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NUTRIOSE® 06: A useful soluble dietary fibre for added nutritional value

NUTRIOSE®06: a useful soluble
dietary fibre for added
nutritional value
C. Lefranc-Millot
Nutrition Management, ROQUETTE Group, Lestrem, France
The World Health Organization and Food and Agricul-
ture Organisation (WHO/FAO 2002) currently recom-
mend that the well-balanced diet required to help
control the global epidemic of obesity and for prevent-
ing diet-related chronic diseases should include: a bal-
anced energy intake (55–70% from total carbohydrates,
15–30% from total fat and 10–15% from total pro-
teins); foods that release their energy slowly, that is, only
about 10% total energy from quickly digested sugars
(mono- and disaccharides); and about 40% from
complex sugars, such as fibres.
The recommended daily intake of fibre is variable in
different countries, but is around 30 g per day per
person in most European countries using fibre quantifi-
cation based on the Association of Official Analytical
Chemists (AOAC) 2001–03 method (Gordon & Okuma
2002). This efficient, widely recognised and reliable
enzymatic-gravimetric high-performance liquid chroma-
tography (HPLC) method was proposed to the AOAC
for the determination of total dietary fibre in foods
containing resistant maltodextrin, and is mainly charac-
terised by the fact that it also takes into account low
molecular weight resistant oligosaccharides using
HPLC, unlike the previous conventional AOAC 985-29
method (Prosky et al. 1985), and the Englyst one
(Englyst et al. 1982), which is still used as a reference in
the UK (see Buttriss & Stokes 2008). A resistant dextrin,
branded under the range’s name NUTRIOSE®(NUTRI-
OSE®06 manufactured by ROQUETTE, Lestrem,
France) was launched in 2004 after many years of
research. It is mostly resistant to digestion in the small
intestine and largely fermented in the colon. According
to one definition (Roberfroid 2005) and to different
notices published by official committees in different
countries (e.g. Italy and France), it is a soluble dietary
fibre. It can therefore be added to make up to 20–25%
(w/w) of a foodstuff and is officially recognised and
labelled as soluble fibre in many countries. As such, it
can be one very useful tool to help achieve the nutri-
tional ‘fibre’ goal of the WHO/FAO. In addition to this,
more and more evidence is emerging about the benefits
that NUTRIOSE®can contribute to health as part of a
balanced diet, such as reduced blood glucose response
and improved gut health. It also offers an outstanding
digestive tolerance threshold, allowing its consumption
in the amounts best suited to achieving the desired ben-
eficial changes in the gut ecosystem. An overview of
these and other nutritional properties, already described
in published papers or in papers in press, will be given in
this paper. Moreover, as a completely soluble fibre, with-
standing extreme conditions of temperature and pro-
cessing, and very well tolerated when consumed, it is an
ideal ingredient for fortifying the fibre content of food
and drink; we will briefly conclude on its technical and
industrial advantages.
What is NUTRIOSE®?
Made from starch, NUTRIOSE®can be described as a
resistant dextrin. A wide range of dextrins exist for
human consumption, for nutrition or pharmaceutical
purposes. NUTRIOSE®can be made from either wheat
starch (NUTRIOSE®FB range) or maize starch
(NUTRIOSE®FM range), using a highly controlled
process of dextrinisation. During this process, the starch
undergoes a degree of hydrolysis followed by repoly-
merisation. It is this repolymerisation that converts the
starch into fibre, by causing non-digestible glycosidic
bonds to be formed, which cannot be cleaved by
enzymes in the digestive tract, and in addition, causes
some hindrance to the cleavage of the digestible bonds
Correspondence: Dr Catherine Lefranc-Millot, Scientific
Communication Manager, Nutrition Management, ROQUETTE
Group, 62080 Lestrem, France.
234 © 2008 Roquette Freres copyright Nutrition Bulletin,33, 234–239
(Fig. 1). Dextrinisation is followed by a separation step,
which ensures the optimum molecular weight distribu-
tion to give consistent rheological and technical perfor-
mance and also the right amount of fibre, which is 85%
for NUTRIOSE®06 according to the AOAC method
2001–03 (Gordon & Okuma 2002; Roturier et al.
2003; Roturier & Looten 2006). The product is then
put through further refining steps, including removal of
simple sugars to obtain a content of mono- and disac-
charides below 0.5% on dry substance, and is finally
spray-dried. Therefore, although a glucose polymer,
NUTRIOSE®06 may thus be considered sugar-free.
About 25% of its osidic linkages are not hydrolysed by
human digestive enzymes (Table 1). It is totally soluble
in cold water without inducing viscosity, thanks to its
fibre content, its analytical characteristics and further
physiological properties that we will describe hereafter.
Foods containing this product are consequently able to
claim ‘source of fibre’ or ‘rich in fibre’ if content criteria
defined by the European Commission regulation are
respected (European Commission 2007). For the record,
a claim that a food is a source of fibre, and any claim
likely to have the same meaning for the consumer, may
only be made where the product contains at least 3 g of
fibre per 100 g or at least 1.5 g of fibre per 100 kcal. A
claim that a food is high in fibre, and any claim likely to
have the same meaning for the consumer, may only be
made where the product contains at least 6 g of fibre per
100 g or at least 3 g of fibre per 100 kcal.
How is NUTRIOSE®06 digested?
By application of equations published by Roberfroid
(1999), the caloric value of NUTRIOSE®06 is 7.1 kJ
per g (1.7 kcal per g) based on the marketable form
and this value is consistent with clinical determination
in healthy young men (Vermorel et al. 2004) and in
agreement with the consensual caloric value of soluble
dietary fibres (Livesey 1992). This value can be used
for energy content determination for foods in Europe
(Coussement 2001). Unlike standard starch and like a
resistant one, NUTRIOSE®06 is actually partially
hydrolysed in the upper part of the digestive tract (Ver-
morel et al. 2004): only 15% is enzymatically digested
in the small intestine, while the rest passes to the
colon, where 75% of the initial amount is slowly and
progressively fermented in the large intestine and 10%
is excreted (Van den Heuvel et al. 2004).
Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses of
In addition to simply increasing the fibre content of
foods, NUTRIOSE®06 may also have a potential role
in weight management, because of its ability to provide
Figure 1 Structural formula of NUTRIOSE®06.
