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The Arts and The Creation of Mind

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... There has long been substantial dissonance between the acceptance of Creative Arts as overwhelmingly beneficial and the relatively marginal position of Creative Arts in our education system; with this low status being partially attributed to the subjective nature of the Creative Arts disciplines (Barton et al., 2013;Eisner, 2002) being contrary to neo-liberal conceptualisations of education. Pursuit of Creative Arts can fulfill both foundational and higher order needs (Lloyd, 2017). ...
... Creative/ critical/ reflective thinking (Eisner, 2002;Grainger et al., 2004;Heid, 2005;Nilson et al., 2013) Connection to Creative Arts theoretical frameworks and elements of the five art forms to allow students to analyse their personal and group creative processes during the composing, performing of, appreciating and responding to, their five art form products. ...
... A speculative interpretation would be that the forced removal of PK makes the learning less relevant to preservice teachers and reduces the potential benefits of the ART101 subject. It could be argued that broad mandates in ITE do not adequately consider the feasibility of separation of SMK and PK in the Creative Arts; a field characterised by fluid, more subjective SMK (Barton et al., 2013;Eisner, 2002) across an array of separate, yet related disciplines. Indeed, the separation of content and pedagogy is antithetical to the complex nature of the Professional and Pedagogical Experience Repertoires deployed by effective primary Creative Arts educators (Wiggins & Wiggins, 2008). ...
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Recognition of the inherent value of the Creative Arts in society seldom extends beyond rhetoric to meaningful action. The powerful ways the Creative Arts are positioned within curriculum documents, for example, stand in contrast to entrenched problems such as poor teacher attitudes, disengaging teaching practices and low status. Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programs and preservice teachers are essential to the long-term improvement of Creative Arts education. Creative Arts in ITE is also an interesting context in which to examine the divide between Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK) and Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) that has influenced both educational research and policy. This paper reports on a mixed methods case study of 24 preservice teachers’ Creative Arts teaching efficacy beliefs and perceptions as they completed an evidence-based, discipline-focussed creative arts subject. The Likert scale efficacy data, collected via the CATEBI-B, modified from the established STEBI-B (Enochs & Riggs, 1990), were analysed via MANOVA with repeated measures and T-tests. These analyses were complemented by thematic analysis of qualitative survey data. Results showed statistically significant increases in participants' personal Creative Arts teaching efficacy upon completion of the subject. The significance of Creative Arts teaching outcome expectancy increases was questionable and the qualitative results were somewhat mixed despite being mostly positive. Implications of these findings and directions for further research in this space are discussed.
... I take an arts-based approach that applies tools and techniques used in the study of dance to analyse the movements and sequential structure of a lecture style classroom. This study is focused on what Eisner (2002) terms the 'curriculum in vivo,' or the actual activities employed in the classroom and the translation of the 'intended curriculum or the curriculum in vitro' into an embodied and sequential narrative that brings the curriculum to life. Using a choreographic framework, I illuminate the aesthetic and embodied dimensions of teaching. ...
... Expert teachers also use the tacit and performative in the classroom. Eisner (2002) writes, 'Judgment depends on feel, and feel depends on a kind of somatic knowledge. . . . The body is engaged, the source of information is visceral, the sensitivities are employed to secure experience that makes it possible to render a judgment and act upon it ' (p. ...
... In other words, I wasn't so interested in the what, or the content of the class, but was more invested in looking at how teachers structured the curriculum and imbued it with meaning through their performance. Eisner (2002) reiterates the relationship between course content and how it taught when he writes, How one teaches something is constituent with what is taught. Method or approach infuses and modifies the content that is being provided. ...
... The artist teachers reached a new point of knowing. We explain how Eisner (2002) rationalised cognition is gaining awareness of one's surroundings or consciousness. Partnership and art experience enabled the artist teachers to achieve this. ...
... Ways to develop cognition: A clearly articulated thought or idea is fuelled by the experiences one encounters (Eisner, 2002). Engagement with the thought or idea can then fuel cognition. ...
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This article explores changemaker principles as a component of social justice art education this research informed work exemplifies how moral consciousness and responsibility can be developed when training artist teachers. The article embeds changemaker philosophy in the higher education art curriculum and demonstrates how this can create ruptures and ripples into educational pedagogy at the school level. A sociocultural qualitative methodology, that employs questionnaires, the visual and a focus group as methods, is used to reveal three lenses on student perceptions of the changemaker principle. The dissemination of these perceptions and sharing of active art experiences communicate how engagement with the concept of changemaker in art education can deepen the cognitive growth of learners, whilst facilitating an understanding of and involvement in interculturality.
... As Rayment notes, any resolution to the 'problem' of assessment in art is contingent on how we conceive of the rationale behind art education (Rayment, 2007), whether this be to foster creativity, self-expression, visual literacy, technical skill, economic value or socio-political transformation (Atkinson, 2015;Efland, 1990;Eisner, 2002;Hickman, 2004;Siegesmund, 1998). Wherever one settles in this conceptual cacophony, the question remains as to how the prevailing practices of assessment shape and reflect the lived experiences of students and teachers in the actual art classroom. ...
... As recounted in the literature and reflected within this study's findings, assessment in art education has been found to facilitate constructive and formative dialogue, support teaching and learning practice, and provide a structured framework for both students and teachers to discuss, develop and evaluate artwork (Bhroin, 2015;de Eça, 2005;Eisner, 2002;Groenendijk et al., 2020;Hickman, 2015;Steers, 2015). Nonetheless, my findings also reaffirm the relevance of an ongoing critical discussion about the complex ways in which assessment both converges and diverges from the creative processes and motivations of students, and the pedagogical and professional practices of teachers. ...
