Article

Milk - The promoter of chronic Western diseases

Department of Dermatology, Environmental Medicine and Health Theory, University of Osnabrück, Sedanstrasse 115, D-49090 Osnabrück, Germany.
Medical Hypotheses (Impact Factor: 1.07). 03/2009; 72(6):631-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2009.01.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Common chronic diseases of Western societies, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypertension, obesity, dementia, and allergic diseases are significantly influenced by dietary habits. Cow's milk and dairy products are nutritional staples in most Western societies. Milk and dairy product consumption is recommended by most nutritional societies because of their beneficial effects for calcium uptake and bone mineralization and as a source of valuable protein. However, the adverse long-term effects of milk and milk protein consumption on human health have been neglected. A hypothesis is presented, showing for the first time that milk protein consumption is an essential adverse environmental factor promoting most chronic diseases of Western societies. Milk protein consumption induces postprandial hyperinsulinaemia and shifts the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis to permanently increased IGF-1 serum levels. Insulin/IGF-1 signalling is involved in the regulation of fetal growth, T-cell maturation in the thymus, linear growth, pathogenesis of acne, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, thus affecting most chronic diseases of Western societies. Of special concern is the possibility that milk intake during pregnancy adversely affects the early fetal programming of the IGF-1 axis which will influence health risks later in life. An accumulated body of evidence for the adverse effects of cow's milk consumption from fetal life to childhood, adolescence, adulthood and senescence will be provided which strengthens the presented hypothesis.

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    • "Adipogenic and insulin resistance inducing effects of whole milk consumption are compatible with recent observations in human subjects, who have been supplemented with milk protein fractions [4] [5]. Western diet, characterized by persistent milk and dairy protein consumption, may thus promote mTORC1-driven diseases of civilization [6]. "

    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
    • "Recently it has been suggested that milk consumption induces postprandial hyperinsulinaemia and shifts the growth hormone/insulinlike growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis to permanently increased IGF-1 serum levels. Insulin/IGF-1 signaling is involved in the regulation of fetal growth, T-cell maturation in the thymus, linear growth, pathogenesis of acne, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, thus affecting most chronic diseases of Western societies [2]. Intervention studies have demonstrated that increasing skim or low-fat milk consumption by three servings per day without other intentional dietary changes leads to weight gain among adults aged 55–85 y [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Research has demonstrated that consumption of milk promotes weight loss and satiety, however conflicting evidence also exists. Therefore, we tested the effect of long-term milk consumption on body weight and metabolic parameters. Newly weaned mice received whole milk, low-fat milk, or water as control for 17 weeks and serum, liver, and white adipose tissue (WAT) were tested for parameters associated with obesity and diabetes. Our results show that low-fat milk leads to the same overall caloric intake and body weight as the control group. However, the whole-milk group consumed more calories and reached a higher body weight. In addition, in the low-fat milk group, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, ghrelin, insulin, corticosterone, and glucagon were not significantly different than the control group. In contrast, in the whole-milk group, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucagon were high compared with the control group. Metabolism in both liver and WAT showed only slight differences between the milk groups. Whereas the whole-milk group showed reduced insulin signaling in WAT, the low-fat milk group exhibited increased insulin signaling. Whole-milk consumption leads to increased body weight and caloric intake and reduced insulin signaling in WAT, as opposed to low-fat milk consumption.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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    • "Alternatively, it has been suggested that long-term high fat dairy consumption may underlie the pathogenesis of type II diabetes by promoting β-cell apoptosis [14] and increase CVD risk by contributing to hyperlipidemia. These negative health responses may be linked with increased intake of insulin-like growth factors (1 & 2) [3] and saturated fat of dairy foods [15-17]. Inconsistent data from different studies on the health benefits of dairy may be attributed to differences in experimental design (study population, health status, ethnicity, and gender) [18] and differential health effects of specific dairy products [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Given the highly debated role of dairy food consumption in modulating biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, this study was conducted to examine the influence of long-term (6 month) dairy consumption on metabolic parameters in healthy volunteers under free-living conditions without energy restriction. Twenty-three healthy subjects completed a randomized, crossover trial of 12 months. Participants consumed their habitual diets and were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: a high dairy supplemented group instructed to consume 4 servings of dairy per day (HD); or a low dairy supplemented group limited to no more than 2 servings of dairy per day (LD). Baseline, midpoint, and endpoint metabolic responses were examined. Endpoint measurements of body weight and composition, energy expenditure, blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipid and lipoprotein responses did not differ (p > 0.05) between the LD and HD groups. HD consumption improved (p < 0.05) plasma insulin (-9%) and insulin resistance (-11%, p = 0.03) as estimated by HOMA-IR compared with the LD group. Study results suggest that high dairy consumption (4 servings/d) may improve insulin resistance without negatively impacting bodyweight or lipid status under free-living conditions. Trial registration Trial registration: NCT01761955
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Nutrition Journal
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