ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

The effect of Bulgarian product Vemoherb-T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris) on some characteristics of the reproductive capacity of Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) was studied. A trial was conducted with 30 Pearl-gray Guinea fowls, at the age of 32 weeks, divided in two groups, 12 female and 3 male each. The birds from the two groups were fed the same mixture. The experimental group received the tested product once daily in a dose 10 mg/kg body weight for 12 weeks. The laying intensity, egg morphology and fertility, the weight of testes and ovaries were controlled. It was found a higher laying intensity (P<0.05), similarly higher egg weight (P<0.001), yolk weight (P<0.01), left testes weight (P<0.05) and egg fertility in the experimental group. No significant differences about egg white weight and yolk color between the both groups were found.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry 26 (3-4), p 259-266, 2010 ISSN 1450-9156
Publisher: Institute for Animal Husbandry, Belgrade-Zemun UDC 636.087.8
DOI:10.2298/BAH1004259N
INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF Tribulus terrestris
EXTRACT ON SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF THE
REPRODUCTIVE CAPACITY OF GUINEA FOWL
M. Nikolova
1
, S. Grigorova
2
, D. Abadjieva
2
, D. Penkov
1
1
Agricultural University – Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2
Institute of Animal Science – Kostinbrod, Bulgaria
Corresponding author: dessi_l@abv.bg
Original scientific paper
Abstract: The effect of Bulgarian product Vemoherb-T (dry extract of
Tribulus terrestris) on some characteristics of the reproductive capacity of Guinea
fowl (Numida meleagris) was studied. A trial was conducted with 30 Pearl-gray
Guinea fowls, at the age of 32 weeks, divided in two groups, 12 female and 3 male
each. The birds from the two groups were fed the same mixture. The experimental
group received the tested product once daily in a dose 10 mg/kg body weight for 12
weeks. The laying intensity, egg morphology and fertility, the weight of testes and
ovaries were controlled. It was found a higher laying intensity (P<0.05), similarly
higher egg weight (P<0.001), yolk weight (P<0.01), left testes weight (P<0.05) and
egg fertility in the experimental group. No significant differences about egg white
weight and yolk color between the both groups were found.
Key words: Guinea fowl, Tribulus terrestris, egg production, egg fertility
Introduction
The use of synthetic hormones as stimulators of reproductive performance
in animal husbandry practice has a negative cumulative effect in animal products
meant for the market. Therefore, their further use is not preferable because of the
detrimental effect on human health. An alternative of synthetic hormones is the use
of plant extracts. They are seen as natural feed additives, have been generally
proven effective, non-toxic and well accepted by the public. Plants can produce
phytochemicals with sex enhancing potency, able to stimulate reproductive
performance of animals and birds. Semerdjiev et al. (2008) reported a positive
effect of the product “Xtract” (multifunctional feed additive, which contains the
following plant substances: Capsacin, cinnaldehyde and calvacrol) on egg fertility
in hens. Bulgarian nutritional additive “Ovocap”, which contains capsacin,
carotene and other biologically substances improved the reproductive parameters in
cows (Petkova et al.,2008) hens and turkeys (Kitanov et al., 2003).
M. Nikolova et al.
260
The extract of the herb Tribulus terrestris is one of the most popular
phytoproducts, which contains saponins of the furostanol type, termed
protodioscin. During the recent years experiments with various farm animals (rams,
pigs, cocks, rabbits) proved the beneficial effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on
sperm quality, sexual behavior and fertilizing ability of sperm. However, there are
no reports in the available literature concerning the effect of Tribulus terrestris
extract on other fowl species (except hens).
The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of the product Vemoherb
T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris L), produced by Vemo Ltd, Sofia, Bulgaria on
some characteristics of breeder Guinea fowls reproductive capacity.
