, in the systems studied. The particular hydroxylation pattern of the B ring of the flavonoles increases their activities, especially in inhibition of mast cell secretion. Certain plants and spices containing flavonoids have been used for thousands of years in traditional Eastern medicine. In spite of the voluminous literature available, however, Western medicine has not yet used flavonoids therapeutically, even though their safety record is exceptional. Suggestions are made where such possibilities may be worth pursuing.
Article
Flavonoids are nearly ubiquitous in plants and are recognized as the pigments responsible for the colors of leaves, especially in autumn. They are rich in seeds, citrus fruits, olive oil, tea, and red wine. They are low molecular weight compounds composed of a three-ring structure with various substitutions. This basic structure is shared by tocopherols (vitamin E). Flavonoids can be subdivided according to the presence of an oxy group at position 4, a double bond between carbon atoms 2 and 3, or a hydroxyl group in position 3 of the C (middle) ring. These characteristics appear to also be required for best activity, especially antioxidant and antiproliferative, in the systems studied. The particular hydroxylation pattern of the B ring of the flavonoles increases their activities, especially in inhibition of mast cell secretion. Certain plants and spices containing flavonoids have been used for thousands of years in traditional Eastern medicine. In spite of the voluminous literature available, however, Western medicine has not yet used flavonoids therapeutically, even though their safety record is exceptional. Suggestions are made where such possibilities may be worth pursuing.
Article
AIM: To investigate the effects of Chrysanthemum indicum extract (CIE) on inhibition of proliferation and on apoptosis, and the underlying mechanisms, in a human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) MHCC97H cell line. METHODS: Viable rat hepatocytes and human endothelial ECV304 cells were examined by trypan blue exclusion and MTT assay, respectively, as normal controls. The proliferation of MHCC97H cells was determined by MTT assay. The cellular morphology of MHCC97H cells was observed by phase contrast microscopy. Flow cytometry was performed to analyze cell apoptosis with annexin V/propidium iodide (PI), mitochondrial membrane potential with rhodamine 123 and cell cycle with PI in MHCC97H cells. Apoptotic proteins such as cytochrome C, caspase-9, caspase-3 and cell cycle proteins, including P21 and CDK4, were measured by Western blotting. RESULTS: CIE inhibited proliferation of MHCC97H cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes and human endothelial cells. CIE induced apoptosis of MHCC97H cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as determined by flow cytometry. The apoptosis was accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome C and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. CIE arrested the cell cycle in the S phase by increasing P21 and decreasing CDK4 protein expression. CONCLUSION: CIE exerted a significant apoptotic effect through a mitochondrial pathway and arrested the cell cycle by regulation of cell cycle-related proteins in MHCC97H cells without an effect on normal cells. The cancer-specific selectivity shown in this study suggests that the plant extract could be a promising novel treatment for human cancer.
Article
Perilla frutescens is a common traditional Chinese medicinal plant used to treat a variety of diseases. The methanolic extracts from different parts of P. frutescens were evaluated for their antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. The antioxidant activities of P. frutescens were evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging methods. Reducing power, metal chelating ability, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were also detected. In all the tested models, the methanolic extracts of stalk, leaf and seed of P. frutescens showed their ability to scavenge the free radicals, reducing power and chelating capacity in a does-dependent manner. The antiproliferative activities of methanolic extracts from different parts of P. frutescens were also studied in vitro by using human non-small cell lung A549 cancer cells. The methanolic extract of stalk exhibited moderate antiproliferative activity. The methanolic extract of stalk had higher antioxidant and antiproliferative activities than of leaf and seed. These results indicated that stalk of P. frutescens might be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants and as an anti-tumor agent.