Article
Assessment has long been an area of contention, controversy and discomfort in art education. How do educators define, regulate and assess that which is so often indefinable, idiosyncratic and subjective? Through a qualitative, small-scale case study focusing on a Year 11 GCSE Art and Design class at a mixed, comprehensive secondary school in Cambridgeshire, England, this paper seeks to examine how students and teachers themselves experience assessment in art and design. Undertaken during the Covid-19 pandemic in the spring of 2021, my research focuses on how art assessment interacts with students’ motivation and creative process, teachers’ professional and pedagogical practice, and the wider context of the pandemic
... This shift challenged the monopoly of technical rationality, with the assumption that precise measurement was the only way to know (Eisner, 2002). Arts-related research recognized that what counted as knowledge depended on perspective, time, interest and various forms of representation. ...
... Arts-Based Research provides a framework for those who seek to broaden the domain of qualitative inquiry in the social sciences by incorporating the arts as forms that represent human knowing. Eisner, E. W. (2002). The arts and the creation of mind. ...
Chapter
In its purest form, art may be simultaneously immediate and eternal: immediate in its ability to grasp one’s attention, to provoke or inspire; eternal in its ability to create deep and permanent impressions. Responses to art may be visceral, emotional or psychological by turns or even together. As such, a work of art may possess almost unlimited potential to educate (Leavy, 2017). Although a pursuit of matters artistic may be a worthy pursuit for its own sake, the arts also represent invaluable opportunities across all research disciplines. As such, arts-based research exists at intersections between art and science. According to McNiff (2008), both arts-based research and science involve the use of systematic experimentation with the goal of gaining knowledge about life.
... Posebno je dokazano da su likovne aktivnosti u bliskoj vezi sa procesima rešavanja problema u didaktičkoj formi problemske nastave. Integrativni pristup koji u sebi sažima postavljanje, istraživanje i rešavanje problema podrazumeva učeničko aktivno angažovanje u procesima posmatranjanja i analize, iz različitih perspektiva, sa stanovišta više predmetnih oblasti (Eisner, 2002). To saznanje može biti od koristi i nastavnicima likovne kulture posebno, jer oni kod učenika treba da razvijaju odgovornost i motivaciju za aktivno i samostalno učenje kroz stvaralačke aktivnosti (Pitri, 2003). ...
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Integrisanje programskih sadržaja različitih nastavnih predmeta doprinosi uspostavljanju novih didaktičkih modela i efikasnosti nastavnog procesa, a u skladu sa osnovnim ciljevima i principima vaspitanja i obrazovanja u celini. Razmatrajući osobenosti programskih sadržaja nastavnih predmeta biologije i likovne kulture, uočeno je da postoje izvesni likovni i biološki pojmovi koji se direktno prožimaju na konceptualnom nivou. Sprovedena je uporedna analiza programskih sadržaja za nastavne predmete biologija i likovna kultura u šestom razredu osnovne škole u Srbiji, a koje je moguće povezati i realizovati kroz integrativni pristup u nastavnom procesu, čime se direktno podstiče razvoj učeničkih znanja, veština, stavova i sposobnosti, posebno u domenu kreativnosti kao i motivacije za učenje, istraživanje i stvaralačko izražavanje. Na osnovu toga, moguće je realizovati integrativni pristup kojim bi se efikasno povezivali programski sadržaji, posebno primenom problemskog pristupa u nastavi.
... Di sinilah letak peran keterampilan artistik dalam mengekspresikan objek dan pengetahuan estetik dalam mengkreasikan bentuk. Manifestasi ini sesuai dengan penggambaran Eisner (2002) mengenai bagaimana kesenian memberikan media pengajaran mendalam terhadap pertumbuhan inteligensi dan perkembangan imajinasi anak-didik melalui ekspresi artistik dan kreasi estetik (terutama dari dimensi visualnya, tanpa mengabaikan ketiga dimensi lainnya, pula perpaduannya kini pada desain, fotografi, film, dsb): ...
... While the strategies presented are not new, researchers and practitioners may not always describe these approaches as relating to any particular theory of creativity. Eisner (2002), for instance, described similar strategies to those discussed in this article as being the mark of an influential art teacher. These strategies included "the ability to engage students' imagination" (p. ...
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Creative skill-building is a major focus of educational systems around the world. In this article, we draw on data from four K-12 visual arts teachers to illustrate pedagogical strategies used to support students’ creative development. We adopt Teresa Amabile’s Componential Theory of Creativity to frame the teachers’ approaches to creative skill-building, identifying how they nurtured students’task motivation, domain-specific skills, and creativity-relevant processes. By presenting the teaching strategies in this way, we hope to enable art educators to recognize, shape, and enhance how their own teaching can support the development of student creativity in the visual arts classroom.
... Therefore, teachers should take advantage of arts as medium of instruction in elementary social studies classroom. Prominent researchers in arts integration include [1], [2], [3], [4]. As the field of neuroscience develops, brain-based researchers [5] [6] have reviewed significant studies on the brain and how human beings learn and investigated the relationship between arts and the brain on cognition, especially creative thinking, problem solving, and self-expression. ...
Conference Paper
In line with the ministry of education and culture to promote students’ independent learning (Ind: Merdeka Belajar) teachers should take advantage of arts as medium of instruction in elementary social studies classroom. The purpose of this study is to employ arts-based instruction in social studies to foster students’ independent learning and higher order thinking skills. Built upon the previous research on arts integration approach this study offers a rationale for employing visual arts potential into social studies. With this approach it is presumed that both arts and social studies teachers benefit of aligning the arts and social studies.
... Beyond the world of the standardized test, however, art education served as an integral component of teaching empathy, creativity, critical thinking, and selfexpression and played a prominent role in American education. Indeed, scholars repeatedly emphasized that arts education strengthens cognitive abilities and critical thinking skills (Eisner, 2002;Erickson, 2022). Further, there has long been evidence that art education produces transfer effects where students who receive art education tend also to show improvements in other academic areas (Baker, 2012). ...