Materials and Methods
The present study was carried out in the period April-June - 2008 at the
Experimental center of Animal Science Department, Agricultural University -
Plovdiv with 30 Pearl gray Guinea fowls at the age of 32 weeks, raised under
extensive conventional method of production on a deep litter pen. The poultry were
randomly divided in two groups – control and experimental, 12 female and 3 male
each. The trial lasted 13 weeks – one week adaptation and 12 weeks experimental
period. All birds received the same mixture for breeder Guinea fowls, containing
17.17% crude protein, 4.21% crude fat, 5.41% crude fibre and 11.80MJ/kg
metabolizable energy. The nutritive value of the diet was determined by the
Weende method. The experimental diet was supplemented with Bulgarian product
Vemoherb-T in a dose of 10mg/kg body weight for a period of 12 weeks.
Daily laying intensity and capacity were controlled throughout the trial.
Forty eggs from each group, laid within a few consecutive days were taken at the
beginning, in the middle and at the end of the experimental period and following
measurements were made:
- Egg weight, egg shell with the shell membrane taken as whole and egg
yolk were measured with electronic scales OHAUS – 2000 within 0.01g.
- The egg white weight was determined for greater precision in the following
way: the sum of the shell weight and the yolk weight was deducted from the value
of the egg weight.
- Form index was calculated by the formula: i=d/Dx100, where d is the small
egg diameter and D – the big egg diameter.
- Haugh unit was calculated by the formula: HU=100lg (h + 7.17 – 1.7W
0.37
) using his method (1937), where h is the height of the thick glair (in mm); W –
the egg weight.
-The shell thickness (in mm) without the shell membrane was measured by a
micrometer Amer 25EE.
Investigation of the effect ...
261
- The color of the yolk was measured visually (according to the 15 Roche
Color Fan having 15 degrees scale)
One hundred and twenty eggs from each group taken at the beginning (II
weeks) in the middle (VI weeks) and at the end (XII week) of the experimental
period were incubated by 37.7-37.8
o
C and 60% relative humidity. Egg fertility was
established on the 7
th
day of the embryonic development by ovoscoping.
The established date were statistically processed using Soft Ware product
Excel 7f .
Results and Discussion
The data about average value of laying intensity and laying capacity is pointed
in Table1. Figure1 shows the dynamics of laying intensity in Guinea fowls
throughout the experiment. The treated group had higher overall laying intensity
(P<0.05) and higher average value of laying capacity across the experimental
period. The obtained results are in agreement with the data of other authors
(Surdjiiska et al., 2005), who observed a tendency to increase the laying intensity
(P>0.05) in hens given Tribulus terrestris extract once daily with the diet in a dose
10mg/kg body weight for 20 days. At 7
th
and 8
th
weeks the experimental birds had
lower laying intensity than in control group. Grigorova (2008) reported similar
data in hens, receiving the same dose Tribulus extract with the diet for 11 weeks.
The lower laying intensity in the experimental group at 7
th
and 8
th
weeks relative to
control group could be due to physiological fatigue of the ovaries caused by the
supplemental Tribulus terrestris.
Table 1. Laying capacity and laying intensity in control and experimental groups (
x
±SE)
Control group Experimental group
Period
Laying
capacity egg
number/hen
Laying intensity
(%)
Laying capacity
egg
number/hen
Laying intensity
%
Adaptations
period
35.37 29.71 36.05 30.28
Experimental
period
55.67 66.17±2.55 67.33*** 71.10±2.65*
Significant: *** - P<0.001; ** - P<0.01; * - P< 0.05
M. Nikolova et al.
262
Laying Intensity, %
0,00
10,00
20,00
30,00
40,00
50,00
60,00
70,00
80,00
90,00
100,00
123456789101112
weeks
laying int.,
%
exper.
gr.
contr.
gr.
Figure 1. Laying intensity of Guinea fowls from control and experimental groups, %
Eggs morphological characteristics of the both groups are presented in Table
2 and in Table 3. The egg weight in the experimental group was higher (P<0.001)
throughout the whole trial than in control group. The treated group had higher yolk
weight at the middle (P<0.01) and at the end (P<0.001) of the trial. There are no
significant difference in the data about the egg white weight and yolk color
between the controls end the experimental groups. At the end of the trial was
observed the higher value of HU (P<0.05) in experimental birds, than in control
group. At the end of experimental period was found the increase of shell weight
(P< 0.001) and thickness (P<0.001) in treated birds in relation to the control group.