Ta b l e 1 Indicative values of glycosidic bonds distributions (in %)
respectively in (1) NUTRIOSE®06; (2) standard maltodextrin
(GLUCIDEX®, ROQUETTE, Lestrem, France); and (3) starch
Type of osidic linkages (1) (2) (3)
(1,4) 41 95 95
(1,6) 32 5 5
(1,2) 13 0 0
(1,3) 14 0 0
Benefits of NUTRIOSE®06 in nutrition 235
© 2008 Roquette Freres copyright Nutrition Bulletin,33, 234–239
long-lasting energy. A key index that has become
accepted as an indicator of the ability of carbohydrate
to prevent diseases of lifestyle and to help to reduce the
incidence of obesity is the glycaemic index (GI). This
measures the glycaemic response (an indication of the
rate at which the blood glucose level rises and how it is
sustained over time) after the ingestion of carbohydrate
foods. The GI is defined as the incremental area under
the blood glucose response curve of a 50 g carbohy-
drate portion of a test food, expressed as a percent of
the glucose response to the same amount of carbohy-
drate from a standard food taken by the same subject
(FAO 1998). The insulinaemic index (II), generally cor-
related to the GI, is similarly defined as the incremental
area under the blood insulin response curve of a 50 g
carbohydrate portion of a test food expressed as a per
cent of the insulin response to the same amount of
carbohydrate from a standard food taken by the same
subject. The GI and II seem relevant for some nutri-
tional considerations dealing with sustained physical
effort and also for appetite regulation, with lower GI
foods being the better choice in both cases. An impor-
tant consideration is that GI values can also be deter-
mined for mixed meals and whole diets. When
NUTRIOSE®06 is ingested it induces low glycaemic
(glucose response =25) and insulinaemic responses
(insulin response =13) (Donazzolo et al. 2003). It can
therefore be used as a slow energy release carbohydrate
to partially or totally replace other carbohydrates, such
as sugars and starches. For example, when used in a
concentrated fruit drink (Fig. 2) and consumed
after dilution with water, syrups made with NUTRI-
OSE®06 elicit a glucose response of only 10% of the
equivalent product made with sugar (Lefranc-Millot
et al. 2006a).
Possible role in weight management
The benefits of including more fibre in the diet are well
acknowledged. In addition to simply increasing the fibre
content of foods, NUTRIOSE®06 may also help to
delay the return of the sensation of hunger (Van den
Heuvel et al. 2004), which is consistent with previous
observations and reviews on topics such as the influ-
ences on satiation and post-ingestive satiety of foods
with a low GI (Bellisle 2008) and high-fibre content
(Slavin & Green 2007). Therefore, and as will be
attested by shortly published results of a recent clinical
study, NUTRIOSE®06 has a potential role in weight
management. Indeed, dietary intervention using
NUTRIOSE®06 supplementation as a soluble fibre sig-
nificantly modified some biological markers and
reduced some of the risk factors usually associated with
the metabolic syndrome in 120 overweight men (unpub-
lished observations). Moreover, the effects on vigilance
and cognitive performances after NUTRIOSE®06
administration suggest that the glycaemic response is
not the only factor to be considered for predicting
the efficiency of a food ingredient on the two initially
mentioned parameters (Rozan et al. 2008). This point,
together with the previously mentioned results on
weight management, lead us to put forward the idea
that the colonic effects of NUTRIOSE®06, and mainly
the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as
contributors to the daily energy supply, are also key
factors in providing a long-lasting energy supply. This
point remains to be clearly demonstrated by clinical
studies that will be complicated to design with unques-
tionable markers in humans. Indeed, products should
be, for example, tested in ileostomised patients, which is
not always easy to implement or ethically acceptable.
Figure 2 Mean change in human blood glucose concentrations after the ingestion of either NUTRIOSE®06-based syrup (based on concentrated fruit syrup
including 18.3 g per 100 g NUTRIOSE®06), commercial syrup reference (both products being similarly diluted, as prescribed by the manufacturer) or 50g
anhydrous glucose ingestion. Compared with glucose, the mean glycaemic response (GR) value for the commercial syrup (51 6) is significantly higher
(P=0.001) than the mean GR value for the NUTRIOSE®06-based syrup (6 3).
236 C. Lefranc-Millot
© 2008 Roquette Freres copyright Nutrition Bulletin,33, 234–239
Moreover, the results obtained are not necessarily rep-
resentative of those that would be obtained in healthy
Prebiotic effects
Numerous definitions of prebiotics with more or less
subtle variations have been given in the past decades.
Common well-known prebiotics in use include, in
particular, various types of oligosaccharides (e.g. inulin,
fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides)
(Alexiou & Franck 2008), having a long history of safe
use, although there is some concern about excess pro-
duction of digestive gas in the gut when consumed in
large amounts. However, new types of compounds
claiming prebiotic properties are also emerging, induc-
ing a need for a broader definition of prebiotic effects
and reflecting more recent understanding of the micro-
bial ecology of the human microbiota. Taking all these
considerations into account, the FAO has very recently
revised the definition of a prebiotic as ‘a non-viable food
component that confers a health benefit on the host
associated with modulation of the microbiota’ (FAO
Focusing on the physiological effects observed after
prebiotic ingestion, NUTRIOSE®has been studied
according to one definition (Woods & Gorbach 2001)
characterising a prebiotic by: ‘an increase in “beneficial
bacteria” and/or a decrease in “harmful bacteria,” a
decrease in intestinal pH, production of SCFAs and
changes in bacterial enzymes concentrations’. NUTRI-
OSE®06 has been shown to display all these prebiotic
effects through colonic fermentations. The different
results are derived from many studies, carried out in
vitro, in animals (rats) and in humans (Van den Heuvel
et al. 2005; Lefranc-Millot et al. 2006b; Pasman et al.
