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# Teaching Children to Make Emergency Telephone Calls

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## Abstract

The purpose of this study was to develop a behavioral procedure to teach preschool children emergency dial ing and to examine its effectiveness. The behavioral procedure was administered by the classroom teacher to examine the effectiveness of teaching 4- and 5- year-old students to dial emergency telephone calls cor rectly when directed to do so by a parent. Training was conducted in a regular classroom setting. Three con ditions were compared to examine the effectiveness of the behavioral treatment strategy: (a) a behavioral procedure, (b) a teacher-devised method, and (c) a con trol group. In groups one and two, each subject was taught specific skills considered necessary in making emergency telephone calls. A component analysis for making emergency calls was carried out, and its content validity determined.
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... First, Russell Jones effectively trained four-and five-yearold children to dial for emergencies in 15 to 20 minute sessions spread over two weeks. 10 Subsequently, Jones and colleagues prepared six-and seven-yearolds in two 20-minute sessions per day, within a nineday median timeframe. 11 Older children (in this case, third graders) may be able to engage in self-instruction, if training includes behavioral rehearsal supplemented by continual maintenance. ...
... Journal of Emergency ManagementVol. 3, No. 2, March/April 200510 ...
... ,10 ...
... First, Russell Jones effectively trained four-and five-yearold children to dial for emergencies in 15 to 20 minute sessions spread over two weeks. 10 Subsequently, Jones and colleagues prepared six-and seven-yearolds in two 20-minute sessions per day, within a nineday median timeframe. 11 Older children (in this case, third graders) may be able to engage in self-instruction, if training includes behavioral rehearsal supplemented by continual maintenance. ...
Article
Currently, there is a lack of research on emergency preparedness training for children in self-care. To compensate, and to serve as an interim guide until sufficient resources and research exist, the authors reviewed relevant studies on emergency skills training for children home alone. They use these findings to outline possible training approaches and recommend strategies to validate locally-designed efforts. The authors call for further research that can be used by emergency management, education, and child-care communities.
... Although the usefulness of behavioral procedures to enhance functioning in fire emergencies has been demonstrated (e.g., Jones, 1980;Jones & Kazdin, 1980), no study to date has specifically targeted fear reduction in combination with emergency skills acquisition. The need for attention to this area is highlighted by the finding that approximately 40% of children indicate extreme levels of fear when responding to fire-related stimuli (Ollendick, 1983). ...
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We assessed the relative efficacy of two training procedures on children's acquisition and retention of fire emergency skills and ascertained their effectiveness in reducing children's fear of fire. Forty-eight second and third graders were assigned randomly to one of the four groups: fire safety, fire safety/fear reduction, attention control, and wait-list control. We assessed behavioral and cognitive performance on three occasions (pretest, posttest, and 5-month follow-up). Results showed significant gains in behavioral performance at posttest for the fire safety and fire safety/fear reduction groups. The fire safety/fear reduction group performed at a significantly higher level than did the other three groups at the 5-month follow-up. Nonsignificant drops were found in the level of fear in all four groups. We discuss the potential role of self-instructional strategies in producing maintenance and fear reduction among young children.
Chapter
Accidents are the leading cause of death among children. While there exist a variety of causes of accidents ranging from automobiles to playground equipment, a major source of accidents is fire. More specifically, burn injuries account for 15% of all accidental injuries among individuals admitted to hospitals for burns and scalds (Accident Facts, National Safety Council, 1987). Most fire-related deaths and injuries occur in the home; sources frequently are matches, stoves, and heaters. Hot beverages such as coffee are responsible for many of the reported scalds (Baker, O’Neill, & Kerpf, 1984). Younger children and children who lack parental supervision are at greatest risk for injury (Jones, McDonald, & Shinske, 1990). Most importantly, authorities on burns agree that 75% of all burn injuries can be prevented (Lalor, 1981).
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Young children in today's society may find themselves in situations that require appropriate action in order to avoid dire consequences, such as injury of death. These situations may be the result of contact with objects in the physical environment action in order to avoid dire consequences, such as injury or death. such as guns, knives, or toxins. In other cases, children may be faced with confronting dangers in the social environment, such as avoiding the lures of strangers or responding to the abuse or neglect of a caregiver. Although safety education programs are implemented frequently in school settings, few research studies have systematically evaluated the methodology for teaching safety skills to young children. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the empirical literature related to social safety skills instruction for young children with and without disabilities. Findings are classified into two groups: lures of strangers and sexual abuse. Implications for future research are discussed.
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The efficacy of group emergency fire-safety skills training for blind adolescents was examined. Eight subjects in a residential school were trained to respond to an emergency fire situation under simulated conditions. The intervention consisted of instructions, explicit corrective feedback, behavior rehearsal, social and token reinforcement, and verbal and behavioral reviews. Participants' fire-emergency responses were assessed in simulated emergency situations as well as during unannounced nighttime fire drills. A multiple-baseline analysis across subjects showed high levels of skill acquisition in all subjects during emergency simulations. Further, behaviors generalized to actual fire drills in six of the eight subjects. Results are discussed in terms of: (1) the cost-effectiveness of the group treatment strategy, and (2) the need for additional research in emergency safety skills with the visually handicapped. Limitations of the present methodology are indicated; suggestions for directions future investigations might take are offered.
Article
A study of families' responses to emergency situations was conducted. Participants included 5 single mothers, and their children, who had been victims of domestic violence. During baseline, families' survival skills were assessed in role-play scenarios involving threatening intruders, fire, and medical emergencies. Subsequently, family members were instructed in ways to manage these emergencies. Components of training were individualized on the basis of each family's situation (e.g., whether they possessed working automobiles, telephones). Results indicated all participants mastered these survival skills and maintained them during follow-up observations.