Probably the increased values of the above parameters are due to the effect of the
main improvement of the ovary activity and overall stimulation of vitality and
metabolism (Tomova, 1987).
The egg fertility and the weight of reproductive organs of the birds from
the both groups are pointed in Table 3. The very fact that the experimental birds
had 7.1% higher percent of fertile eggs, suggests that Tribulus extract had a
positive effect, but its share on male and female birds is not quite clear yet. Our
preliminary data indicating higher testes weight in experimental Guinea fowl cocks
suppose that the effect of Tribulus terrestris is more pronounced in cocks. This fact
is consistent with the finding that fertility established inheritance is transmited
through the father (Pimenov et al., 1983). An improvement off egg fertility in hens
receiving 10 mg/kg body weight Tribulus terrestris established of other authors
(Kashamov, 2008; Surdjiiska et al., 2005) too.
Investigation of the effect ...
263
Table 2. Egg weight and form index in control and experimental groups (
x
±SE)
Control group Experimental group
Items
Start of exp. Midle of
exp.
End of exp. Start of
exp.
Midle of
exp.
End of exp.
Egg weight, g 40.28±0.22 a
1
40.92± 0.22 a
2
39.61± 0.20 a
3
40.72±0.25a
1
43.80± 0.22 a
2
42.37± 0.33 a
3
Form index 74.44±0.29
с
1
А
1
В
1
75.57± 0.20
a
4
В
1
В
2
76.37± 0.20
с
2
А
1
В
2
73.72±0.25
с
1
А
2
73.95±0.33
a
4
А
3
75.57± 0.27
с
2
А
2
А
3
Significant: a, A - P<0.001; b, B - P<0.01; c, C - P<0.05
Table 3. Egg white weight, Haugh Units, yolk weight, yolk color (Roche), Egg shell weight
and egg shell thickness in control group and experimental group (
x
±SE)
Control group Experimental group
Items
Start of
exp.
Midle of
exp.
End of exp. Start of
exp.
Midle of
exp.
End of exp.
