Assessment of Personality Dimensions in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder Using the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory

Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.93). 03/2009; 19(1):13-21. DOI: 10.1089/cap.2008.029
Source: PubMed


We compared temperament and character traits in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BP) and healthy control (HC) subjects.
Sixty nine subjects (38 BP and 31 HC), 8-17 years old, were assessed with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime. Temperament and character traits were measured with parent and child versions of the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory.
BP subjects scored higher on novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and fantasy subscales, and lower on reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness compared to HC (all p < 0.007), by child and parent reports. These findings were consistent in both children and adolescents. Higher parent-rated novelty seeking, lower self-directedness, and lower cooperativeness were associated with co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Lower parent-rated reward dependence was associated with co-morbid conduct disorder, and higher child-rated persistence was associated with co-morbid anxiety.
These findings support previous reports of differences in temperament in BP children and adolescents and may assist in a greater understating of BP children and adolescents beyond mood symptomatology.

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Available from: Robert Cloninger, Mar 31, 2014
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    • "Psychobiological perspectives of temperament and character have been most widely used to study the relationships among personality, health, and psychopathology [4-6]. Extensive research shows that individual differences in temperament and personality traits in childhood and adolescence are strongly predictive of many domains of functioning, including impulse control [7] [8], physical agility [9] [10] [11], emotional self-regulation [7] [12] [13] [14], intellectual interests and problem solving [15] [16], and spirituality [17] [18], as well as overall well-being [19] [20] [21], social development [22], and risk for psychiatric disorders [23] [24] [25] [26]. Personality traits influence many components of attention, self-control, and the ambition to achieve longterm goals [22] [26] [27], thereby predicting academic achievement throughout the lifespan even more strongly than measures of working memory or intelligence [16] [28] [29] [30] [31]. "
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    • "It is relevant in the respect that subjects scoring low in BAS show reduced affective startle modulation (Hawk & Kowmas, 2003). With regard to personality and temperament traits, Cloninger's novelty seeking has been repeatedly found elevated in BD (Haro et al., 2007; Nery et al., 2008; Olvera et al., 2009; Tillman et al., 2003; Young et al., 1995) with some evidence for specificity to remitted BD status as opposed to harm avoidance or other temperament traits (Young et al., 1995). Subjects with high novelty seeking present with reduced affective startle modulation (Roussos, Giakoumaki, & Bitsios, 2009). "
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