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Since 2011, multiple studies have found that school field trips to art museums and other cultural institutions produce measurable improvements in standardized test scores, academic engagement, and substantial improvements across a range of factors including empathy, critical thinking skills, and creativity. These findings are especially prominent with children in rural areas, from low-income families, and non-Native English speakers. Nevertheless, the priorities in U.S. public education have shifted away from field trips and art education since the 1980s. In this case study licensed art teachers in the New Mexico K to 12 public schools shared their experiences, discussed the obstacles they encounter, and explained how they have found alternative sources of funding outside of normal structures to help cover the costs of trips to art museums.
... Digital places may materially perform an ideology imbued (intentionally or not) by a human designer, necessitating deliberate modes of sensitizing inquiry (Ahmed, 2010;Calderon, 2014;Latour, 1992Latour, /2008Latour, 2005;Verbeek, 2006). Critical sensitivity complements the critical literacy focused on in visual culture (VCAE) frameworks that articulate cultural artifacts as texts demanding critical readings of their meanings (Eisner, 2002;Freedman, 2003). Instead, critical sensitivity recognizes digital artifacts as materials demanding critical awareness of their doings. ...
Article
This paper summarizes the methods and outcomes of my dissertation inquiry, which examined the potential that critical perspectives on digital placemaking practices may hold for art teaching with digital materials. Within this study, placemaking is the (often, but not always, intentional) shaping of the material qualities of a place. The study described in this paper examined how critical sensitivity to the material qualities of digital places (i.e. the actions and sensations places invite and inhibit) and critical sensitivity to the colonial ideologies digital places often materially enact and habituate, may inform the crafting of arts curricula as places, and inform youth artists’ crafting of digital places. Drawing on theories of digital materialism, curricula as digital places of learning, and critical and anticolonial framings of digital placemaking, the study summarized in this article suggests that habituating critical sensitivity to the material qualities of digital places is a viable approach to addressing ideologically-laden material qualities of the digital. The study also suggests that approaching curriculum development with critical sensitivity as an act of placemaking is a viable and valuable approach to navigating tension between structure and open-endedness in curricular design, and to attending to the ideologically-laden material qualities of curricular places.
... While STEAM trainings are effective in increasing secondary school students' attitudes towards technology, they also increase students' attitudes towards using technology in lessons and developing creative activities (Bae, 2011). In general, the transdisciplinary nature of STEAM teaching is compatible with the nonlinear problem-solving and open-ended nature of creative thinking (Mishra et al., 2016), encouraging students to create a space to use their imaginations (Eisner, 2002). All these situations indicate that STEAM contributes to meaningful and effective learning in the visual arts lesson, where creativity and imagination are important. ...
Article
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STEAM is a concept that is made up of the initials of the words science, technology, engineering, arts and mathematics. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of STEAM-based teaching activities on students' lesson achievements and attitudes in secondary school Visual Arts lessons. The study was carried out in a private secondary school in Mersin. The study, which was carried out with 24 students in the experimental and 24 control groups for 5 weeks, was designed according to the experimental model with the control group, which is one of the quantitative research methods. In the study, Secondary School Visual Arts Lesson Acquisition Test and Attitude Scale towards Visual Arts Lesson were used as data collection tools. According to the research findings, there were significant differences in favor of the experimental group in the posttest achievement and attitude scores of the experimental group, in which activities based on the STEAM teaching approach, and the control group, in which traditional teaching was applied.
... But even in the rare cases where this would work, the question remains whether far transfer effects are useful for education. After all, no effect research is needed to ascertain that many cognitive-academic accomplishments can also be achieved, probably better and faster, through other educational paths [Eisner 2002]. Take, for example, the discussion on the effect of music education and musical participation on mathematical reasoning. ...
Article
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Many voices in policy and practice have emphasized, on many different occasions, the importance of arts and cultural education for the very young. A mélange of arguments are given in this regard, primarily stressing the positive effects and impacts of this type of education. If arts and cultural education is considered important because it leads to specific valuable outcomes, it is important to have a clear overview of what these outcomes are. Often this type of overview is missing. In this paper we analyze different types of effects that arts and cultural education can lead to and we categorize those effects. Subsequently, we focus on the function of these effects within a broader discourse that advocates arts and cultural education for the very young (0–6 years). Our analysis shows that research does not pay equal attention to all types of effects, but also that the over-emphasis on one type of effects (e. g. personal effects, extrinsic effects) can divert attention from other important effects (e. g. socil effects, intrinsic effects). We also show that despite the claims that effect research makes, the implementation of that research in an impact narrative can still go in different and even opposite directions.
... The tradition of arts and crafts education in Norwegian ECE and ECTE is based on an understanding that acknowledges children's direct experiences with materials and tools as fundamental to their learning (Dewey, 1934(Dewey, /2005. Children explore materials with their whole bodies and relate to the world through their senses (Carlsen, 2015;Eisner, 2002;Fredriksen, 2011Fredriksen, , 2013Waterhouse, 2013). Thelen (2000) underscores that children's physical actions in their environment contribute to shaping their minds. ...
Article
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This article is based on an arts and crafts educational project in Norwegian early childhood teacher education. Through an a/r/tographic approach, we examine what happens when we open up to experimental, rhizomatic and unforeseen processes that transform physical and digital materials and phenomena into creative processes. The 2017 Norwegian Framework Plan for Kindergartens requires a renewed digital practice in early childhood education and early childhood teacher education. Through combinations of material and digital transformations, new material expressions and possibilities for action in creative processes arise. This article also demonstrates how shared knowledge can accumulate through creative processes in a collective learning environment, based on a rhizomatic understanding of such processes.
... I agree with Eisner (2002), who contends that sensory system does not work alone; it needs the tools such as language, the arts, science, values, and the like for its proper development. He emphasizes the role of arts by saying, 'education in turn, is the process of learning to create ourselves, and it is what the arts, both as a process and as the fruits of that process, promote' (p. ...