2006). These fermentations benefit the colonocytes in
the digestive epithelium, encourage an increase in the
population of beneficial glucidolytic flora (Fig. 3),
decrease colonic pH (Fig. 4) and subsequently decrease
potentially pathogenic flora (e.g. the number of
Clostridium perfringens decreases significantly in
human faeces after a 14-day administration of 15 g per
day NUTRIOSE®06, P<0.05). The production of
SCFAs from the fermentation of carbohydrates in the
colon also contributes a significant quantity to the
body’s daily energy supply, as the SCFAs are used as
metabolic fuel. Because this fermentation is not sudden
but is progressive through the colon, the sustained pro-
duction of SCFAs, in addition to the initial release of
glucose from the partial digestion in the small intestine,
makes NUTRIOSE®06 a long-lasting source of energy.
This slow and progressive fermentation is in contrast
to some other soluble fibres where rapid fermentation
may cause digestive discomfort such as bloating, flatu-
lence and diarrhoea. When consumed in the quantity
specified to give the claimed nutritional benefit, NUTRI-
OSE®06 is outstandingly well tolerated, with a thresh-
Figure 3 One example of saccharolytic flora (Bacteroides) increased in
human faeces after a 14-day oral administration of 10 g per day
NUTRIOSE®06. *P<0.05.
Figure 4 pH of human faeces before and after a 14-day administration of
20 g per day NUTRIOSE®06. *P<0.05.
Benefits of NUTRIOSE®06 in nutrition 237
© 2008 Roquette Freres copyright Nutrition Bulletin,33, 234–239
old of 45 g per day producing no symptoms of digestive
discomfort at all and no occurrence of diarrhoeal events
at a dosage of 100 g per day (Van den Heuvel et al.
2004; Vermorel et al. 2004; Lefranc-Millot et al. 2006b;
Pasman et al. 2006).
Future research
Apart from the clinical results obtained in overweight
people, a cholesterol-lowering effect of NUTRIOSE®06
has been demonstrated in moderately hypercholester-
olemic hamsters (Juhel et al. 2007). This effect is likely
to be related to reduced cholesterol and bile salt absorp-
tion and is promising for the prevention of moderate
hypercholesterolaemia. Moreover, NUTRIOSE®06
appears to exhibit a promising effect on intestinal well-
being and immunity maintenance, as beneficial effects
have been demonstrated on intestinal biomarkers
involved in the regulation of pain and the regulation of
inflammation in mice. These preliminary results suggest
that it may influence the regulation of local immunity
and perhaps be a promising and safe treatment for
patients with irritable bowel syndrome (Lefranc-Millot
et al. 2007).
Some technical considerations
This ingredient is easy to process and consume because
it is usable, without undesired digestive effects, at effi-
cacious doses. Moreover, it has a clean neutral taste,
with no sweetness. It dissolves rapidly and has only a
very limited impact on viscosity, although it can provide
improved mouth feel in, for example, diet drinks. It can
be added to foods without being noticeably present, a
clear advantage in many foods where additional viscos-
ity, gumminess or gritty texture would be undesirable. It
is stable at conditions of high temperature, variable pH
and processes involving high shear. Because of this sta-
bility, the quantity of fibre added as NUTRIOSE®06 to
a formulation will remain the same over the course of its
shelf life.
With its low glycaemic response, long-lasting energy
release, gut ‘wellbeing’ benefits and high tolerance,
NUTRIOSE®offers a wide range of health benefits in
addition to simply fortifying the fibre content of food
and drink. It withstands heat and acid, is soluble in
liquids and produces only limited viscosity. As the food
industry struggles to cope with the implications of a
global obesity epidemic, NUTRIOSE®offers a range of
preventative solutions including a way to reduce energy
density, while being very easy to use. More detailed
information on some of the properties briefly described
previously will soon be detailed in new scientific papers
currently in press.
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... SCFAs, including acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are a major product of prebiotic fermentation [10,11] and provide many benefits to the host, including reduced intestinal inflammation and improved intestinal barrier integrity [12]. NUTRIOSE ® is a soluble fiber with prebiotic properties [13]. Approximately 15% of consumed NUTRIOSE ® is enzymatically digested in the small intestine, 75% is progressively fermented in the colon and the remaining 10% is excreted [13][14][15]. ...
... NUTRIOSE ® is a soluble fiber with prebiotic properties [13]. Approximately 15% of consumed NUTRIOSE ® is enzymatically digested in the small intestine, 75% is progressively fermented in the colon and the remaining 10% is excreted [13][14][15]. NUTRIOSE ® supplementation increases SCFA production in rats and in humans [16] and exerts beneficial changes in the gut microbiota composition of healthy human volunteers [17][18][19]. Additionally, NUTRIOSE ® supplementation has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects in mice, rats, piglets, and humans [20][21][22][23][24], and to have effects on genes involved in membrane integrity in rats [23]. ...
Full-text available
NUTRIOSE® (Roquette, Lestrem, France) is a resistant dextrin with well-established prebiotic effects. This study evaluated the indirect effects of pre-digested NUTRIOSE® on host immune response and gut barrier integrity. Fecal samples from eight healthy donors were inoculated in a Colon-on-a-plate® system (ProDigest, Ghent, Belgium) with or without NUTRIOSE® supplementation. Following 48 h fermentation, colonic suspensions were tested in a Caco-2/THP1-Blue™ co-culture system to determine their effects on gut barrier activity (transepithelial electrical resistance) and immune response following lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Additionally, changes in short-chain fatty acid levels (SCFA) and microbial community composition following a 48 h fermentation in the Colon-on-a-plate® system were measured. Across all donors, immune-mediated intestinal barrier damage was significantly reduced with NUTRIOSE®-supplemented colonic suspensions versus blank. Additionally, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were significantly increased, and the level of the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 was significantly decreased with NUTRIOSE®-supplemented colonic suspensions versus blank in the co-culture models following lipopolysaccharide stimulation. These beneficial effects of NUTRIOSE® supplementation were likely due to increased acetate and propionate levels and the enrichment of SCFA-producing bacteria. NUTRIOSE® was well fermented by the colonic bacteria of all eight donors and had protective effects on inflammation-induced disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier and strong anti-inflammatory effects.
... Miravet, Alacid, Ob on, and Fernández-L opez (2016) spray dried pomegranate juice and used a NUTRIOSE fiber of a prebiotic nature as an alternative to a typical carrier agent. Lefranc-Millot (2008) reported that NUTRIOSE is a resistant dextrin that is produced from either maize (FM) or wheat starch (FB) that goes under the dextrinization process. ...