Egg white
weight, g
20.17±
0.35
21.05± 0.51 20.42±
0.42
20.24±
0.27b
1
22.62±
0.80b
1
c
3
20.44± 0.46c
3
Egg white, % 51.00±
0.67
51.48±
0 .89
51.03±
0.29b
2
51.05± 0.53 51.91±
0.84В
3
48.91± 0.56b
2
В
3
Haugh Units 94.61±
0.64
93.82± 0.41 94.20±
0.53c
4
95.18± 0.30 94.79± 0.44 95.62± 0.41c
4
Yolk weight, g 11.96±
0.14
12.00± 0.22 11.85±
0.43b
3
12.11±
0.14А
4
В
4
12.70± 0.21
В
4
13.19± 0.23
b
3
А
4
Yolk, % 29.30±
0.35
29.80± 0.41 29.83±
0.38 b
4
29.69± 0.34 28.94±
0.73В
5
31.61±
0.50b
4
В
5
Yolk color
Roche
12.04±
0.22
А
5
А
6
10.80± 0.27
А
5
С
1
9.88± 0.30
А
6
С
1
12.06± 0.19
А
7
А
8
10.91± 0.22
А
7
В
6
9.76± 0.25
В
6
А
8
Egg shell
weight, g
8.11± 0.15 7.83± 0.17 7.61±
0.18 a
5
8.17± 0.12 8.18±
0.12 А
9
8.84± 0.16a
5
А
9
Egg shell, % 19.62±
0.31
18.66± 0.37 19.10±
0.45
19.02± 0.25 19.15± 0.23 19.40± 0.32
Egg shell
thickness
0.54±
0.007
0.52± 0.007a
6
0.54±
0.007a
7
0.54± 0.007 0.54± 0.008a
6
0.56± 0.006 a
7
Significant: a, A - *** - P<0.001; b, B - ** P<0.01; c, C - * P<0.05
M. Nikolova et al.
264
Table 4. Egg fertility and weight of reproductive organs (
x
±SE) in control and experimental
groups
Control group Experimental group
Period
Eggs, n Fertility, % Eggs, n Fertility, %
Beginning of the trial 120 84.47 120 92.86*
Middle of the trial 120 89.74 120 97.37
End of the trial 120 89.19 120 95.16
Total 360 88.04 360 95.14***
Weight of reproductive organs
Control group Experimental group
Ovary n=6 Right testis
n=3
Left testis
n=3
Ovary
n=6
Right testis
n=3
Left testis
n=3
7.57±0.48 1.30±0.31 1.73±0.23* 7.73±0.95 1.58±0.12 2.67±0.1*
Significant: *** - P<0.001; ** - P<0.01; * - P< 0.05
Conclusion
The addition of 10 mg/kg body weight Vemoherb-T (dry extract of
Tribulus terrestris) to the forage of breeder Guinea fowls increased significantly
(P<0.05) laying intensity, egg weight (P<0.001), yolk weight (P<0.01), shell
weight (P<0.001) shell thickness (P< 0.001), Hu (P<0.05).
No significant differences were found about glair weight and yolk color
between the control and experimental groups. The tested product improved the egg
fertility.
It was found the higher testes weight in experimental Guinea fowl cocks.
Investigation of the effect ...
265
Istraživanje uticaja ekstrakta Tribulus terrestris na neke
reproduktivne osobine morki
M.Nikolova, S.Grigorova, D.Abadjieva, D.Penkov
Rezime
Uticaj bugarskog proizvoda Vemoherb-T (suvi ekstrakt biljke Tribulus
terrestris) na neke reproduktivne osobine morki (Numida meleagris) je bio
predmet istraživanja. Ogled je izveden na 30 biserno-sivih morki u uzrastu od 32
nedelje, koje su bile podeljene na dve grupe, 12 ženki i 3 mužjaka u svakoj grupi.
Ptice iz obe grupe su dobijale obrok koji se sastojao od iste smeše.
Eksperimentalna grupa je dobijala proizvod koji se testirao, jednom dnevno u dozi
od 10 mg/kg telesne mase u trajanju od 12 nedelja. Intenzitet nosivosti, morfologija
jaja i plodnost, težina testisa i jajnika su kontrolisani. Utvrđeno je da je nosivost
bila veća (P<0.05), kao i težina jaja (P<0.001), težina žumanceta (P<0.01), težina
levih testisa (P<0.05) i plodnost kod grla iz eksperimentalne grupe. Nije utvrđena
signifikantna razlika kod vrednosti težine belanceta i boji žumanceta između dve
grupe.
References
GRIGOROVA S. (2008): Investigation the effect of Tribulus terrestris on laying
productivity and eggs morphological characteristics of hens from the population
White Plymouth Rock-mini. In: Proceeding of scientific conference “Food science
Engineering and Technologies 2008”, volume LV, Issue 1, Plovdiv, UHT, 487-
492.
KASHAMOV B. (2007): Investigation the effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on
the reproductive performances of broilers parent. In: Proc. of scientific conference
“Traditions in the Veterinary medicine”, LTU, Sofia, 136-141.
KITANOV I., OBLAKOVA M., LALEV M. (2003): Effect of the Ovocap
preparation on reproductive parameters of hens and turkeys. Bulg. J.Agr. Sci., 9,
521-526.
PETKOVA M, KITANOV I.., ZHELEV K. (2008): Effect of Ovocap on the cows
reproduction. J.of Anim. Sci., XLV, 3, 132-137.
PIMENOV B., IARKOVA N., PILYUGE G. (1983): Genetic resources of the
geese. Ptitzevodstvo, 1, 24-26.
SEMERDJIEV V., YARKOV D., CHOBANOVA S., GIRGINOV D., UZUNOVA
K. (2008): Effect of the plant supplement Xtract on laying performance and egg
hachability in different breeds of chickens, Trakia Journal of Sciences, 6, 1, 26-29.