Conference Paper
Politics is observed often as a negative force in school education in Nepal. This article argues that politics is not wholly bad to deteriorate the education system. It depends on how it is used for the school’s welfare. This article adopts the narrative inquiry methodology under the social constructionism worldview. I found that politics in schools has to be viewed differently from party-isation and it can be positively used as generating school leadership, seeking resources for schools, and the professional security of teachers. These initiations support school governance through the lens of New Public Management. However, politics should not be used to earn might and position by the school stakeholders. This article has implications for educational researchers, policymakers, and political activists
... (Vrt. Gardner 1983, Dorn 1999, Eisner 2002, Efland 2002 Kognitiivisessa oppimiskäsityksessä erilaisia tiedonhankinnan tapoja lähestytään samanarvoisina: kuvat, äänet ja liikkeet ovat yhtä arvokkaita tapoja tutkia ja esittää todellisuutta kuin sanatkin. Näkemys tukee nykyistä kasvatuskeskustelua, jonka mukaan kaikilla on mahdollisuus erilaisiin tietämisen tapoihin ja siksi niitä kaikkia olisi kehitettävä koulussa. ...
... 157) Art, therefore, within a particular context and activity is considered an act of participation beyond its principles and elements. According to Haraway (1998) and Eisner (2002), imagery of vision positions all human beings to understand and see through their "personal mind's eye" (p. 8). ...
Chapter
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This chapter examines the interplay between the 1995 Constitution and the growing tendency of dictatorship in Uganda. The main argument is that whereas the drafting of the 1995 Constitution was seen by many as an attempt to promote democracy and good governance in Uganda, its implementation has often not appeared to point to that endeavour. Rather the 1995 Constitution has been used as a legal instrument for the promotion of Museveni’s political interests in the form of personal rule. The article, therefore, examines how Museveni using his position as president has continuously used the legislative processes as part of a strategic repertoire to portray a democratic picture to the international community while weakening political opposition, promoting patronage and hegemonic government in Uganda. Therefore, the 1995 Constitution has in the end created a semi-authoritarian regime where symbolic importance of the legislature and relatively free media contend with fundamentally a dictatorship at the centre that survives through legal manoeuvres and violence against any opposition. The 1995 Constitution is, therefore, seen as a tool for Museveni’s dictatorship rather than the promotion of democracy in Uganda.
... Bireyin duygu, düşünce ve izlenimlerini anlatabilmede yeteneklerini ve yaratıcılık gücünü estetik bir düzeye ulaştırmak amacı ile yapılan tüm eğitim çabasını kapsamaktadır (Türkdoğan, 1981, s. 12). Sanatın yaratıcılıkla olan yakın bağı, sanat eğitimini öğrencilerin yaratıcılıklarını geliştiren en işlevsel alanlardan biri yapmaktadır (Eisner, 2002;San, 2004). Yaratıcı davranışların toplumun gelişmesi için gerekli görülen ve giderek daha çok değer verilen bir yetenek olarak kabul edilmesi (Etike, 2001, s. 26) görsel sanatlar eğitimine duyulan ihtiyacın bir göstergesidir. ...
... Works of art and fiction can sometimes even be "twice as true as facts" (Oatley, 1999, p. 101), and they can appear to us as good examples for moral development (Wivestad, 2013). In this aspect, images can be seen as refined representations where we can articulate or imagine experiences and objects, and these would be essential in communication and generally understanding others' worldviews (Eisner, 2002). In other words, "artworks can provide an understanding of reality" similar to "scientific hypotheses and historical narratives" (Young, 2001, p. 23). ...
Chapter
Denne fjerde NAFOL-boken er nok et viktig bidrag til kunnskapsfeltet om og for lærerutdanningen. Som tidligere NAFOL-bøker inneholder den en samling av forskningsartikler om verdi og validitet i lærerutdanningsforskning som krysser nasjonale grenser, fagdisipliner og ikke minst utdanningsnivå, fra barnehage til videregående og forskeropplæringen. Med artikler fra England, Østerrike, Italia, Island og Norge gir boken et innblikk i dagens internasjonale lærerutdanningsforskning, særlig med tanke på at data er hentet inn fra Hviterussland og hele Europa. Også i denne boken har vi valgt å beholde originalspråket artiklene er skrevet på, og det er med glede vi ser at flere norske forskere melder seg inn i det internasjonale forskningsmiljøet ved å skrive på engelsk. Samtidig er det viktig å ivareta det norske språket i forskningsformidlingen, og denne boken søker etter å finne en balanse mellom internasjonal og nasjonal formidling. Det er et stort mangfold både i forskningstematikken og forskningsmetoder, noe som preger forskningsfeltet. NAFOL står sentralt i denne positive utviklingen med sine vel 200 tidligere og nåværende stipendiater. NAFOL-bøkene, og ikke minst denne boken, gir et godt bilde av dagens lærerutdanningsforskning. NAFOLs arbeid og bidrag til lærerutdanningsforskning er kjent langt utover Norge, og denne boken symboliserer den internasjonale dialogen om lærerutdanningsforskning som NAFOL aktivt deltar i. Boken er en unik kilde for forskere som ønsker å holde seg oppdatert om norsk og internasjonal lærerutdanningsforskning.
... We conducted expert evaluations to quantitatively assess the participants' drawing task performance. The evaluation rubric to assess the quality of students' drawing task was first developed based on the literature review (Rourke & Anderson, 2004) that includes three dimensions: Creativity in content, expressivity in expression, and public utility in effectiveness (Eisner, 2002;Pavlou et al., 2000;Stokes, 2005;Stuhlfaut & Yoo, 2013;West et al., 2008) followed by two rounds of expert review administered electronically via email to guarantee the validity of this rubric. Six experts who were proficient in art education, educational technology, and public advertisement participated in each round of the survey consisting of open-ended questions to verify whether the evaluation areas and criteria were appropriately categorized and make further feedback on how they could be improved. ...