... More evidence revealed that it reduces body-weight, body-fat percentage and hunger in overweight men (Guérin-Deremaux et al., 2011). NUTRIOSE possesses the characteristics of neutral taste, good solubility, stability in high temperatures and in varying pH levels that offer vital evidence to its utility as a drying carrier agent in spray drying (Lefranc-Millot, 2008). Another approach that resolves spray drying's problems and enables lower carrier content is an application of dehumidified air as a drying medium. ...
Full-text available
White mulberry molasses was powdered with the addition of prebiotic carrier by conventional spray drying (inlet/outlet air temperature: 180/80°C) and by dehumidified air-assisted spray drying at low temperature (inlet/outlet: 80/45°C). As a consequence of decreasing the drying temperature, it was possible to obtain powder containing 90% of molasses (solids, wt/wt), which was not presented for this kind of material before. Moreover, highly satisfactory powder recovery (64.0–96.5%) was observed for the variants spray dried at low temperature. Physicochemical properties of powders were investigated. All of obtained powders characterized with water activity (Aw) below 0.25, which classify them as physiochemically and microbiologically stable. Powder spray dried traditionally was characterized with irregular particles of bigger dimension than powders obtained at low drying temperature. Furthermore, total phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of molasses before and after drying were studied. The expression of retention coefficient was proposed to describe the effect of drying on total phenolics content of dried material. In this calculation the presence of carrier is excluded because it is not the source of phenolics in powder. Spray drying at low drying temperature enabled better preservation of the polyphenolics (TPC varying from 1,491 ± 38 to 2,852 ± 48 mg GAE/100 g solids) and antioxidant capacity (EC50 ABTS ranging from 0.15 ± 0.01 to 0.10 ± 0.01 mg solids/mL) of white mulberry molasses than conventional spray drying (TPC 1,412 ± 13 mg GAE/100 g solids and EC50 ABTS 0.23 ± 0.04 mg solids/mL). Practical Applications White mulberry molasses powders may be a more practical alternative to concentrated molasses because of the high viscosity of molasses leading to problems with dosing, storage, and transportation. Molasses powdered at low temperature contains only 10% of a carrier, and as a result of high antioxidant capacity may be implemented in functional foods.
... The relative glycemic response (average 84%) of the Nutriose SFDs (C2 and C3) evaluated were higher than what has been reported for a wheat Nutriose SFD in humans with a lower RGR of 25% (30,31). A tapioca-based SFD similar to T1 and T2 was evaluated in humans and resulted in a similar RGR value as what was found using the canine model (48.2 and 51.6, respectively) (32). ...
... The higher RGR values result from a blunted response that lasted throughout the entire test with no sharp increases in blood glucose concentrations. These results are in comparison to a RIR of 13% reported for a wheat-based SFD in humans (30,31). A tapioca-based SFD resulted in a somewhat similar RIR in humans as T2 in this experiment (40.2 and 50.5, respectively) (32). ...
Soluble fiber dextrins (SFD) were evaluated for compositional and in vitro digestion characteristics, and for glycemic and insulinemic responses in dogs. Samples were derived from tapioca starch‐ tapioca‐based SFD1 (T1), tapioca‐based SFD2 (T2), and tapioca‐based SFD hydrogenated (TH), and from corn starch‐ corn‐based SFD1 (C1), corn‐based SFD2 (C2), and corn‐based SFD3 (C3). Tapioca SFD1, T2, and C2 had the lowest free sugar concentration (~2.0%). Intermediate free sugar concentrations were found for C1 and C3 (~23%), and TH resulted in the highest (92%) free sugar concentration. All SFDs had low to intermediate amounts of monosaccharides released after simulated hydrolytic digestion. Corn‐based SFDs resulted in a lower (P<0.05) digestibility than tapioca‐based SFDs (23% and 51%, respectively). Glycemic and insulinemic responses varied widely among SFDs, with an average glycemic and insulinemic response 55% lower than for maltodextrin. Tapioca‐based SFDs had lower relative glycemic responses (RGR) than corn‐based SFDs except for C1 which had the lowest RGR among all SFDs. The insulinemic responses followed the same pattern as the glycemic responses. All SFDs had low free sugar contents with varying degrees of resistance to digestion and attenuated glycemic responses. These ingredients may be suitable candidates for reduced glycemic foodstuffs.
... NUTRIOSE is resistant to hydrolysis by endogenous glucidolytic enzymes and is classified as a soluble dietary fiber. Moreover, NUTRIOSE has prebiotic properties (Lefranc-Millot, 2008 Samborska, Langa, et al., 2015b). ...
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The aim of the study was to compare sugarcane molasses powders obtained by conventional high temperature spray drying (inlet/outlet air temperature: 180°C/80°C) and low temperature dehumidified air‐assisted spray drying (80°C/50°C) in terms of drying yield and physical properties. The addition of NUTRIOSE as a carrier was from 0% to 40% (w/w, solids). It was possible to obtain 100% high quality powders without the use of a drying carrier with high process efficiency (up to 93%—with using dehumidified air) by using both methods. Low temperature spray drying positively translated into increased drying yield, lower hygroscopicity and improved flowability of powders. Moreover, the powders obtained by low temperature method were brighter with small, less diversified particle sizes of spherical shapes. Practical Applications Molasses is a by‐product of sugar production. Molasses have diverse applications as cheap food‐grade sweeteners as well as an economically feasible intermediate materials for production of some innovative food additives. Transforming sugarcane molasses from viscous, inconvenient liquid into free‐flowing powder, seems to be important by taking in consideration handling, transportation and the final application. Free‐carrier molasses powders fit well with the sustainability and clean label trends. Low‐temperature spray drying with dehumidified air is an innovation which allows to obtain higher quality powders.
... Resistant dextrin (RD) is a type of soluble dietary fibers [11], normally produced from starch through the pyrodextrinization process. It has random glycosidic linkages Processes 2022, 10, 2404 2 of 12 apart from α-1,4 and α-1,6 linkages found in starch molecules. ...