M. Nikolova et al.
266
SURDJIISKA S., .STOYANOV D., .ZLATEV Hr., MARINOV I., MARINOV K
STANKOVA M. (2005): Effect of Tribulus terrestris extract application on
productivity in broilers’ parent. Ptitzevudstvo, 5, 14-15.
TOMOVA M. (1987): Tribestan. Pharmacy, 37, 6, 40-42.
Received 24 March 2010; accepted for publication 20 May 2010
... Oral treatment of aqueous extracts of TT increases the number of growing follicles in mice, but without significant effect on the sex hormone levels [13]. The increase in egg production in Guinea fowls treated with TT extract report [14]. [15] showed higher numbers of yellow bodies in the ovaries of treated immature rats as an evidence of LH-like activity of TT, causing puberty onset. ...
... Our results show the stimulating effect of the additive VemoHerb-T on the weight of rabbit mothers' ovary and weight of the offspring. Similar results were observed in mice [13] and in Guinea fowls [14] treated with the extract of TT. Moreover, the treated mother does in our experiment expressed more pronounced maternal instincts than the controls. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.
... However, a case report of two urine samples from female athletes indicates that treatment with T. terrestris in the short term does not affect the endogenous metabolism of testosterone (Saudan et al., 2008). Moreover, several reports confirmed an improvement in egg fertility in hens receiving T. terrestris (Surdjiiska et al., 2005;Kashamov, 2007;Nikolova et al., 2010). ...
... Although scientists have addressed probable effects of T. terrestris on folliculogenesis, there are indefinably limitations in the information in this area, the mechanisms involving the activity of T. terrestris for this cellular event are unclear yet. Nikolova et al. (2010), Adaay and Mosa (2012) have shown the efficacy of T. terrestris on folliculogenesis of treated mothers on Guinea fowls and mice, respectively, without declaring any molecular related mechanism. Based on our best knowledge regarding T. terrestris and folliculogenesis, only one study was accompanied on mammals (rabbits), and screened the molecular pathways of folliculogenesis in rodents, with the consideration of inhibin serum levels in each menstrual phase, gives us light for achieving more profound results from case-control clinical trials, monitoring folliculogenesis, endometriosis, PCOS. ...
Article
Background: Tribulus terrestris L. (T. terrestris) positive performance on the male sexual system has been confirmed, but little is known about its effects on the female reproductive system. Purpose: This review discussed in detail the beneficial impact of T. terrestris and its secondary metabolites on the female reproductive system. Study design and methods: In this review, the scientific Databases of Science direct, Pubmed, Web of Science, Google, Google Scholar, Researchgate, EMBASE, Scientific Information (SID), and Elsevier were searched profoundly. Studies about the pharmacological activities of T. terrestris on the female reproductive system in each aspect of investigations: human, in vivo, and in vitro studies, in the period from 1998 to 2020 were admitted. Our study was not limited by the language of publications. Results: 23 articles about the effects of T. terrestris on the female reproductive system were found. These studies approved the T. terrestris efficacy on improvements in histological features of the ovary and uterus of polycystic ovary syndrome patients as well as the well-working of normal ovaries, enhancements in the sexual desire of postmenopausal syndrome, improve ovarian and breast cancers. Conclusion: These studies showed that the positive effect of T. terrestris on the female reproductive system was due to the presence of a secondary metabolite called protodioscin; a steroidal saponin compound, as the dominant active component of this plant.