Article
A growing number of educators expect that artificial intelligence (AI) will augment students' capacities and rapidly transform the teaching and learning practice. However, there is a lack of convincing evidence on the effects of Student-AI Collaboration (SAC) on a learning task's performance. A critical examination of the effects on students' learning performance is a crucial step in understanding the potential benefits of SAC on learning. Through a repeated measure experiment participated by 20 undergraduate students in South Korea, this study examined the effects of SAC on a public advertisement drawing task. The findings revealed that SAC significantly affects creativity in content, expressivity in expression, and public utility in effectiveness varied depending on students' attitude toward AI or on the level of drawing skill. Implications for the design of educational AI and AI literacy education are discussed.
... Δίνει τη δυνατότητα ψυχικής έκφρασης, ενισχύει την επικοινωνία, την παρατηρητικότητα και τον έλεγχο της κίνησης και δημιουργεί θετική διάθεση προς τη μάθηση. Μας επιτρέπει να βλέπουμε νέες πιθανότητες και προοπτικές και μας βοηθά να μπαίνουμε στη θέση του άλλου (Eisner, 2002, όπως αναφέρεται στο Martzog, Kuttner, & Pollak, 2016. Σε σχετική μελέτη (Goldstein & Winner, 2012), βρέθηκε πως η αξιοποίηση του θεάτρου σε εφήβους βελτίωσε την ενσυναίσθησή τους. ...
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This paper presents a brief literature review on the impact of Waldorf education on students’ and graduates’ socio-emotional health. The main elements of Waldorf education which contribute to socio-emotional health are identified and described, namely, integration of the arts, movement and play, promoting relationships, reconnecting with nature, and spiritual development. Finally, the positive impact of Waldorf education on the reduction of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is analyzed.
Chapter
Arts education may be loosely understood as teaching and learning in or through the arts within a variety of formal and informal environments including Pre–K-12 schools, colleges and universities, community organizations, libraries and museums, cultural centers, or within one’s home or community. This entry explores the historical background, definitions, multiple purposes, critical perspectives, and connections to the now and the possible for arts education.
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The beliefs teachers hold about children’s imaginative capabilities directly influence their classroom practices. This paper reports on a small research study where the authors drew on an arts-based framework discussing two of Kieran Egan’s cognitive tools—in particular, the Somatic and the Mythic—to better understand the drawings of 5–12 years old about their imaginations. Drawing is valued as a process of metacognitive and creative meaning making that helps to explain the children’s thinking about where their imaginations are located and how they access their imaginations and creative ideas. The findings highlight the important role drawing can play in enabling teachers to access children’s conceptual thinking. They also offer some insight into how children understand the role imagination plays in their lives and learning.
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Background. The article investigates the educational potential of visual arts for teaching English dialogue to high school students. The analysis of literature indicates the importance of using visual arts in teaching dialogue to secondary school students as it enables increasing the motivation of students to communicate, creates favourable conditions for creativity, and also reduces anxiety in the classroom. Purpose. Numerous studies have examined the educational potential of visual arts for teaching foreign languages, but no research has been found which give insight into the impact of visual arts on teaching spoken dialogue to high schoolers. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to study the effectiveness of using painting in an English classroom for enhancing dialogic communication. Methodology. The methodology of the research rests on the experimental instruction of the 10th-graders (n=42) which was carried out in three stages. In the first stage, the survey was conducted in order to identify the difficulties that students face while doing tasks on the development of English dialogic speech. The second stage of the experimental research was the instruction in English targeted at the development of dialogic speaking skills in students using works of art. In the third stage of the experiment, the results were analyzed and the conclusions of the research were formulated. Results and discussion. The analysis of the surveyed difficulties faced by the students in the process of instruction indicates that 59.5% of the respondents feel anxiety because of fear to make a mistake, 42.9% of the students have difficulties because of limited vocabulary, 35.7% of the schoolers are passive in class for fear of receiving a poor mark, and 35.7% of the respondents feel shy to speak up. The survey made after the experimental instruction showed that 99% of students exercised positive emotions in the classroom; 88% of the students found it interesting to communicate with each other while discussing fine arts and 70% of the respondents did not feel anxious when it was necessary to participate in the dialogue. The obtained data confirm the effectiveness of using visual arts for teaching spoken dialogue to secondary school students.
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This paper sets out an ethnographic research project that aimed to document a Cork Migrant Centre (CMC) women’s group engagement in a 12-week print-making psychosocial intervention. In recent years arts-based programmes where migrant, refugee and asylum-seeking women participate have grown popular for their valuable therapeutic and healing capacities. However, the embodied realities of these groups of women remains an under-researched topic. The ethnography conducted encompassed the researcher’s participation and observation during the 12 weeks of print-making. The data set was pluralistically analysed; thematic analysis (TA) was conducted on both sets of data: field notes and interviews; and Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was further employed to analyse the interview transcripts. The managing meanings of embodied experience theory (Field-Springer & Margavio Striley, 2018) offered a framework that guided the IPA analysis and discussion of women’s sense of being, doing and directed becoming. We outline that creative arts practices and spaces allowed participants to express themselves in new ways where they acted as agents challenging the sociocultural constraints placed on their bodies, achieving a sense of liberation and transformation possibility. Although the paper only provides a snapshot of the IPA analysis and findings, we conclude that participants’ accounts illustrate the social community atmosphere that was created in the print-making sessions, indicating a gained sense of psychosocial wellbeing.