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Low-GI biscuits are commonly produced using whole-grain flour, bran, or soluble dietary fibers, giving an undesirable texture. New low-GI biscuits containing dietary fibers and with improved palatability were formulated by substituting 60% of wheat flour (WF) with a native starch (ST) and 15% of WF with a resistant dextrin (RD), a source of dietary fibers. The botanical source of ST was common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Biscuits were also made with a single substitution by ST or by RD at the same level for comparison. The firmness of the biscuits was increased with the single substitution by RD due to its small average molecular size and high hygroscopicity, while it was decreased with the single substitution by ST. The double substitution by ST and RD not only produced the texture with the lowest firmness and brittleness, but also led to the lowest in vitro starch digestion rate and total starch digestibility. The human trial confirmed that the biscuits with the double substitution had a low GI of 47. The results indicated the additive or synergistic effects of ST and RD on the properties of the biscuits, demonstrating that low-GI biscuits can be produced with a substantial dietary fiber content without jeopardizing their palatability.
... Taking into consideration the above-mentioned studies, in the present study, we developed innovative phospholipidbased nanovesicles known as nutriosomes, containing the highest amount of Nutriose ® (a soluble, prebiotic fiber) (Catalán-Latorre et al., 2018), which, in addition, has been shown to improve human gut-microbiota composition and reduce blood glucose levels, if consumed daily (Lefranc-Millot, 2008). Being formulations tailored for intragastric administration and intended to pass the intestinal wall, the biocompatibility displayed by NN using Caco-2 cells, which showed a significant increase in cell viability, is of great relevance. ...
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Grape pomaces have recently received great attention for their richness in polyphenols, compounds known to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. These pomaces, however, have low brain bioavailability when administered orally due to their extensive degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. To overcome this problem, Nasco pomace extract was incorporated into a novel nanovesicle system called nutriosomes, composed of phospholipids (S75) and water-soluble maltodextrin (Nutriose ® FM06). Nutriosomes were small, homogeneously dispersed, had negative zeta potential, and were biocompatible with intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Nasco pomace extract resulted rich in antioxidant polyphenols (gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, procyanidin B2, and quercetin). To investigate the neuroprotective effect of Nasco pomace in the subacute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD), Nasco nutriosomes or Nasco suspension was administered intragastrically and their neuroprotective effects were evaluated. Degeneration of nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons induced by subacute MPTP treatment, the pathological hallmark of PD, was assessed through immunohistochemical evaluation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), and the dopamine transporter (DAT) in CPu. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Nasco nutriosomes significantly prevented the reduction in TH- and DAT-positive fibres in CPu, and the number of TH-positive cells in SNc following subacute MPTP treatment, while Nasco suspension counteracted MPTP toxicity exclusively in SNc. Overall, these results highlight the therapeutic effects of Nasco pomace extract when administered in a nutriosome formulation in the subacute MPTP mouse model of PD and validate the effectiveness of the nutriosome preparation over suspension as an innovative nano-drug delivery system for in vivo administration.
... One analytical method usually covers only one Table 1. Indicative values of the glycosidic bond distribution (in %), respectively, in (1) corn dextrin, (2) standard maltodextrin, and (3) starch, according to Lefranc-Millot [10]. Reproduced with permission from C. Lefranc-Millot, NUTRIOSE® 06: a useful soluble dietary fibre for added nutritional value; published by John Wiley and Sons, 2008. ...
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Reduced-fat products can help to fight obesity and its associated health risks. To develop appealing products, both product-specific fat replacers and suitable analytical methods for the characterization of fat-associated properties are important. The rheology, tribology, texture, and spreadability of a reduced-fat mayonnaise with different concentrations of corn dextrin were analyzed to determine properties such as flow behavior, viscosity, lubricity, firmness, and stickiness. Additionally, a sensory panel analyzed the samples for their mouthfeel (creaminess, firmness, and stickiness). Correlations between the results of the instrumental methods suggested that the analytical effort for the future development of appealing reduced-fat food products can be reduced. In addition, several correlations were identified between the instrumental and the sensory data. Results from tribological measurements correlated with the sensory attribute of stickiness, suggesting that tribometry can complement or constitute an alternative to complex and expensive human sensory tests. Additionally, the use of Stevens’ power law showed a high correlation between the Kokini oral shear stress and the sensory attribute of creaminess. The instrumental texture properties (firmness, stickiness) also correlated with the sensory sensation. The identified correlations obtained from comparing different methods may help to estimate the possible applications of new fat replacers and facilitate innovative product development.
... Further, NUTRIOSE can increase the number of intestinal Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroides (Lefranc-Millot 2010;Lefranc-Millot et al. 2012). In the study, the effects of NUTRIOSE on glycosidase activities of intestinal microbiota were investigated, the results showed that the activities of a-D-glucosidase, b-D-glucosidase, b-D-xylosidase, and a-L-rhamnosidase were increased by NUTRIOSE treatment. ...
The chloroplast genome variation between plant species and individuals is especially valuable for studying plant genome diversity. Recently, 45S rDNA and the complete chloroplast genome sequences from seven Panax and relative species have enhanced our understanding of the genetic and molecular basis that can exploit genome evolution, diversity and conservation in the Araliaceae family. In this chapter, we characterize the genetic diversity and present the phylogenetic relationship of Panax and relative species. We also show the 60kbp of chloroplast genome segments which transferred into mitochondrial genomes and remained conserved as extra copies in the mitochondrial genomes that can cause false authentication or confusion. The study provides genomic resources for understanding of evolution in the Panax genus and practical DNA markers suitable for authentication and barcoding of each species.