... The guinea-fowl species is characterized by high egglaying intensity (Nickolova, 2009;Nickolova et al. 2010;Kabakchiev et al. 2014;Penkov and Nikolova, 2016). Depending on the breeding level and the rearing system, guinea fowl egg production varies within a wide rangefrom 70 to 220 eggs (Janda, 1978;Julius and Seth, 1983;Abiola, 1997;Krystianiak and Rosiński, 2008;Nickolova, 2009;Arabi, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
A study on the egg productivity of pearl-gray guinea-fowl from Bulgarian local population was carried out over three consecutive laying years – 2016, 2017 and 2018. Egg-laying started at 39 weeks of age and the production cycle was 31, 30 and 25 weeks for one-, two- and three-year-old layers, respectively, the average egg-laying intensity being 70.11, 44.22 and 32.81%, depending on the fowl age. The following characteristics were established for the three studied ages of the layers: mean egg weight – 41.59±0.13, 42.31±0.12 and 38.49±0.23g; shape index – 76.32±0.19, 76.54±0.15 and 77.96±0.20%; egg yolk weight – 13.58±0.06, 14.03±0,05 and 12.62±0.08g; egg albumen weigh – 49.09±0.13, 48.00±0.15 and 51.35±0.24g and shell weight – 18.23±0.10, 18.88±0.08 and 15.05±0.65g, respectively. The Univariate analysis with LSD test has shown significant differences in egg-laying intensity in guinea-fowl comparing the different seasons and productive years. The same analysis has revealed significant differences in the morphological characteristics of guinea-fowl eggs during the varying seasons and depending on the age of the layers. Taking into account the significant decrease of Guinea fowl egg production in their second and third laying years under an uncontrolled microclimate of the habitat for table eggs production, it is recommended to use guinea hens for a year period for commercial production of eggs for consumption. Keywords: Guinea-fowl, egg-laying productivity, egg morphology
... Malgré les fortes potentialités dont dispose le Cameroun pour accroître les productions animales, celles-ci restent faibles (Motsa'a et al., 2019) et toute tentative d'amélioration se heurte à plusieurs contraintes qui réduisent de manière considérable la croissance des animaux. Pour faire face aux contraintes alimentaires et sanitaires, les producteurs utilisent les substances de synthèse telles que les antibiotiques et les hormones pour augmenter les prises alimentaires, optimiser l'utilisation alimentaire, augmenter les performances de croissance, prévenir les maladies (Nikolova et al., 2010), améliorer les conditions sanitaires des animaux et accroître la productivité des élevages en réduisant les coûts de production (Lessard, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
Dans le but de contribuer à une meilleure connaissance des effets des feuilles de goyavier sur la croissance en élevage porcin, une étude a été menée sur les effets de la supplémentation de l’aliment en poudre des feuilles de goyavier (Psiduim guajava) sur la croissance des porcelets hybrides (Large White x Landrace). A cet effet, 24 porcelets de 65 jours d’âge et de poids moyen de 10,83±0,26 kg ont été répartis en quatre lots de 6 porcelets (03 mâles et 03 femelles) chacun. A chaque lot choisi au hasard a été attribué par jour et pendant 30 jours consécutifs une ration supplémentée avec 0 ; 0,5 ; 1 et 1,5% de poudre des feuilles de goyavier. Les performances de croissance ont été étudiées. La consommation alimentaire et le poids vif ont été comparables entre tous les traitements. Le gain de poids, le gain moyen quotidien et l’efficacité alimentaire ont été significativement (P<0,05) plus élevés avec la ration contenant 1,5% de poudre de feuilles de goyavier comparé à la ration contenant seulement 1% de cette poudre. L’indice de consommation et le coût de production ont été relativement plus faibles chez les porcelets ayant reçu 1,5% de poudre des feuilles de goyavier comparés à ceux des autres traitements. Il a été conclu que la supplémentation de l’aliment au taux de 1,5% de la poudre des feuilles de goyavier améliore les performances de croissance des porcelets.Mots clés : Psidium guajava, enrichissement, porcelet, croissance, coût de production. English Title: Effect of feed supplementation with dry powder of guava leaves (Psidium guajava) on growth performances of cross breed pigletsIn order to contribute to a better understanding of the effects of guava leaves on growth in pig farming, a study has been conducted on the effects of supplementation of guava leaves powder feed (Psiduim guajava) on the growth of hybrid piglets (Large White x Landrace). For this purpose, 24 piglets of 65 days of age and an average weight of 10.83±0.26 kg were distributed in four batches of 6 piglets each. To each group choosing randomly, diets supplemented with 0; 0,5; 1 and 1,5% of guava leaves powder was assigned daily for thirty consecutive days. Growth performances characteristics were studied. Feed intake and live weight were comparable between all treatments. The weight gain, daily average gain and feed efficiency were significantly higher with the diet containing 1,5% guava leaves powder as compared to the one with 1% of that powder. Feed efficiency and the cost of production were non-significantly lower in piglet haven received diet containing 1,5% of guava leaves powder compared to other treatments. It can there be concluded that food supplementation by 1,5% with guava leave powder improve growth performances of piglets.Keywords: Psidium guajava, supplementation, piglet, growth performances, production’s cost.