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Informed by a postmodern perspective on language, culture and visual art education this article examines what a creative, visual art focus can bring to the experience of language-and-culture learning for secondary-age students of Arabic as a heritage language (HL). It builds on our previous research focussing on student interactions with works by renowned artist, Ali Omar Ermes, which sets text in the form of Arabic letter shapes and short poetic inscriptions against a painted background. Here we seek to gain a deeper, more nuanced understanding of the process involved through an in-depth study of the thoughts, feelings and emotions experienced by three intermediate-level students as they engage with works by Ermes and then creatively transform them into ‘textart’ pieces of their own. Methodologically we adopt an ethnographic case study design focussing strongly on process but also incorporating principles of arts-based research. Our findings demonstrate how the approach can extend possibilities for meaning-making and affirmation of identity by connecting with personal experience, by leveraging multiple semiotic resources rhizomically and intertextually, and by making space for affective, spiritual, aesthetic and multisensory dimensions. For heritage language learners this brings a deeper engagement with learning and a strong sense of empowerment as multicompetent speakers.
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The development of Man as a social being is often underscored by his interaction with his boundary/boundaries, and the opportunities for reaching, overcoming, or shifting them. The challenges facing modern education, as well as the ever-increasing requirements for the training of pedagogical specialists, define the need for the construction of transgressive models for growth design and development of various competences of pre-service teachers. In this context, the concept of transgression receives additional connotations that orient it in the direction of the design of a multimodal environment as early as the stage of preschool education in order to achieve the idea of the “transgressive person”, constantly pushing the boundaries of their knowledge to facilitate personal development. The present article outlines the methodological parameters of the environment for multimodal preschool education as well as its potential and transgressive nature.
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Moving from STEM to STEAM through integrating arts presents unique opportunities and challenges. The arts have the potential to truly transform current approaches to STEM, particularly through contributions to development of critical thinking and spatial visualization. Through these artists’ ways of knowing, learning approaches can be designed which successfully realize powerful learning focused on authentic contexts to real-world problems. Our work as educators must focus on challenges to STEAM that underscore the complexities of teaching and learning. These challenges include developing goals and articulating a model for successful integration. As a movement, STEAM must also develop clear goals so that the arts is not an add-on but a vital component in the STEAM model. These goals will support our thinking to promote truly transdisciplinary integrative approaches. Such integration must become a common design process for educators who must blur the boundaries between science, technology, arts, engineering, and mathematics. This issue highlights thinking and experiences that move this conversation forward and helps us envision next steps for effective STEAM education.KeywordsSTEMSTEAMArtsTransdisciplinaryThinkingIntegrative
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The increasing environmental crisis challenges us to question the position of humans in relation to more-than-human cohabitants of our planet. It also urges us to rethink our relation to materiality and our responsibilities towards our environments. Educators in different levels and areas of education are intensively seeking ways to facilitate new generations’ transition to more sustainable ways of life. This transition needs to start from the individual level, and material engagement opens for possibilities for such encounters. Entanglements between human, more-than-human and the environment seem to be more graspable when we explore them through the sensitivities entailed in creative practices of crafting. Crafting is here seen in an expanded form, as reshaping, in mutual and shared processes through direct encounters among more-than-human bodies, matter and forces. Recent posthumanist thinking has provided food for thought in this vein and the field is now maturing into a movement that might have the potential to facilitate behavioural change. This introductory chapter provides the backdrop and the context for the discussions that evolve in the chapters of this book. We present an overview of current discussions and central theoretical starting points that are topical in the field of posthuman thinking and that can inform creative practice.
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This chapter explores a post-qualitative (St. Pierre, Post qualitative research: The critique and the coming after. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (pp. 611–625). SAGE, 2011; Lather & St. Pierre, Post-qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 26(6), 629–633, 2013) and arts-based research (Barone & Eisner, Arts-based research. SAGE Publications, 2012; Leavy, Method meets art: Arts-based research practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press, 2015) study of a teacher-researcher collaborative inquiry. The chapter takes an emotional journey through resistances with a school administrator, and personal reflections of the teachers’/researchers’ identities. It features multigenre writing and paintings/collages through intervals, pausing the narrative for the readers to engage in reflection throughout the chapter.KeywordsPost-qualitative researchArts-based researchIdentitiesCollaborative inquiry
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Learning in the arts is distinct from most other subjects for three reasons. First, the arts are centrally a representational domain and learning in the arts involves becoming aware of how representational choices communicate meaning to different audiences. Second, form and meaning are integrated; artistic representations are saturated with meaning, and subtle variations are consequential to that meaning. Third, work in the arts involves examining identify and culture, because artistic cognition is intertwined with both. This chapter argues that these three distinct features of arts learning have implications for our understanding of learning more generally. The chapter reviews four types of research: (1) how the arts have been studied in educational settings; (2) how learning occurs in different arts including music and visual arts; (3) the key features of arts learning: the role of the audience, critique, authentic assessment, and role taking; (4) how an arts-based perspective can contribute to our understanding of learning in all subjects.
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Παιδική Λογοτεχνία, επιστημονικός γραμματισμός, ιστορική γνώση, κριτική σκέψη, PISA
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Parents are continuously confronted with new challenges in today’s fast-moving online environment. They are anxious about raising their children in times of uncertainty and rapid social change under the added pressure of feeling that parenting with media is something for which they are directly accountable for (Livingstone and Blum-Ross 2020). Parents need tools and guidelines for a more conscious and critical mediation of their children’s media use. This PhD proposes a media educational project that empowers parents to guide their children towards a critical attitude towards media and to show that media can be used towards a common good (Gordon and Mihailidis 2016). The objective is the development of a framework that teaches this understanding and knowledge to parents using the arts as a pedagogical tool.KeywordsDigital parentingMedia educationMedia literacyMedia socializationCivic media literaciesCritical media literacy
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Historically, African communities were considered learning arenas for all. Folk-wisdom traditions and approaches to sustainable livelihood were transferred from generation to generation. These approaches to life created awareness of meaning of knowledge and skills to both society and individuals. Within the same communities there existed different art forms that contributed to contextualised meaning-making processes. In this case, culture plays a pivotal role in nurturing individual and community identities, ownership, and practices. Further, Art brings together people with unique cultural practices and helps them appreciate each other’s diversity, and understand the existing historical and cultural heritage therein. In the case of Uganda, there are various cultural communities with unique practices and values that help them understand their environments and who they are. Through Art there continues to be support for emotional and social independence during meaning-making processes in Uganda. During such engagements, there is strengthening of community participation and thus creating a sense of belonging, cultural documentation, advocacy for change and empowerment among individuals. In this chapter, through a globalised lens, I expound on the fundamental contributions of African Art as a form of social process through creative democracy, and cultural and participatory democracy towards meaning-making. I share both text and visual meanings voluntarily obtained through a narrative inquiry approach from participants in Uganda that have made contributions to material culture, social sustainability, and economic empowerment through Art, considering the space and time of occurrences. Linking cultural art forms in their works, artists’ advocacy of eliminating intellectual invisible colonialism and appreciation for the relevance of culture towards the development of contextualised knowledge and intellectual independence.