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Due to the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated health problems, the demand for low-calorie and low-fat foods is growing worldwide, especially in the fast food and convenience sectors. However, fat- or calorie-reduced products are often accompanied by sensory deficiencies. Although fat reduction in foods has been addressed in literature, an ideal fat replacer has not been identified due to the variety of fats, their multifarious functions in foods, and the wide range of food products. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of selected fat replacers on the properties of reduced-fat model emulsion systems and processed cheese. The use of dietary fibers as fat replacers was of particular interest due to their intrinsic health benefits. In addition, both new and established methods of measurement of sensory attributes were applied and compared to determine correlations of findings between different methods of measurement. Chapter 1 addresses the influence of fat replacers on attributes such as energy density, flowability, and firmness in a real food product, processed cheese. To this end, microparticulated whey protein (MWP), which has been widely used as a fat replacer, and three dietary fibers (corn dextrin (CD), inulin, and polydextrose), were used in reduced-fat processed cheese slices. A reduction in energy density of about 30 to 40% was achieved using a fat replacer compared to standard commercial full-fat processed cheese. Higher CD and inulin concentrations reduced the flowability of the cheese slices upon heating, but only had a minor impact on the firmness of the unheated cheese. The addition of MWP resulted in firmer cheese slices with higher flowability compared to the other fat replacers. However, changes in the MWP concentration had little effect on either property. The results demonstrated that different fat replacers with varying concentrations need to be applied to achieve desired attributes for specific conditions of use, e.g., unheated cheese in sandwiches or heated cheese in cheeseburgers. To evaluate newly developed reduced-fat foods, the impact of fat replacers on sensory properties and aroma release also needs to be investigated, which is addressed in chapters 2 to 4. Due to the complex composition of cheese, systematic investigation of the mode of action of fat replacers is difficult. Therefore, emulsion-based model foods were used to eliminate interfering factors and natural variations of ingredients. The second study (chapter 2) focused on developing and validating appropriate methods to investigate the effects of fat, fat reduction and the use of fat replacers on emulsion systems. Tribology, a comparatively new method in food research, was used to instrumentally analyze selected aspects of food mouthfeel. Reduced-fat salad mayonnaises were prepared as separate samples containing different CD concentrations, and characterized using textural, rheological and tribological analyses together with measures of spreadability and human-sensory analysis. The results showed a very high correlation between tribological measurements and the sensory evaluation of the attribute stickiness. In addition, it was shown that some correlations between instrumental and sensory data were best described by a non-linear correlation (Stevens’ power law), such as the relationship between Texture Analyzer measurements and sensory sensations of firmness. Furthermore, the Kokini oral shear stress correlated very well with the sensory attribute creaminess. Hence, the instrumental analytical methods used showed the potential to predict elements of the sensory analysis and reduce the overall analytical effort. While aroma release plays a key role in consumer acceptance, the influence of fat replacers on this attribute has rarely been studied. The third study (chapter 3) therefore investigated not only techno-functional properties but also the release of typical cheese aromas using a liquid emulsion as a model food. While both MWP and CD exhibited a retarding effect on the release of lipophilic aroma compounds, MWP also reduced the release of hydrophilic aroma compounds. It was also shown that aroma release is not only influenced by a change in viscosity, but also by interactions between aroma compounds and fat replacers. In this context, CD exhibited a similar ability to interact with aroma compounds as fat, which is desirable for the development of low-fat foods. In the final study (chapter 4), the findings and methods developed in chapters 1-3 of this work, supplemented with additional methods, were used to investigate the effect of fat reduction and CD concentration on a model processed cheese spread (PCS). By replacing 50% of fat completely with CD, the fat content of the PCS could be reduced without causing any significant changes in properties compared to the full-fat version, e.g. in firmness, flowability upon heating and aroma release. CD was determined to be a promising fat replacer, mimicking important properties of fat. Additional correlations, such as those between the parameters of Winter’s critical gel theory (gel strength and interaction factor) and spreadability and lubrication properties were identified and can help to further reduce the analytical effort. In conclusion, CD has been confirmed as a promising fat replacer in both liquid and semi-solid food emulsion products. Furthermore, this work contributes to closing the research gap in the instrumental measurement of sensory attributes by outlining correlations, for example, between tribological methods and mouthfeel sensations. Thus, the evaluation tools of this work can help to assess the potential applications of new fat replacers without extensive application and sensory testing which significantly shortens the development time for food manufacturers. In addition, the results contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between fat, fat replacers and aroma compounds in food matrices. This facilitates the systematic development of reduced-fat processed cheese and other dairy- and emulsion-based products which meet consumer preferences and accelerate the trend towards healthy eating.
Gut microbial fermentation of soluble dietary fibers promotes general and substrate-specific health benefits. In this study, the fermentation characteristics of two soluble branched-dietary fibers, namely, agavin (a type of agave fructans) and digestion-resistant maltodextrin (RD) were investigated against cellulose, using a simulated colonic fermenter apparatus employing a mixed culture of swine fecal bacteria. After 48 h of complete fermentation period, the microbial composition was different among all groups, where Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. dominated the agavin treatment, while the members of the families Lachnospiraceae and Prevotellaceae dominated the RD treatment. Agavin treatment exhibited a clearly segregated two-phased prolonged fermentation trend compared to RD treatment as manifested by the fermentation rates. Further, the highest short-chain fatty acids production even at the end of the fermentation cycle, acidic pH, and the negligible concentration of ammonia accumulation demonstrated favorable fermentation attributes of agavin compared to RD. Therefore, agavin might be an effective and desirable substrate for the colonic microbiota than RD with reference to the expressed microbial taxa and fermentation attributes. This study revealed a notable significance of the structural differences of fermentable fibers on the subsequent fermentation characteristics.
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NUTRIOSE® FB is a newly launched soluble fiber obtained from wheat starch dextrinization. This non-viscous glucose polymer is characterized by several linear and/or branched (alpha-1,6 and/or beta-1,6, α-1,2 and/or beta-1,2; α-1,3 and/or beta-1,3, beta-1,4) non-digestible linkages. Previous studies have shown that NUTRIOSE® FB is poorly hydrolysed and absorbed in the small intestine, and well fermented along the colon. Aim: The present study investigated the effect of this soluble non-viscous dietary fiber source on cholesterolemia and lipid metabolism in moderately hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Methods: 5 groups of 8 Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly assigned to receive for 3 weeks either a standard diet without cholesterol, or 0.25 % cholesterol-enriched diets providing different amounts of NUTRIOSE® FB, i.e. no (control cellulose: CHO), 3% (N3), 6% (N6) or 9 % (N9) (w:w). Results: As compared to the CHO diet, the 9% NUTRIOSE® FB diet significantly (P < 0.05) lowered the plasma and LDL cholesterol by 14.5 % and 23.8 %, respectively. The LDL-cholesterol lowering effect was also significant with the 6 % dose (-21.4 %, P < 0.05). All NUTRIOSE® FB-containing diets prevented hepatic cholesterol accumulation (-10 to -20 %, P < 0.05) and increased bile cholesterol (+47 to +68 %, P < 0.05) and phospholipids (30 to 45 %, P < 0.05) concentrations. Rate of dietary cholesterol absorption and faecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile salts were assessed in CHO and N9 groups. The 9 % NUTRIOSE® FB diet significantly decreased the rate of dietary cholesterol absorption (-25 %, P < 0.05) and markedly stimulated faecal neutral sterol (+81 %, P < 0.05) and bile salts (+220 %, P < 0.05) excretion. Conclusion: These data suggest that the cholesterol-lowering effect of NUTRIOSE® FB is probably related to the reduced cholesterol and bile salt absorptions, and support its use as a new dietary functional fiber to prevent moderate hypercholesterolemia.
