Vav1 and PI3K are required for phagocytosis of β-glucan and subsequent superoxide generation by microglia
Division of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, 500W 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, United States. Molecular Immunology
(Impact Factor: 2.97).
03/2009; 46(8-9):1845-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2009.01.014
Microglia are the resident innate immune cells that are critical for innate and adaptive immune responses within the CNS. They recognize and are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) present on the surface of pathogens. beta-glucans, the major PAMP present within fungal cell walls, are recognized by Dectin-1, which mediates numerous intracellular events invoked by beta-glucans in various immune cells. Previously, we showed that Dectin-1 mediates phagocytosis of beta-glucan and subsequent superoxide production in microglia. Here, we report that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1 as well as phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) are downstream mediators of what is now recognized as the Dectin-1 signaling pathway. Both Vav1 and PI3K are activated upon stimulation of microglia with beta-glucans, and the two proteins are required for phagocytosis of the glucan particles and for subsequent superoxide production. We also show that Vav1 functions upstream of PI3K and is required for activation of PI3K. Together, our results provide an important insight into the mechanistic aspects of microglial activation in response to beta-glucans.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Activated phospholipase C γ (PLCγ) produces inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol (DAG) (28). Also, Syk activates the PI3K/Akt pathway, MAPK, NFAT, and NF-κB (29). "
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ABSTRACT: β-Glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides that are produced by bacteria, yeast, fungi, and many plants. Although their pharmacological activities, such as immunomodulatory, anti-infective and anti-cancer effects, have been well studied, it is still unclear how β-glucans exert their activities. However, recent studies on the β-glucan receptors shed some light on their mechanism of action. Since β-glucans have large molecular weights, they must bind surface receptors to activate immune cells. In this review, we summarize the immunopharmacological activities and the potential receptors of β-glucans in immune cells.
Available from: Alessandra Cambi
- "On MΦs, the beta-glucan receptor Dectin-1 has been shown to mediate binding and uptake of non-opsonized zymosan , . However, similarly to FcγR, Dectin-1 also has an ITAM motif that is phosphorylated upon receptor engagement and can act as docking site for PI3K . Furthermore, binding and phagocytosis of non-opsonized zymosan was negligible under our experimental conditions. "
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ABSTRACT: Phagocytosis is a complex process that involves membranelipid remodeling and the attraction and retention of key effector proteins. Phagosome phenotype depends on the type of receptor engaged and can be influenced by extracellular signals. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a cytokine that induces the alternative activation of macrophages (MΦs) upon prolonged exposure, triggering a different cell phenotype that has an altered phagocytic capacity. In contrast, the direct effects of IL-4 during phagocytosis remain unknown. Here, we investigate the impact of short-term IL-4 exposure (1 hour) during phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized yeast particles by MΦs. By time-lapse confocal microscopy of GFP-tagged lipid-sensing probes, we show that IL-4 increases the negative charge of the phagosomal membrane by prolonging the presence of the negatively charged second messenger PI(3,4,5)P3. Biochemical assays reveal an enhanced PI3K/Akt activity upon phagocytosis in the presence of IL-4. Blocking the specific class I PI3K after the onset of phagocytosis completely abrogates the IL-4-induced changes in lipid remodeling and concomitant membrane charge. Finally, we show that IL-4 direct signaling leads to a significantly prolonged retention profile of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Rab5 to the phagosomal membrane in a PI3K-dependent manner. This protracted early phagosome phenotype suggests an altered maturation, which is supported by the delayed phagosome acidification measured in the presence of IL-4. Our findings reveal that molecular differences in IL-4 levels, in the extracellular microenvironment, influence the coordination of lipid remodeling and protein recruitment, which determine phagosome phenotype and, eventually, fate. Endosomal and phagosomal membranes provide topological constraints to signaling molecules. Therefore, changes in the phagosome phenotype modulated by extracellular factors may represent an additional mechanism that regulates the outcome of phagocytosis and could have significant impact on the net biochemical output of a cell.
Available from: Derrick J Coble
- "The MIP-1β signals regulate movement of monocytes and T lymphocytes (Sherry et al., 1988); therefore, changes in expression could cause changes in splenic cell populations. It has been found that PI3K generates molecules involved in directed movement of leukocyte cell membranes in chemotaxis and phagocytosis (Heit et al., 2008) and has been implicated in the dectin-1-mediated response to β-glucans in mice (Shah et al., 2009). "
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ABSTRACT: Nutritional modulation of the immune system is an often exploited but poorly characterized process. In chickens and other food production animals, dietary enhancement of the immune response is an attractive alternative to antimicrobial use. A yeast cell wall component, beta-1,3/1,6-glucan, augments the response to disease in poultry and other species; however, the mechanism of action is not clear. Ascorbic acid and corticosterone are better characterized immunomodulators. In chickens, the spleen acts both as reservoir and activation site for leukocytes and, therefore, splenic gene expression reflects systemic immune function. To determine effects of genetic line and dietary immunomodulators, chickens of outbred broiler and inbred Leghorn and Fayoumi lines were fed either a basal diet or an experimental diet containing beta-glucans, ascorbic acid, or corticosterone from 56 to 77 d of age. Spleens were harvested, mRNA was isolated, and expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-18, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta, interferon-gamma, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110gamma transcripts was measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Effects of diet, genetic line, sex, and diet x genetic line interaction on weight gain and gene expression were analyzed. At 1, 2, and 3 wk after starting the diet treatments, birds fed the corticosterone diet had gained less weight compared with birds fed the other diets (P < 0.001). Sex affected expression of IL-18 (P = 0.010), with higher levels in males. There was a significant interaction between genetic line and diet on expression of IL-4, IL-6, and IL-18 (P = 0.021, 0.006, and 0.026, respectively). Broiler line gene expression did not change in response to the experimental diet. Splenic expression of IL-6 was higher in Leghorns fed the basal or ascorbic acid diets, rather than the beta-glucan or corticosterone diets, whereas the opposite relationship was observed in the Fayoumi line. Expression of IL-4 and IL-18 responded to diet only within the Fayoumi line. The differential splenic expression of birds from diverse genetic lines in response to nutritional immunomodulation emphasizes the need for further study of this process.
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