Article
We have evaluated the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of the water extract of Mume Fructus by applying various in vitro assays. We have determined total phenolic and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl radical (OH•), superoxide radical (O2-•) and nitrite scavenging activities, inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and reducing power activity. The extract exhibited high scavenging activities on DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals with the IC50 of 0.40, 0.36, 1.75 and 1.60 mg/mL, respectively. The extract also showed nitrite scavenging and reducing power activity in a dose-dependent manner. It inhibited 69.42% of linoleic acid oxidation at the concentration of 0.4 mg/mL. Owing to have high antioxidant activity, the water extract of Mume Fructus may serve as a new dietary supplement. Mume Fructus has been used as a medicine in China, Korea and Japan. It has been reported that the water extract of Mume Fructus is able to inhibit pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. The fruit has been used for stomachic, alexipharmic expectorant and eye pain and skin disease since before. People also used fruits as folk medicine for fever, cough and intestinal disorder, etc. Dried fruits have been used for thirst, refrigerant, laxative. In addition, previous reporters showed the inhibitory activities of fruit juice against Helicobacter pylori motility, human influenza disease as well as proliferation of cancer cells. In this context, we studied antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities of Mume Fructus in vitro. The results of this study suggest that it may have potential as new source of natural antioxidant and dietary supplement.
Article
The objective of this study was to characterise the antioxidant properties of both water and ethanol extracts from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJE). The IC50 values for DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl), ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)diammonium salt], hydroxyl and superoxide radical-scavenging activities were 0.14, 0.21, 1.08 and 1.43 mg/ml for the water-based extract, and 0.36, 0.39, 1.56 and 1.99 mg/ml for the ethanol-based extract, respectively. The extracts also showed strong reducing power, nitrite-scavenging activity, inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation, superoxide dismutase-like (SOD-like) activity and catalase activity. However, the water extract had a higher antioxidant activity than the ethanol extract. In addition, the antioxidant activities were highly correlated with the observed phenolic and flavonoid contents. Therefore, our study strongly suggests that extracts derived from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides could be an excellent source of antioxidants as dietary supplements.
Article
Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds, diverse in chemical structure and characteristics, found ubiquitously in plants. Therefore, flavonoids are part of the human diet. Over 4,000 different flavonoids have been identified within the major flavonoid classes which include flavonols, flavones, flavanones, catechins, anthocyanidins, isoflavones, dihydroflavonols, and chalcones. Flavonoids are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals and are excreted either unchanged or as flavonoid metabolites in the urine and feces. Flavonoids are potent antioxidants, free radical scavengers, and metal chelators and inhibit lipid peroxidation. The structural requirements for the antioxidant and free radical scavenging functions of flavonoids include a hydroxyl group in carbon position three, a double bond between carbon positions two and three, a carbonyl group in carbon position four, and polyhydroxylation of the A and B aromatic rings. Epidemiological studies show an inverse correlation between dietary flavonoid intake and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) which is explained in part by the inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation and reduced platelet aggregability. Dietary intake of flavonoids range between 23 mg/day estimated in The Netherlands and 170 mg/day estimated in the USA. Major dietary sources of flavonoids determined from studies and analyses conducted in The Netherlands include tea, onions, apples, and red wine. More research is needed for further elucidation of the mechanisms of flavonoid absorption, metabolism, biochemical action, and association with CHD.
Article
Water and methanol extracts of persimmon leaf tea were studied for antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities. Antioxidant activity was measured using a β-carotene bleaching method. The activity of water extract was very strong and 0.125% higher than that of 10 mM ascorbic acid. The scavenging activity against superoxide anion radicals by methanol extract was stronger than that of the water extract, while 0.05% concentration of methanol extract showed about 50% inhibition. DPPH radical-scavenging activity of water and methanol extracts was strong, and 0.1% water extract showed more than 90% inhibition. The hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity of the extracts, at 1%, was nearly equal to that of 1 mM ascorbic acid. These results show that persimmon leaf tea could be considered as a natural antioxidant source.
Article
There is currently much interest in phytochemicals as bioactive components of food. The roles of fruit, vegetables and red wine in disease prevention have been attributed, in part, to the antioxidant properties of their constituent polyphenols (vitamins E and C, and the carotenoids). Recent studies have shown that many dietary polyphenolic constituents derived from plants are more effective antioxidants in vitro than vitamins E or C, and thus might contribute significantly to the protective effects in vivo. It is now possible to establish the antioxidant activities of plant-derived flavonoids in the aqueous and lipophilic phases, and to assess the extent to which the total antioxidant potentials of wine and tea can be accounted for by the activities of individual polyphenols.