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Irritable Bowel Syndrom (IBS) is the most common gastrointestinal disease, affecting 20% of the general population and characterized by abdominal pain and infraclinical intestinal inflammation. Fiber supplementation is a classical treatment option of IBS but the role of fibers on intestinal pain and inflammation remains poorly known. Aim: to evaluate in vivo in mice the role of a prebiotic-like soluble fiber, i.e. a new resistant dextrin (NDR), on intestinal mediators involved in the regulation of pain (mu opioid receptor = MOR) and inflammation (proliferator-activated receptors gamma = PPARg; interleukin-1 beta = IL-1b; tumor necrosis factor alpha = TNFa). Method: NDR 10% and its control Dextrose were orally administered during 4 weeks to healthy mice having free access to food and tap water. MOR, PPARg, IL-1b and TNFa mRNA levels were quantified blindly by real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) from mice's colon samples. Results: Compared to the control supplementation, NDR induced a significant increased colonic expression of the analgesic receptor MOR (p<0.01) and of the anti-inflammatory nuclear receptor PPARg (p<0.01), together with a significant decreased concentration of IL-1b mRNA (p<0.003) and a trend to decrease TNFa mRNA levels (p=0.056). Conclusion: IBS, although being a not life-threatening disorder in adult people, often leads to disabling (social events, traveling, work). A four weeks administration of NDR improved significantly biological markers of abdominal pain and inflammation in mice. These results advance our understanding of fiber effects on intestinal pain and inflammation, showing that NDR may influence regulation of local immunity and suggesting that it may be a promising and safe treatment of IBS patients.
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Diabetes prevention is a major health concern in obesity management. Obese people are up to 80 times more likely to develop Type 2 Diabetes. NUTRIOSE® and MALTISORB® can offer numerous advantages for healthy diet. They can be used for replacing the bulk of the sugar and, in the case of maltitol, most of the sweetness, together with inducing low glycemic and insulinemic responses. As a non-viscous, soluble and process stable dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE® (low GR) can easily be incorporated in drinks. Concentrated dilutable fruit drinks formulated with it elicits a glucose response of 10% compared to similar standard commercial product, when consumed after dilution in water. Moreover, it brings a beneficial intake of about 1/3 of the recommended daily intake in fibers. MALTISORB®, a sugar alcohol, can also fully or partially substitute sugar in foods such as chocolate, ice cream or biscuits, keeping the sweetness and the pleasure of consuming the product, whilst giving a significant reduction in the glycemic response (low GR). Both NUTRIOSE® and MALTISORB® make it possible to reduce the post-prandial peak in blood glucose level. Also, because of the weak insulinogenic effect, the rate of decrease of this level is slowed making it longer before returning to baseline. Additionally, fermentation of these products in the colon gives them an “extended energy release” and a satietogenic profile, without digestive discomfort at the recommended doses. These nutritional characteristics make NUTRIOSE® and MALTISORB® two potential key ingredients for foods and beverages in obesity management and diabetes prevention. ICO 2006
A method was developed for determination of total dietary fiber (TDF) in foods containing resistant maltodextrin (RMD) which includes nondigestible carbohydrates that are not fully recovered as dietary fiber by conventional TDF methods such as AOAC 985.29 or 991.43. Because the average molecular weight (MW) of RMD is 2000 daltons, lower MW soluble dietary fiber components do not precipitate in 78% ethanol; therefore, RMD is not completely quantitated as dietary fiber by current AOAC methods. The accuracy and precision of the method was evaluated through an AOAC collaborative study. Ten laboratories participated and assayed 12 test portions (6 blind duplicates) containing RMD. The 6 test pairs ranged from 1.5 to 100% RMD. The method consisted of the following steps: (1) The insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and high MW soluble dietary fiber (HMWSDF) were determined by AOAC 985.29. (2) Ion exchange resins were used to remove salts and proteins contained in the AOAC 985.29 filtrates (including ethanol and acetone). (3) The amount of low MWRMD (LMWRMD) in the filtrates were determined by liquid chromatography. (4) The TDF was calculated by summation of the IDF, HMWSDF, and LMWRMD fractions having nondigestible carbohydrates with a degree of polymerization of 3 and higher. Repeatability standard deviations (RSDr) were 1.33–7.46%, calculated by including outliers, and 1.33–6.10%, calculated by not including outliers. Reproducibility standard deviations (RSDR) were 2.48–9.39%, calculated by including outliers, and 1.79–9.39%, calculated by not including outliers. This method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.
A variety of environmental and physiological conditions are known to influence microbial composition and metabolic activities of the intestinal microflora. Among the recognized factors within the bowel lumen are 1. Diet, substrata, and nutrient availability 2. Redox potential 3. Gas composition 4. Acidity or pH 5. Osmotic and ionic effects 6. Surface tension and liquid flow 7. Endogenous and exogenous substances that may inhibit bacterial growth (bile salts, volatile and nonvolatile fatty acids, bacteriocides, intestinal antibodies, and drugs) 8. Bacterial interactions and competition 9. Intestinal motility Individual microbial species vary in their sensitivity to changes in these parameters. The composition of the flora itself can affect many of these factors. Fiber has the potential to influence most of the factors listed above. This complex interactive system is only now being explored, and only partial data are available in humans.
