Percutaneous Coronary Intervention vs. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting for Severe Coronary Artery Disease

Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 03/2009; 360(10):961-72. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa0804626
Source: PubMed


Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) involving drug-eluting stents is increasingly used to treat complex coronary artery disease, although coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been the treatment of choice historically. Our trial compared PCI and CABG for treating patients with previously untreated three-vessel or left main coronary artery disease (or both).
We randomly assigned 1800 patients with three-vessel or left main coronary artery disease to undergo CABG or PCI (in a 1:1 ratio). For all these patients, the local cardiac surgeon and interventional cardiologist determined that equivalent anatomical revascularization could be achieved with either treatment. A noninferiority comparison of the two groups was performed for the primary end point--a major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event (i.e., death from any cause, stroke, myocardial infarction, or repeat revascularization) during the 12-month period after randomization. Patients for whom only one of the two treatment options would be beneficial, because of anatomical features or clinical conditions, were entered into a parallel, nested CABG or PCI registry.
Most of the preoperative characteristics were similar in the two groups. Rates of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events at 12 months were significantly higher in the PCI group (17.8%, vs. 12.4% for CABG; P=0.002), in large part because of an increased rate of repeat revascularization (13.5% vs. 5.9%, P<0.001); as a result, the criterion for noninferiority was not met. At 12 months, the rates of death and myocardial infarction were similar between the two groups; stroke was significantly more likely to occur with CABG (2.2%, vs. 0.6% with PCI; P=0.003).
CABG remains the standard of care for patients with three-vessel or left main coronary artery disease, since the use of CABG, as compared with PCI, resulted in lower rates of the combined end point of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events at 1 year. ( number, NCT00114972.)

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Available from: Antonio Colombo, Jun 25, 2014
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    • "In addition, the SYNTAX angiographic grading system was used alone to identify the potential risk for revascularization , and patients with high scores have a worse prognosis for revascularization with PCI compared to coronary artery bypass graft surgery (Serruys et al. 2009). In this study, we identified a significant association between the presence of Table 3. "
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a primary cause of mortality and morbidity in dialysis patients. However, it is difficult to select the proper point for coronary angiographic procedure, because dialysis patients frequently do not display typical symptoms. Vascular calcification (VC) scores of artery or aorta on plain radiographs are associated with CAD events and may be predictive of CAD in dialysis patients. Therefore, we evaluated whether high or meaningful VC scores on plain radiographs are related with the severity of lesions detected by coronary angiography (CAG) in dialysis patients. We retrospectively enrolled dialysis patients who underwent CAG and checked several plain radiographs within one year before or after CAG. Significant VC is defined as high or meaningful VC scores, such as long abdominal aortic calcification and medial artery calcification on feet. Of all 55 patients, 41 patients (74.5%) exhibited significant VC on plain radiographs and 23 patients (41.8%) underwent stent insertion. Among the 23 patients, longer stents were used in 18 patients with significant VC (34.1 ± 19.5 mm vs. 16.6 ± 15.2 mm, P = 0.029). Patients with significant VC showed higher prevalence rate of severe coronary artery calcification (P = 0.007) and diffuse/tubular stenosis (P = 0.012), detected by CAG, than those without significant VC. Thus, high or meaningful VC scores on plain radiographs were associated with the degree of calcification or stenosis detected by CAG. In conclusion, VC scores on plain radiographs may be predictive of calcification or stenosis of coronary artery before CAG in dialysis patients.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
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    • "CABG surgery is successful in relieving angina symptoms, improving survival rates and quality of life as well as overall life expectancy [3] [4]. Furthermore, CABG surgery is considered as the primary choice for patients with severe coronary artery disease [5]. Medication also plays a significant role in treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Medication adherence rates after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery are low due to intentional (e.g., deliberately choosing not to take medication) and unintentional (e.g., forgetting to take the medication) person-related factors. There is a lack of studies examining the psychological factors related to non-adherence in CABG patients. Intentions to take medication and planning when, where, and how to take medication and to overcome unintentional forgetting to take medication were hypothesized to be independently related to medication adherence. Furthermore, planning to overcome forgetting was hypothesized to be more strongly associated with medication adherence in patients who have stronger intentions to take medication, reflecting the idea that planning is a factor that specifically helps in patients who are willing to take medication, but fail to do so. Methods: Measures of medication adherence, intention and planning were collected in a sample of (N=197) post-CABG surgery patients followed from discharge (baseline; Time 1) over a 12-month period (Time 2) in Boo-Ali Hospital in Qazvin, Iran. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed in which medication adherence at Time 2 was regressed onto socio-demographic and clinical factors, the hypothesized psychological variables (adherence-related intention and planning), and interaction terms. Results: Intentions to take medication (B=.30, P<.01), action planning when, where, and how to take the medication (B=.19, P<.01), and coping planning how to avoid forgetting to take the medication (B=.16, P<.01) were independently related to medication adherence. Beyond that, action planning × intention to take medication (B=.06, P<.05) and coping planning × intention (B=.07, P<.01) interaction also significantly predicted adherence. Conclusion: Intention to take medication was associated with better medication adherence and action and coping planning strategies to avoid forgetting to take the medication added significantly to the prediction of adherence in the year following CABG discharge. This is in line with theory and evidence about the independent roles of intentional and unintentional predictors of non-adherence. As hypothesized, planning to overcome unintentional forgetting to take the medication was more predictive of medication adherence in those patients who reported higher intentions to take medication, reflecting the idea that planning helps patients overcome unintentional reasons of being non-adherent.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Psychosomatic Research
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    • "Lesion specificities were defined according to American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology criteria.16 The New Risk Stratification (NERS) and Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery scores (SYNTAX) were prognostication before stenting of unprotected left main stenosis.17,18 "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The importance of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided stenting of the unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) remains controversial and has not been fully studied in the subset of patients with ULMCA. This study evaluated the clinical outcome of IVUS-guided stenting using a drug-eluting stent for ULMCA. Methods A total of 1,016 consecutive patients with ULMCA stenosis who underwent drug-eluting stent implantation from January 2006 to December 2011 were prospectively registered. The primary endpoint of this nonrandomized registry was the rate of one-year major adverse cardiac events (MACE, including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization). Stent thrombosis served as the safety endpoint. Propensity score matching was used to calculate the adjusted event rate. Results The unadjusted one-year MACE rate was 14.8% in the IVUS-guided group (n=337, 33.2%), significantly different from the 27.7% (P<0.001) in the angiography-guided group (n=679, 66.8%). After propensity score matching, 291 paired patients were matched between the two groups, and the difference in one-year MACE between IVUS-guided (16.2%) versus angiography-guided (24.4%) groups was still significant (P=0.014), mainly driven by decreased rates of cardiac death (1.7%) and target vessel revascularization (3.4%) in the IVUS-guided group when compared with 5.2% (P=0.023) and 10.0% (P=0.002) in the angiography-guided group, respectively. Although it did not reach significance (P=0.075), the adjusted one-year rate of stent thrombosis in the angiography-guided group was higher than in the IVUS-guided group. Conclusion Compared with angiography guidance, IVUS-guided treatment of ULMCA using a drug-eluting stent was associated with a significant reduction of one-year cardiac death and target vessel revascularization, resulting in less frequent one-year MACE after propensity score matching.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Patient Preference and Adherence
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