Article
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of the bamboo oil on antioxidative activity and nitrite scavenging activity in vitro and in vivo. When the bamboo oil concentration was increased from 10 to 90μL/mL, the DPPH scavenging rate increased from 15.6 to 98.2%. However, at bamboo oil concentrations above 110μL/mL, it was not increased. The superoxide anion radical scavenging rate increased from 54.8 to 89.1% when the bamboo oil concentration increased from 110 to 150μL/mL. When the bamboo oil was incubated for 20h, the linoleic acid scavenging rate was approximately 91.2%, similar to that of ascorbic acid. The glutathione production using bamboo oil in vivo was 59.0μM/g of liver, which was about 6.5-fold higher than that of the control. In the case of the activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase, they were 16.8U/mg of protein and 295KU/mg of protein, respectively, approximately 5.6-fold higher and 3.0-fold higher than that of the control. The nitrite scavenging activity was increased from 60.1 to 93.9% at pH of 1.2 when the saturation time was increased from 2 months to 8 months. However, at more than 10 months of saturation, this level was not increased. These results suggest that the bamboo oil of Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis can be used in bioactive and functional materials.
Article
Antioxidant activities of the water extract of the four Harng Jyur (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat) varieties, which are commonly known as Huang Harng Jyur (HHJ), Bai Harng Jyur (BHJ), Gan Harng Jyur (GHJ), and Kung Harng Jyur (KHJ), were evaluated in soybean oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions after an accelerated oxidation at 60°C, which were examined by peroxide values and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) tests. Results showed that the various soybean oil emulsions containing the water extract of the four Harng Jyur varieties were significantly (p
Article
Nineteen flavonoids, five phenolics, two coumarins, maltol and L-ascorbic acid were tested as scavenger of nitrite which is believed to participate in the formation of N-nitroso compounds. Many were found to be potent scavenger and the five most potent ones were (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, phloroglucinol, caffeic acid and L-ascorbic acid. The nitrite scavenging effect was higher at pH 1.2 than pH 3.0 and increased when the incubation time was longer. The possible relationship of structures to scavenging effect of the flavonoids tested was discussed.
Article
De-odourised aqueous extracts of four commonly consumed herbs belonging to the Lamiaceae family, i.e. oregano (Origanum vulgaris L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), were investigated for their antioxidant properties. Various experimental models were used for the characterisation of the activity, including iron reduction capacity, DPPH, ABTS+ and OH radical-scavenging activities and the capacity of the extracts to inhibit copper-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins (LDL) ex vivo. The extracts showed varying degrees of reductive and radical scavenging capacity, and were capable of a marked prolongation of the lag-time in the LDL oxidation assay. The hierarchy of the observed antioxidant activity of the extracts was dependent on the type of assay used. The observed antioxidant characteristics were not fully related to the total phenolic contents of the extracts in any of the assays, but were presumably strongly dependent on rosmarinic acid, the major phenolic component present in this type of Lamiaceae extract.
Article
The antioxidant activity of water extracts of Harng Jyur (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat) from four varieties, including Huang Harng Jyur (HHJ), Bai Harng Jyur (BHJ), Gan Harng Jyur (GHJ), and Kung Harng Jyur (KHJ), was investigated. The water extracts of the four Harng Jyur varieties showed strong antioxidant activity in linoleic acid and liposome model systems. Each extract at 20 mg exhibited 65.3–71.8% inhibition on malondialdehyde formation of rat liver homogenate in vitro, greater than 20 mg of tocopherol. A correlation established between the total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, yielded a coefficient of r2=0.934, 0.997, 0.758 and 0.983 for HHJ, BHJ, GHJ and KHJ respectively. Each extract of the four Harng Jyur varieties had effective activities as radical scavengers, metal chelators, and active oxygen scavengers. These properties may be the major reasons for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Of the four varieties, BHJ was the most significant antioxidative material. No mutagenicity in the four varieties was found in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98, either with or without S9 mix.
