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The Discovery of Chromosome Trisomy 22:
A Novel Chromosomal Feature of Siamang
, Alongkoad Tanomtong
, Praween Supanuam
and Worapon Aengwanich
Biology Program, Department of Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Prince of
Songkhla University (Pattanee), Muang, Pattanee 94000, Thailand
Genetics Program, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University,
Muang, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
Progam in Appied Biology, Department of Science, Faculty of Science, Buriram Rajabhat
University, Muang, Buriram 31000, Thailand
Stress and Oxidative Stress Unit, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science,
Mahasarakham University, Muang, Mahasarakham 44000, Thailand
Received September 27, 2007; accepted May 8, 2008
Summary For this knowledge, the discovery of the chromosome trisomy 22 in siamang (Sympha-
langus syndactylus) is the ﬁrst report. To our scheme, blood sample was collected from one female
of Khao Kheow Open Zoo (KKOZ), Chonburi province, Thailand. Chromosomes were prepared by
lymphocyte cells culture at 37°C for 72 h then stained by G banding technique. The result indicated
that diploid (2n) of siamang was 51 (one irregular chromosome was found). The autosome consists
of 47 metacentric and submetacentric, 2 telocentric chromosomes. The X chromosome was metacen-
tric chromosome. The increasing of one metacentric chromosome 22 lead to the presence of the ir-
regular chromosome and the changing of 2n50 to 2n51. The augmentation of chromosome 22
was found in all metaphase cells of the entire study. We suggested that the chromosome increasing is
a consequence from the non-disjunction in meiosis cell division.
Key words Chromosome, Trisomy 22, Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus).
Animals in family Hylobatidae (gibbons) are small apes that live on trees and not come down
to the ground. Its arms and ﬁngers look like a hook for holding branch. Its activities usually in day-
time. It eats fruit, treetop, ﬂower, leaf and insect and lives along with group like a family with one
married couple. Gibbons are exist in all parts of Thailand. There are 4 species, white-handed gib-
bon (Hylobates lar), dark-handed gibbon (Hylobates agilis), pileated gibbon (Hylobates pileatus)
and siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) (Parr 2003).
The autosomal trisomies have been reported in 11 nonhuman primates from eight different
species (McClure et al. 1969, McClure 1972, Turleau et al. 1972, Andrle et al. 1979, Ruppenthal et
al. 1983, Vigfusson et al. 1986, Ward et al. 1994, de Best et al. 1995, Moore et al. 1998, Best et al.
1999, Lear et al. 2001, Ruppenthal et al. 2004) (Table 1). There were many previous reports on cy-
togenetics of siamang including Bender and Chu (1963), Klinger (1963), Chiarelli (1972), Groves
(1972), Couturier et al. (1982), Koehler (1995) and Muller et al. (2003). However, chromosome tri-
somy 22 in siamang has never been reported before. The chromosome trisomy 22 that we found is
the novel chromosomal feature of siamang.
* Corresponding author, e-mail: email@example.com
2008 The Japan Mendel Society Cytologia 73(2): 145–149, 2008
Materials and methods
Blood samples from the jugular vein were collected with aseptic technique from one female
siamang which were kept in Khao Kheow Open Zoo (KKOZ), Chonburi province, Thailand and
then applied for cytogenetic studies by lymphocyte culture of whole blood samples. The culture
cells were treated with a colchicine-hypotonic-ﬁxation-air-drying technique followed by G-banding
with Giemsa’s adapted from Rooney (2001) and Campiranon (2003). G-banding can provide an ac-
curacy homologous chromosome of mammals. Twenty cells of each individual chromosome
checks, karotyping and idiograming were accomplished by using a light microscope as previously
described (Supanuam et al. 2007).
Results and discussion
According to the scheme, G-banding technique indicated that female siamang has 2n51 in-
stead of the normal 2n50 (one irregular chromosome which different from the previous reports)
(Bender and Chu 1963, Klinger 1963, Chiarelli 1972, Groves 1972, Couturier et al. 1982, Koehler
et al. 1995, Muller et al. 2003).
Our results demonstrated that the autosome of female siamang consists of 47 metacentric and
submetacentric chromosomes, 2 telocentric chromosomes (Fig. 1). The results are differ from Ben-
der and Chu (1963), Klinger (1963) and Chiarelli (1972) that reported the 46 metacentric and sub-
metacentric chromosomes, 2 telocentric chromosomes of siamang. The difference is resulted from
the addition of metacentric autosome chromosome 22 that lead to trisomic. Therefore, this study is
the ﬁrst report on trisomic chromosome of siamang. For the sex chromosome, the results indicated
that the X chromosome of female siamang was metacentric chromosome which is in agreement
with Bender and Chu (1963), Klinger (1963) and Chiarelli (1972).