... The extract from Tribulus increases the content of testosterone in blood serum of male goats too (Sharawy et al. 2015). Nikolova et al. (2010) registered increased volume of the testicles in breeding roosters receiving 10 mg/kg/day of TT extract with the forage. The addition of 10 mg/kg/day of this nutrient into the drinking water intended for roosters had a positive impact on the quality of their sperm (Grigorova et al. 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Synthetic hormones and bioactive substances (vitamins, pigments and isoflavons) which have been used in the feed industry are accumulated in milk, meat and eggs. It is suspected that these are responsible for a number of side-effects such as carcinogenesis, liver and kidney damage, allergies in consumers. Furthermore the synthetic hormones, vitamins, pigments are less active than those extracted from natural sources. That is why there is a growing worldwide interest in finding new and safe biologically active substances from natural origin. The application of some natural no hormonal products increases the reproductive potential of male and female animals and poultry. These may improve gametogenesis, ovulation and sperm quality. The purpose of this overview is to present some natural sources of biologically active substances and to summarize their positive influence on reproduction in livestock and poultry.
... The biologically active substances of VemoHerb T are: steroidal saponins of furostanol type determined as protodioscin (55 to 65%); dubbing substances, calculated as tanin (not more than 10%); flavonoids, determined as rutin (not more than 10%).The qualitative indices of this product are controlled in accordance with company documentation [17]. TT extract improves the reproductive functions [4,7], productivity [17,18] and health [5,14] in animals.Our earlier studies demonstrated positive effect of VemoherbT addition on the laying capacity and egg quality in hens [2,3] and Guinea fowls [12]. To our knowledge there are no information regarding the effect of TT supplementation on this parameters in quails. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the current work was to examine the influence of Bulgarian phytoproduct VemoHerb T (dry extract of Tribulus terrestris -TT) on laying productivity of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and their egg morphological and sensor properties. A trial was organized with 52 female and 16 male Japanese quails from the breed Faraon at the age of 44 days randomly divided in four groups - control and three experimental groups, 13 female and 4 male each. All birds were fed ad libitum the same compound feed for Japanese quails. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The experimental groups received with the drink water the tested product in following daily doses: 4mg/kg body weight (10weeks); 10mg/kg body weight (the first 5 weeks of the trial); 10mg/kg body weight (10 weeks) for Ist, IInd, IIIrd experimental groups respectively. The addition of TT-extract improved significantly the laying productivity. It was found significant higher values of egg weight, albumen - and yolk weight in quails from IInd and IIIrd experimental groups. There was a tendency to increase the egg shell weight and egg shell thickness in all treated groups in comparison to the control group. The use of VemoHerb T did not aggravate the sensor properties of the quails' eggs.
Article
Full-text available
An investigation of Vemo Herb® additive on the forage consumption rate in Japanese quail (Pharaoh breed) has been conducted. The experiment was carried out for 10 weeks with 52 female and 16 male sexually matured Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) distributed in four groups: control group (without additive), first experimental group - 4 mg*kg-1 of live weight for 10 weeks; second experimental group - 10 mg*kg-1 of live weight during the first five weeks of the study (after that the product was no more supplemented) and third experimental group - 10 mg*kg-1 of live weight during the whole study period. It was observed, a tendency of decreasing of the forage consumption rate for the whole experimental period (no statistical significance) for all the experimental groups compared to the control group, but some of the weekly differences are significant. © 2016, University of Zagreb - Faculty of Agriculture. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Many works point to identification of the principal environmental factor determining the vegetative growth and yield in horticultural crops mulched by cover materials. However, almost nothing is known about changes in this area caused by drought. Answering this question was the predominant aim of our work. We found that the relatively strong negative correlation between the cummulative shoot length (CSL) of watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) and the root-zone temperature in 5 cm depth (TRZ5) which was exhibited under sufficient water supply, switched to a positive dependency on the relative water content (RWC) in the youngest expanded leaf of the main shoot when under dehydration. At the beginning of the dehydration cycle the highest CSL values were exhibited by plants on white polyethylene (PE) mulch, whereas water witholding favoured red PE foil and black non-woven textile. These results are discussed in respect to plant protection against heat stress on the one hand, and, on the other hand, against water stress.