Article
Bibliogr. na konci kapitol
Article
A revised sequence in the region immediately upstream from the rop gene of pBR322 is reported. Two base pairs in the accepted sequence do not exist in the plasmid DNA. Specifically, a TA base pair is missing at sequence coordinate 1893 [Sutcliffe, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 43 (1979) 77-90] and an AT base pair is missing at position 1915, giving a total size for pBR322 of 4361 bp. These changes are in a potential translation initiation sequence and probably reflect errors in the original sequence rather than recent evolution of the plasmid.
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the free radical scavenging activities and the chemical structures of tea catechins ((-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC)) and their corresponding epimers ((-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), (-)-gallocatechin (GC) and (+)-catechin ((+)-C)). With electron spin resonance (ESR) we investigated their scavenging effects on superoxide anions (O-.2) generated in the irradiated riboflavin system, singlet oxygen(1O2) generated in the photoradiation-hemoporphyrin system, the free radicals generated from 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)hydrochloride (AAPH) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The results showed that the scavenging effects of galloylated catechins (EGCG and GCG) on the four free radicals were stronger than those of nongalloylated catechins (EGC, GC, EC, (+)-C), and the scavenging effects of EGC and GC were stronger than those of EC and (+)-C. Thus, it is suggested that the presence of the gallate group at the 3 position plays the most important role in their free radical-scavenging abilities and an additional insertion of the hydroxyl group at the 5' position in the B ring also contributes to their scavenging activities. Moreover, the corresponding phenoxyl radicals formed after the reaction with O-.2 were trapped by DMPO and the ESR spectra of DMPO/phenoxyl radical adducts were observed (aN=15.6 G and aHbeta=21.5 G). No significant differences were found between the scavenging effects of the catechins and their epimers when their concentrations were high. However, significant differences were observed at relatively low concentrations, and the lower their concentrations, the higher the differences. The scavenging abilities of GCG, GC and (+)-C were stronger than those of their corresponding epimers (EGCG, EGC and EC). The differences between their sterical structures played a more important role in their abilities to scavenge large free radicals, such as the free radicals generated from AAPH and the DPPH radical, than to scavenge small free radicals, such as O-.2 and 1O2, especially in the case with EGCG and GCG with more bulky steric hindrance.
Article
The antioxidative activity of a total of 92 phenolic extracts from edible and nonedible plant materials (berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, cereals, tree materials, plant sprouts, and seeds) was examined by autoxidation of methyl linoleate. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Among edible plant materials, remarkable high antioxidant activity and high total phenolic content (GAE > 20 mg/g) were found in berries, especially aronia and crowberry. Apple extracts (two varieties) showed also strong antioxidant activity even though the total phenolic contents were low (GAE < 12.1 mg/g). Among nonedible plant materials, high activities were found in tree materials, especially in willow bark, spruce needles, pine bark and cork, and birch phloem, and in some medicinal plants including heather, bog-rosemary, willow herb, and meadowsweet. In addition, potato peel and beetroot peel extracts showed strong antioxidant effects. To utilize these significant sources of natural antioxidants, further characterization of the phenolic composition is needed.
Article
Three essential oils from three samples: fresh, air-dried and processed flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC-MS. The results show that major constituents of the three oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol and bornyl acetate, but the percentage of these compounds varied greatly because of the processing of flowers. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils from air-dried and processed flowers was evaluated against 15 microorganisms including three yeasts and seven clinical isolated strains using disc paper and broth microdilution methods. Our results show that both essential oils possessed significant antimicrobial effect, however, some difference in antimicrobial activity between two oils was observed for several microorganisms, which was attributed to the variation in percentage of the components. With higher percentage of camphor, the oil of the processed flowers exhibited, in many cases, greater bacteriostatic activity than that of the air-dried ones.