The karyotyping of metaphase cells from G-banding technique make a conﬁrmation that the
irregular chromosome was metacentric autosome 22. Moreover, that addition of chromosome 22
was found in all metaphase cells for the entire research. It is a result of the chromosome non-dis-
junction (meiosis I or II) which is in agreement with those the addition of human chromosome 13,
Cytologia 73(2)S.Jantarat et al.
Tabl e 1. Autosomal trisomies have been reported in 11 nonhuman primates from eight different species
Homology to human trisomy Reference
Human trisomy 13
Pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) 43, XY, 16 and cells with
other trisomies (variable karyotype) Vigfusson et al. (1986)
Long-tailed macaque (M. fascicularis) 43, XY, 16 Ward et al. (1994)
Pig-tailed macaque (M. nemestrina) 43, XX, 16 Best et al. (1999)
Human trisomy 17
Baboon (Papio hamadryas) 43, XX, 16 Moore et al. (1998)
Human trisomy 18
Pig-tailed macaque (M. nemestrina) number one 43, XX, 18 Ruppenthal et al. (1983)
Pig-tailed macaque (M. nemestrina) number two 43, XX, 18 Ruppenthal et al. (1983)
Pig-tailed macaque (M. nemestrina) number three 42, XX/43,
XX, 18 (mosaic karyotype) Ruppenthal et al. (1983)
Rhesus monkey (M. mulatta) 43, XX, 18 de Best et al. (1995)
Bonobo (Pan paniscus) 49, XX, 17 Lear et al. (2001)
Human trosomy 21
Chimpanzee (P. troglodytes) 49, XX, 22 McClure et al. (1969)
Lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) 49, XY, mar exact origin of
marker was not conﬁrmed McClure (1972)
Orangutan (Pango pygmaeus) 49, XX, 22 Andrle et al. (1979)
The Discovery of Chromosome Trisomy 22: A Novel Chromosomal Feature of Siamang
Fig. 1. Metaphase chromosome (top) and karyotype (bottom) of female siamang (Symphalangus syndacty-
lus) 2n51, by G-banding, chromosome trisomic 22 (arrows).
18, 21, X chromosome in male, X chromosome in female and Y chromosome in male and the irreg-
ular chromosome causes Patau’s syndrome (47, 13), Edwards’s syndrome (47, 18), Down’s syn-
drome (47, 21), Klinefelter’s syndrome (47, XXY), XXX syndrome (47, XXX) and XYY
syndrome (47, XYY) (Cumming 1988). The autosomal trisomies have been reported in 11 non-
human primates from eight different species. Some of these animals have a marked similarity in
phenotype to the homologous syndromes reported in humans. The chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes
(McClure et al. 1969, McClure 1972) and an the orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus (Andrle et al. 1979)
with trisomy 22 indicated both of some clinical and behavioral symptoms of human Down’s syn-
drome. The great apes’ chromosome 22 is homologous to human’s chromosome 21 (Wienberg et al.
1992). The gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) which have the same chromosomal abnormality expressed both
of normal morphological and behavioral characteristics (Turleau et al. 1972).
In this study, female siamang was born in Khao Kheow Open zoo (KKOZ) and separated feed
from parents. Now it is 1 year old. For phenotype and behavior checking, it was similar to other sia-
mang. We have no detail of its parents because of it was donated to the Zoo. Although we were not
taken any action but we predicted that this siamang had abnormally oocyte results from unnatural
synapsis of homologous chromosome in meiosis I. Then trivalent of Chromosome 22 was appeared
and effected to chromosome separating in anaphase I. One chromosome piece was separated to one
site while two chromosome pieces were separated to another site lead to normal and abnormal ga-
In this study, siamang’s chromosome number was 2n51 which consists of 47 metacentric and
submetacentric chromosomes, 2 telocentric chromosomes. The X chromosome was metacentric
chromosome. The increasing of one metacentric chromosome 22 lead to the presence of the irregu-
lar chromosome and the changing of 2n50 to 2n51. We suggested that the chromosome increas-
ing is a consequence from the non-disjunction in meiosis cell division.
The ﬁnancial support from the Zoological Park Organization under the Royal Patronage of
H.M. the King is gratefully acknowledged. We also thank Mr. Sopon Dumnui, Director of the orga-
nization and Dr. Sumat Kamolnaranath, chief of the Educational Division, for valuable help.
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The Discovery of Chromosome Trisomy 22: A Novel Chromosomal Feature of Siamang