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Introduction Soluble dietary fibers reach almost unchanged the colon where they can induce “prebiotic effects”, characterized by: an increase in “beneficial bacteria” and/or a decrease in “harmful bacteria”, a decrease in intestinal pH, production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and changes in bacterial enzymes concentrations (Woods and Gorbach, 2001). NUTRIOSE® 06, a resistant dextrin, is mostly resistant to digestion in the small intestine and largely fermented in the colon: it is a soluble dietary fiber (Roberfroid, 2005). It also shows an outstanding digestive tolerance, allowing its consumption in amounts fully compatible with beneficial changes in the gut ecosystem, described hereafter. Results NUTRIOSE® 06 induced an increase of the colonic saccharolytic flora and a decrease in potentially harmful Clostridium perfringens in human faeces. These effects were noticed in 2 different clinical studies. After a 14-day experiment (48 volunteers), an increase in the saccharolytic flora was observed with 10 g/d NUTRIOSE® 06 (p<0.05) and a decrease of the genus Clostridium perfringens was seen following 15g/d NUTRIOSE® 06 consumption (p<0.05). In a second 35-day study (Pasman et al., 2006), a similar decrease was also observed, as well as a significant increase in the mean lactobacilli number (p<0.05) after a 45-g/d consumption. NUTRIOSE® 06 induced a significant decrease in the fecal pH of human volunteers. This was observed in the two previously described trials, following either the short or the long period of NUTRIOSE® 06 consumption: in study 1, after a 14-day administration period of 20g/d (p<0.05), in study 2 (Pasman et al., 2006), at a nearly dose-dependent speed with treatment duration in both treated groups (30 and 45 g/d). NUTRIOSE® 06 induced production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in rats. When administered during 36 days to Sprague-Dawley laboratory rats, it induced a significant increase of 108% for the propionic acid (p<0.005) in the group receiving 10% in feed. NUTRIOSE® 06 induced changes in fecal bacterial enzyme concentration. In study 1, fecal β-glucosidase concentration became significantly higher after14 days of 10 or 15 g/d NUTRIOSE® 06 (p<0.05). In a previous short-term tolerance study in humans (Van den Heuvel et al., 2004), a similar result (p<0.05) had been already observed even at the lowest dose of 10g/d. In study 2, the significant increase of β-glucosidase production (p<0.05) was still maintained after a 35-day consumption of both doses of 30 and 45g /d (p<0.05), showing a stabilization of the colonic flora. NUTRIOSE® 06 exhibits an outstanding digestive tolerance. In all studies, the digestive tolerance of NUTRIOSE® 06 was excellent with only flatulence occurring at a mild intensity in some treated groups compared to the placebo, and no diarrhea occurring even at 80 g/d NUTRIOSE® 06 treatment (p<0.05) (Van den Heuvel et al., 2004). Discussion. Results presented above show the specific fermentation pattern of NUTRIOSE® 06 in humans. It likely stimulates the proliferation of colonic bacteria able to adapt to non-digestible carbohydrates (Marteau et al., 1990), among which the genus Bacteroides. As clearly demonstrated by the β-glucosidase production, deep changes occur in the colonic flora composition even with 10 g/d NUTRIOSE® 06. Moreover this enzyme can have subsequent positive effect on residual polysaccharides from foods, delivering micronutrients becoming available in the colon. An increase in lactobacilli was also observed, and in all animal studies conducted, an increase in SCFAs production indicated that fermentations took place after NUTRIOSE® 06 consumption. These events result in a decrease in gut pH associated with a decrease in potentially harmful gram-negative bacteria, as seen for the genus Clostridium perfringens with a 15 g/d NUTRIOSE® 06 consumption. Conclusion. From 10 g/d NUTRIOSE® 06 consumption, positive changes can be observed in the gut microflora. Saccharolytic bacteria, likely to ferment NUTRIOSE® 06, are thus growing to the detriment of proteolytic species such as Clostridium perfringens, in promoting acidic conditions in the gut. The enzymes produced by the saccharolytic flora could favour ultimately production of valuable end products for colonic health. Moreover, NUTRIOSE® 06 is outstandingly tolerated, even at high dosages. These changes in the colonic environment suggest a prebiotic effect of NUTRIOSE® 06. Marteau P., Pochart P., Flourie B., Pellier P., Santos L., Desjeux J.F. and Ramboud J.C. 1990 Effect of chronic ingestion of a fermented dairy product containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum on metabolic activities of the colonic flora in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52:685-688. Pasman W.J., Wils D., Saniez M.H., Kardinaal A.F.M. 2006 Long-term gastro-intestinal tolerance of NUTRIOSE® FB in healthy men. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, Feb 15, DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602418. Roberfroid M.B. 2005 Introducing inulin-type fructans. Bristish Journal of Nutrition 93 Suppl 1: S13-25. Roberfroid M. and Slavin, J. 2000. Nondigestible oligosaccharides. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 40:461-480. Van den Heuvel E.G. , Wils D., Pasman W.J., Bakker M., Saniez M.H. and Kardinaal A.F. (2004) Short-term digestive tolerance of different doses of NUTRIOSE® FB, a food dextrin, in adult men. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58: 1046-1055 Woods M.N. and Gorbach S.L. 2001 Influences of fibers on the ecology of the intestinal flora In “Handbook of dietary fiber in human nutrition”, Gene A. Spiller (Ed), CRC, New York, USA. P. 257-270.
Summary For several years, there has been an increasing awareness of the fundamental role that the complex bacterial ecosystem plays in our health. Inulin and oligofructose are prebiotic dietary fibres naturally present in the chicory root. They escape metabolism in the small intestine, and their selective fermentation by the human colonic microflora leads to a shift in the composition of the indigenous bacterial ecosystem, in favour of health-promoting bifidobacteria. In addition to their dietary fibre effects on improved bowel regularity, several physiological advantages are linked to their specific pattern of fermentation in the colon, including improved mineral absorption, enhanced natural host defences and colonic protection, improved gut health, and beneficial influence on appetite regulation. The aim of the present review was to highlight the nutritional benefits of inulin-type fructans, focusing on key physiological functions.
The EU Nutrition Labelling DirectiveNational VariationsCarbohydrates, Polyols and Dietary FibreThe 1994 Attempt to come to a DefinitionCaloric ValueOfficial Methods Nutrient Content Claims on FibreThe FutureReferences