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As interest in creativity explodes, it has become more complicated to decide how to best nurture creativity in our schools. There are the controversial Common Core Standards in many states. Meanwhile, the classroom has become increasingly digital; it is easier to access information, communicate ideas, and learn from people across the world. Many countries now include cultivating creativity as a national educational policy recommendation, yet there is still debate over best practices. Indeed, many well-intentioned educators may institute programs that may not reach the desired outcome. The notion that schools 'kill creativity' has become a widespread social meme. We view such beliefs as both hyperbolic and problematic: they allow us to recognize there is a problem but not solve it. In this book, a wide array of international experts addresses these issues, discussing theories and research that focus on how to nurture creativity in K-12 and college-level classrooms.
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While professional codes of conduct and ethical guidelines provide baseline expectations regarding mandated child maltreatment reporting, there remains limited guidance regarding how to incorporate cultural considerations related to reporting when working with youth and their families. This is especially important given that the highest rates of child abuse and neglect are reported among youth from underrepresented and underserved backgrounds. A discussion regarding cultural considerations and practical recommendations is provided to offer guidance when navigating potential disclosure of child maltreatment.
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The study of metaphor involves numerous fields in recent history from cognitive neuroscience to linguistics. Visual metaphor research occupies an underrepresented area of inquiry. With the development of the cognitive sciences, a cognitive view of metaphoric thinking is emerging. This calls for a reconsideration of visual metaphor in the practices of artists and leads to the central research question: Is there a conceptual structure to the creation of visual metaphors by artists that closely aligns with the cognitive view of metaphoric thinking? This question is addressed in a qualitative, phenomenographic research study of a consortium of artists brought together for an exhibition. Findings highlight the cognitive, social and personal domains contributing to their creation of metaphor. The result is a conceptual structure of visual metaphor derived from the practices and exhibition of the artists. The article concludes with implications of the conceptual structure of visual metaphor for art education.
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The unprecedented onset and extensive spread of COVID‐19 has affected the lives of citizens around the globe. Children, in particular, have been thrust into modified and new learning environments. Although the global lockdown has confined so many, it also has connected people from different but shared experiences. One program that supported such connections is the International Youth Library’s (IYL) effort to invite children to visually respond to this challenging time in their themed call titled: “I-solation. Kids, paint yourself.” Young children from around the world, representing 42 countries, responded to this call with over 800 submissions. The purpose of this article is to share our exploration of how children used art elements and principles of design in their self-portraiture drawings to express their ideas and feelings during the COVID-19 pandemic. This exploration offers relevant curricular implications for teachers seeking to expand their literacy practices by inviting children to visually respond to how they are dealing with global and natural disasters, including difficult situations in their daily lives, that affect one’s sense of self, the home, and community.
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As the gender disparity increases yearly within art—with substantially more girls choosing to continue with the subject into asessed years than boys at secondary school—this essay explores a handful of the influencing factors for this gender imbalance, before exploring the ways in which we might begin to remedy such an unacceptable polarisation in subject preference.
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This article focuses on the discussion of the “autoethnography” approach, which is a form of qualitative research that has not been widely found in art study. Research using autoethnog- raphy method is a study that aims to understand certain cultural experiences through self-narrative and personal experiences. Criticism for this method is mainly due to its high subjectivity and lack of analysis, has made autoethnography approach is less popular in Indonesia, especially in pho- tography research.Research that examines visuals such as photography generally uses a semiotic approach, so this paper becomes a pre-eleminary research on the use of autoetnography methods in photography research that I am currently doing. This article departs from a literature review of art- based research, which is still underdeveloped in Indonesia art schools. I am trying to map how au- toethnography method is applied in photography study, so that it can become an alternative method that is academic, valid and analytical in art research.Artikel ini membahas fotografi melalui pendekatan autoetnografi yang merupakan salah satu bentuk penelitian kualitatif yang belum banyak ditemukan dalam kajian seni. Penelitian dengan metode autoetnografi merupakan riset yang bertujuan untuk memahami pengalaman budaya tertentu melalui naratif diri dan pengalaman personal. Riset ini menggunakan metode studi kepustakaan melalui pendekatan berbasis seni (art-based research) pada beberapa foto keluarga. Lewat penelitian ini, penulis mencoba memetakan bagaimana metode autoetnografi digunakan dalam kajian fotografi untuk dapat mengungkap peran dan posisi laki-laki sebagai “ayah rumah tangga”. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian pada beberapa foto keluarga, didapatkan fakta bahwa ayah selalu tampil pada posisi sentral dan dominan serta sejajar dengan ibu meskipun dalam kesehariannya berperan sebagai “ayah rumah tangga”. Hal itu menunjukkan sekaligus mengukuhkan bahwa posisi dan peran ayah di dalam keluarga sejatinya tidak dapat digantikan oleh siapa pun.