Article
Chrysanthemum indicum Linné (CI) has a long history for the treatment of inflammation, hypertension and respiratory diseases in China. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of the inflorescence or bud of CI extracts. The ethanol extract of CI (CIEE) was fractionated to a petroleum ether soluble fraction (CIPF), an ethyl acetate soluble fraction (CIEF), a butanol soluble fraction (CIBF) and a water soluble fraction (CIWF) successively. CIBF (150 mg/kg, p.o.) caused a significant inhibition on the auricle edema in mice. CIBF (150, 300 mg/kg, p.o.) not only significantly increased the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction induced by 2,4-dinitro-fluorobenzene (DNFB) but also significantly enhanced antibody generation by splenic cells of mice and IgG and IgM levels in mice sera in response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced mice. Furthermore, CIBF (150, 300 mg/kg, p.o.) obviously potentiated the function of the mononuclear phagocytic system in CP-induced mice. The above results reveal that CIBF possesses anti-inflammatory, humoral and cellular immunomodulatory and mononuclear phagocytic activities, probably due to the presence of flavonoids.
Article
The processed green tea leaves were irradiated by far-infrared (FIR) at eight temperatures (80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, and 150 degrees C) for 10 min. After FIR irradiation, green teas were prepared by soaking the leaves in boiling water, and the physicochemical characteristics of the green tea were determined. FIR irradiation at 90 degrees C increased total phenol contents of green tea from 244.7 to 368.5 mg/g and total flavanol contents from 122.0 to 178.7 mg/g, compared with non-irradiated control. FIR irradiation also significantly affected the amounts of epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin gallate. Nitrite scavenging activity also increased with increasing FIR irradiation until the temperature reached 110 degrees C. However, the overall color changes of green tea irradiated with FIR at 90 and 100 degrees C were negligible. These results indicate that the chemical quality of green tea is significantly affected by FIR irradiation temperature of the green tea leaves.
Article
The ethanol and methanol extracts of Cassia auriculata flowers were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The ethanol and methanol extracts of C. auriculata flowers showed antioxidant activity in both assays.
Effectof far-infraredirradiationoncatechinsandnitritescavenging activityof greentea
  • S Y Lee
  • S Y Kim
  • S M Jeong
  • J H Andpark
LEE,S.Y.,KIM,S.Y.,JEONG,S.M.andPARK,J.H.2006.Effectof far-infraredirradiationoncatechinsandnitritescavenging activityof greentea.J.Agric.FoodChem.54,399–403
Anti-inflammatory andimmunomodulatoryactivitiesof theextractsfromthe inflorescenceof ChrysanthemumindicumLinné
  • W Cheng
  • J Li
  • T You
  • C Andhu
CHENG,W.,LI,J.,YOU,T.andHU,C.2005.Anti-inflammatory andimmunomodulatoryactivitiesof theextractsfromthe inflorescenceof ChrysanthemumindicumLinné.J
Theinfluenceof totalphenolscontentonantioxidantcapacityinthewhole grainextracts
  • Z Hodzic
  • H Pasalic
  • A Memisevic
  • M Srabovic
  • M Saletovic
  • M Andpoljakovic
HODZIC,Z.,PASALIC,H.,MEMISEVIC,A.,SRABOVIC,M., SALETOVIC,M.andPOLJAKOVIC,M.2009.Theinfluenceof totalphenolscontentonantioxidantcapacityinthewhole grainextracts.Eur.J.Sci.Res.28,471–477