Article
White and Barred Plymouth Rock chickens, divided into three groups: group I - control, group ІІ - fed diet supplemented with 0.01% Xtract and group ІІІ − supplemented with 0.02% Xtract, as well as layers from the Gy-ling and New Hampshire breeds divided into two groups: group I - control, group ІІ -fed diet supplement with 0.01% Xtract, have been studied. It was found out the supplementation of the diet of White Plymouth Rock hens with 0.01% and 0,02% Xtract increased the egg-laying performance with 6.2% and 9.7%, that was important with regard to broiler production. In t his breed, the egg hatchability percentage from fertilized eggs increased up to 98.21% when the diet was supplemented with 0.02% Xtract. IN the other studied breeds, the egg-laying performance decreased. For egg hatchability, no dose- dependent alterations were established that was probably related to the productive type of investigated poultry breeds.
Effect of the Ovocap preparation on reproductive parameters of hens and turkeys
  • Kitanov I
  • M Oblakova
  • M Lalev
KITANOV I., OBLAKOVA M., LALEV M. (2003): Effect of the Ovocap preparation on reproductive parameters of hens and turkeys. Bulg. J.Agr. Sci., 9, 521-526.
Effect of Tribulus terrestris extract application on productivity in broilers
  • Surdjiiska S Stoyanov D
  • Marinov I Hr
  • Marinov M Stankova
SURDJIISKA S.,.STOYANOV D.,.ZLATEV Hr., MARINOV I., MARINOV K STANKOVA M. (2005): Effect of Tribulus terrestris extract application on productivity in broilers' parent. Ptitzevudstvo, 5, 14-15.
Effect of Ovocap on the cows reproduction
  • Kitanov I Petkova M
  • Zhelev K
PETKOVA M, KITANOV I.., ZHELEV K. (2008): Effect of Ovocap on the cows reproduction. J.of Anim. Sci., XLV, 3, 132-137.
Effect of Tribulus terrestris extract application on productivity in broilers' parent. Ptitzevudstvo
  • Surdjiiska S Stoyanov D
  • Hr
  • Marinov I
  • M Marinov K Stankova
SURDJIISKA S.,.STOYANOV D.,.ZLATEV Hr., MARINOV I., MARINOV K STANKOVA M. (2005): Effect of Tribulus terrestris extract application on productivity in broilers' parent. Ptitzevudstvo, 5, 14-15.
Genetic resources of the geese
  • Pimenov B Iarkova N
  • Pilyuge G
PIMENOV B., IARKOVA N., PILYUGE G. (1983): Genetic resources of the geese. Ptitzevodstvo, 1, 24-26.
Investigation the effect of Tribulus terrestris on laying productivity and eggs morphological characteristics of hens from the population White Plymouth Rock-mini
  • Grigorova S
GRIGOROVA S. (2008): Investigation the effect of Tribulus terrestris on laying productivity and eggs morphological characteristics of hens from the population White Plymouth Rock-mini. In: Proceeding of scientific conference "Food science Engineering and Technologies 2008", volume LV, Issue 1, Plovdiv, UHT, 487-492.
Investigation the effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on the reproductive performances of broilers parent
  • Kashamov B
KASHAMOV B. (2007): Investigation the effect of Tribulus terrestris extract on the reproductive performances of broilers parent. In: Proc. of scientific conference "Traditions in the Veterinary medicine", LTU, Sofia, 136-141.