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هدف البحث التعرف إلى دور مشروع مهنتي التكاملي في تنمية القدرات الإبداعية ونضج الإتجاه المهني لدى الطلبة من وجهة نظرهم، تكونت عينة البحث من (60) طالباً وطالبة من طلبة تخصصات الدبلوم التي يتم تدريسها ضمن مشروع مهنتي التكاملي في الجامعة، تم تطبيق مقياسين لنضج الإتجاه المهني والقدرات الإبداعية عليهم، وأظهرت النتائج ارتفاع في مستوى نضج الاتجاه المهني لدى الطلبة، وعدم وجود دلالة إحصائية في مستوى نضج الإتجاه المهني تعزى للجنس، بينما كانت هنالك فروق دالة إحصائياً تعزى للمعدل التراكمي لصالح ذوي المعدلات المرتفعة، كما أظهرت النتائج ارتفاع مستوى دور عضو هيئة التدريس والمنهاج الخاص بمساقات برامج مهنتي ، بينما لم تكن هنالك فروق دالة إحصائياً في دور كل من عضو هيئة التدريس والمنهاج الخاص بمساقات برامج مشروع مهنتي تعزى للجنس و المعدل التراكمي، وفي ضوء نتائج البحث تم اقتراح عدة توصيات أهمها، تعميم المنهجية التكاملية من خلال ضم برامج أخرى لمشروع مهنتي في الجامعة لما لذلك من أثر في تنمية القدرات الابداعية ونضج التوجهات المهنية لدى الطلبة، والتقييم المستمر والمتابعة الحثيثة لمخرجات برامج مهنتي من أجل التطوير بما ينسجم مع متطلبات العصر واحتياجات السوق.
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New refugee students to Greater Vancouver, Canada, who have been exposed to violence and war are in danger of remaining “stuck” in traumatic memories and unable to lead productive lives if they do not receive treatment, yet stigma towards mental illness prevents many from seeking help. Education offers crucial opportunities to feel safe, recover trust in others, and participate in school activities; however, COVID-19 has upended schooling and some refugees are suffering declines in mental health. Drawing on surveys with 16 educators, including in-depth interviews with three art teachers, this study examines effective COVID-19 teaching strategies, beginning with forming strong relationships, arranging one-to-one meetings, and playing games. Some employ art to allow refugee students to express symbolically difficult pre/migration experiences, which has the potential for generating deeper meanings in events and new identities. This chapter investigates the value of art pedagogies in particular, not only in facilitating trauma processing, but also linking art-making to improved language learning, literacy, creative and critical thinking, and other academic skills; also, Mertins’s disability theory confronts the meaning of inclusion for those previously labelled as defective, preferring to understand them as “just different”. Although ethics is still an obstacle, one recommendation is for school districts to provide educators with professional development starting with trauma-informed school programs before moving into activities that bring therapeutic benefits through engaging with the arts.
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This chapter explores the indefinable nature of comics as an avenue for composition in secondary English classrooms. Embracing the indefinable presents an opportunity for students to express their knowledge, analysis, and interpretations without confines of alphabetic text. Students must not only consider what they want to convey, but what comic medium would most effectively suit their purpose. They must master rhetorical strategy. Comic composition is reflective of students' identities and allows for all students, regardless of fluency in English or any other possible hindrance in an English classroom, to express their learning and demonstrate and connect with course content. This chapter explores the practical use of comic-composition in the secondary English classroom, and specifically advocates for educators to expand their definitions of comics and embrace the indefinable. By removing the constraints of English from an English classroom, the authors see the potential for accessible, equitable, and culturally-responsive education for all students.
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This article presents how the art-works, part of our cultural heritage, can become effective learning tools to be used for the study of scientific subjects, mainly science and mathematics. In particular, it intends to show some preliminary results and works gathered during the piloting phase with Italian secondary school students of the first and second cycle.
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Background To inform STEM education for benefiting emerging bilingual (EB) and English fluent (EF) students, the present study evaluated the order effects of integrating science and arts within a large-scale, ongoing effort investigating the efficacies of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)-aligned Science Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) methodologies to provide more equitable opportunities to students to learn science through Arts integration (STEAM). The experiment examines the curriculum integrating order of implementing combinations of STEM and STEAM approaches in fifth grade life and physical science instruction, comparing (STEM → STEAM) vs (STEAM → STEM). Results T tests and a three-way between-groups analysis of covariance examined the impact of instructional order, language fluency, and teachers’ implementation fidelity. Findings indicate similar results in life and physical sciences, in which the STEAM first approach produced significantly higher science learning gains for both EF and EB students, revealing some higher learning gains for EF students, but with greater STEAM first order effect advantages for EB students overall. While EF students show higher learning gain scores in the high fidelity classrooms, the advantage of the STEAM first order is greater for EB students in all classroom fidelity levels and even within low to moderate implementation fidelity classrooms, as may commonly occur, such that the integration order of STEAM before STEM strategy is particularly advantageous to EB learners. Conclusions The integration pattern of leading with STEAM and following with STEM offers an important opportunity to learn for EB students, and increases equity in opportunities to learn among EB and EF learners of science. Both EB and EF students benefit similarly and significantly in high fidelity implementation classrooms. However, the gains for EF students are not significant in low fidelity implementation classrooms, while in such low fidelity implementation classrooms, the EB students still benefited significantly despite the poor implementation. These results suggest that a strong compensating STEAM first order effect advantage is possibly involved in the implementation system for the EB population of learners. Teaching science through the arts with STEAM lessons is an effective approach that can be significantly improved through introducing STEM units with the STEAM first order effect advantage.
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What are the possibilities created by teaching comic-making within the field of arts education? Existing research has explored comic-making as a route to the development of artistic skills and art appreciation, as well as showing how comic-making can be linked to explorations of identity and personal development. This paper asks what happens when comic-making is presented as a form of open-ended art practice, without set objectives or known outcomes. By drawing on the ideas and educational practices employed by cartoonist Lynda Barry, this paper puts forward an alternative approach to making comics in the classroom, by exploring what can be discovered by treating comic-making as the starting point rather than the destination of the learning experience.KeywordsArtsEducational practiceIdentityLynda BarryPersonal development
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