Inductionof apoptosisandcellcyclearrestin humanHCCMHCC97HcellswithChrysanthemumindicum extract
  • Z- F Li
  • Z D Wang
  • Y- Ji
  • Y Zhang
  • S Huang
  • C Li
  • J Xia
LI,Z-F.,WANG,Z-D.,JI,Y-Y.,ZHANG,S.,HUANG,C.,LI,J.and XIA,X-M.2009.Inductionof apoptosisandcellcyclearrestin humanHCCMHCC97HcellswithChrysanthemumindicum extract.WorldJ.Gastroenterol.15,4538–4546
Effectof bamboooilon antioxidativeactivityandnitritescavengingactivityNitritescavenging effectbyflavonoidsanditsstructure-effectrelationshipFlavonoids-Chemistry, metabolism,cardioprotectiveeffects,anddietarysourcesAntioxidantactivityof mumefructusextract
  • Ethnopharmacol
  • D Choi
  • K A Cho
  • M S Na
  • H Choi
  • S Kim
  • Y-O Lim
  • D H Cho
  • S J Andcho
  • H Choi
  • J S Park
  • S H Andchoi
  • J-H Debnath
  • T Bak
  • J P Samad
  • N B Jin
  • H L Lee
  • B R Lim
Ethnopharmacol.101,334–337. CHOI,D.,CHO,K-A.,NA,M.S.,CHOI,H-S.,KIM,Y-O.,LIM, D-H.,CHO,S.J.andCHO,H.2008.Effectof bamboooilon antioxidativeactivityandnitritescavengingactivity.J.Ind.Eng. Chem.14,765–770. CHOI,J.S.,PARK,S.H.andCHOI,J-H.1989.Nitritescavenging effectbyflavonoidsanditsstructure-effectrelationship.Arch. Pharm.Res.12,26–33. COOK,N.C.andSAMMAN,S.1996.Flavonoids-Chemistry, metabolism,cardioprotectiveeffects,anddietarysources.J. Nutr.Biochem.7,66–76. DEBNATH,T.,BAK,J.P.,SAMAD,N.B.,JIN,H.L.,LEE,B.R.and LIM,B.O.2010.Antioxidantactivityof mumefructusextract.J
Antioxidant defense system in vegetable extracts
  • N Ochi
  • H Takeuchi
  • M 3 Cytotoxicity Effect Of Ethanol Extract From Chrysanthemum Indicum Flower
  • Cif
  • With
  • Concentrations In Chang Liver Cell
  • Control Was Made Without Extract
  • Each Value Is Expressed As Mean
  • Standard
  • Significant
  • T Antioxidant Activity Of Chrysanthemum Indicum Extracts
  • Debnath Et Al
  • C A Rice-Evans
  • N J Miller
  • G Paganga
RAMARATHNAM, N., OCHI, H. and TAKEUCHI, M. 1997. Antioxidant defense system in vegetable extracts. In Natural Antioxidants Chemistry, Health Effects, and Applications (F. Shahidi, ed.) pp. 76–87, AOCS Press, Champaign, IL. FIG. 3. CYTOTOXICITY EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT FROM CHRYSANTHEMUM INDICUM FLOWER (CIF) WITH VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS IN CHANG LIVER CELL. CONTROL WAS MADE WITHOUT EXTRACT. EACH VALUE IS EXPRESSED AS MEAN Ϯ STANDARD DEVIATION (N = 6). STATISTICAL COMPARISONS WERE MADE WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF THE ETHANOL EXTRACT VERSUS THE CONTROL (NO SIGNIFICANT) ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CHRYSANTHEMUM INDICUM EXTRACTS T. DEBNATH ET AL. RICE-EVANS, C.A., MILLER, N.J. and PAGANGA, G. 1997. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends Plant Sci. 2, 152–159.
total phenolics and flavonoids content of Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS as affected by growth regulators
  • Micropropagation
Micropropagation, antioxidant activity, total phenolics and flavonoids content of Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS as affected by growth regulators. I.J.A.R. 2, 184–191.
  • A D Bates
BATES, A.D. and MAXWELL, A. 2005. DNA Topology, pp. 26–43, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Antioxidant activity of mume fructus extract
  • T Bak
  • J P Samad
  • N B Jin
  • H L Lee
DEBNATH, T., BAK, J.P., SAMAD, N.B., JIN, H.L., LEE, B.R. and LIM, B.O. 2010. Antioxidant activity of mume fructus extract. J. Food Biochem. (in press) doi:10.1111/j.1745-4514.2010. 00529.x.