Article
Full-text available
Young children in today's society may find themselves in situations that require appropriate action in order to avoid dire consequences, such as injury or death. These situations may be the result of contact with objects in the physical environment such as guns, knives, or toxins. In other cases, children may be faced with confronting dangers in the social environment, such as avoiding the lures of strangers or responding to the abuse or neglect of a caregiver. Although safety education programs are implemented frequently in school settings, few research studies have systematically evaluated the methodology for teaching safety skills to young children. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the empirical literature related to social safety skills instruction for young children with and without disabilities. Findings are classified into two groups: lures of strangers and sexual abuse. Implications for future research are discussed.
Article
Extended the work of A. Cossiart et al (see record 1973-29805-001) by (1) broadening the range of teacher behaviors to include both the use of contingent praise and contingent educational materials, (2) presenting a procedure that was efficient in terms of demands on teacher and consultant time, and (3) illustrating the delivery of services using a behavioral consultation model with an actual client in the natural environment. Three teaching staff members and a 10-yr-old Pakistani boy with academic and behavior problems participated in a case study. Observation data of teacher–student interactions were taken 2 or 3 times a week over a 6-wk period by a consultant. The consultant also collected data on the frequency of staff delivery of praise and extra educational materials that the pupil found reinforcing. Results indicate that consultant feedback and praise immediately following each observation period had a positive effect on staff delivery of contingent reinforcing educational materials. There was a significant reduction in 1 behavior of the pupil that had been targeted as undesirable. It is suggested that immediate feedback and praise may not be required to achieve positive results and future studies might try a more flexible or intermittent schedule. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined developmental differences in children's telephoning skills. Four girls and 4 boys from each of preschool, 1st, 3rd, and 5th grades were interviewed. Ss demonstrated how they would telephone a friend and an ambulance and how they would receive calls from a stranger and a friend. A general developmental trend was found for Grades 1, 3, and 5. Incoming calls were performed better than outgoing calls, but the gap decreased with increasing grade level. Preschool Ss performed as well as Ss in Grade 1. Children of all grades were generally knowledgeable about the technical procedures for contacting help in an emergency, but did not know what information was important and necessary to supply. 62.5% of Ss responded that parents were not home during the stranger call. Results support previous studies suggesting that children may lack the skills for stranger and emergency calling. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Article
Of 100 children unable to dial a telephone number correctly, 91 did so with specially designed aids; 47 dialed with numbered discs, 44 with colored discs, and 9 who did not, either could not match colors or were unable to insert the finger in the appropriate hole. Students learned within 2 to 30 minutes of instruction. Skill maintenance was tested by taking a sample of 25 students who dialed their homes 2 weeks later. With minimal assistance this was accomplished within 2 minutes.
Article
Three different methods for testing all pairs of yȳk, - yȳk’ were contrasted under varying sample size (n) and variance conditions. With unequal n’s of six and up, only the Behrens-Fisher statistic provided satisfactory control of both the familywise rate of Type I errors and Type I error rate on each contrast. Satisfactory control with unequal n’s of three and up is dubious even with this statistic.
Article
Three different methods for testing all pairs of $\overline{{\rm Y}}_{\text{k}}-\overline{{\rm Y}}_{\text{k}}$, were contrasted under varying sample size (n) and variance conditions. With unequal n's of six and up, only the Behrens-Fisher statistic provided satisfactory control of both the familywise rate of Type I errors and Type I error rate on each contrast. Satisfactory control with unequal n's of three and up is dubious even with this statistic.
Article
Three reliably measured components of conversation-questioning, providing positive feedback, and proportion of time spent talking-were identified and validated as to their social importance. The social validity of the three conversational behaviors was established with five female university students and five female junior-high students. Each was videotaped in conversations with previously unknown adults. The conversational ability of each girl was evaluated by a group of 13 adult judges who viewed each tape and rated each conversant "poor" to "excellent" on a seven-point rating scale. The average ratings of the girls correlated at r = 0.85 with the specified behavioral measures. These procedures were replicated with additional subjects and judges and yielded a correlation of r = 0.84. The high correlations between ratings and the objective measures suggested that the specified conversational behaviors were socially important aspects of conversational ability. Employing a multiple-baseline design across the behaviors of asking questions and providing positive feedback, an attempt was made to train four girls who used these behaviors minimally to engage in the behaviors in conversations with adults. Adult judges were again employed to rate randomly selected samples of the girls' skills in pre- and posttraining conversations. The average ratings of the girls before training were lower than both the university girls and the junior high-school girls. After training, the girls' conversational abilities were rated substantially higher than those of their junior high-school peers. These rating data validated the benefits of the training and the social importance of the behavioral components of questions and feedback in conversation. The authors suggest that it may be necessary for traditional behavior analysis measurement systems to be supplemented by social-validation procedures in order to establish the relationship between "objectively" measured behaviors and complex classes of behavior of interest to society.
Burger Kmgfire safety program
Burger Kmgfire safety program. New York" Burger King Corporation, 1979.
How to use the telephone NatiOnal Fire Protection Association. Fire prevention week. Facts aboutfire Project Telepac: A prototype educational service dehvery model for severely handicapped children m rural and remote areas
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Left, R.B. How to use the telephone. Paoli, PA: Instructo/McGraw-Hlll, 1975. NatiOnal Fire Protection Association. Fire prevention week. Facts aboutfire, 1975. Project Telepac: A prototype educational service dehvery model for severely handicapped children m rural and remote areas. Logan, UT' Outreach and Developmental Division, Exceptional Child Center, Utah State University, 1976.
Teaching the TMR to dial the telephone Mental Retardation
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Left, R.B. Teaching the TMR to dial the telephone Mental Retardation, 1974, 12, 12-13.