Consumer perceptions of grocery store formats and brands

ArticleinInternational Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 29(5):214-225 · May 2001with 728 Reads 
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Abstract
Grocery retailers are operating in a slow-growth market. The pursuit of market share is one of the main concerns for retail managers. The retail structure is becoming increasingly standardized and homogenous because of concentration of the ownership of stores. Cultural differences remain, however, between different European countries. Cultural factors influence the success of a positioning strategy. This study examined how consumers perceive grocery retail formats and brands in Finland. Data from personal interviews were used in highlighting the consumer perspective. Consumers perceive meaningful differences in various store formats, meanwhile store brands are seen as quite similar. Consumers rely on functional attributes of stores when discussing grocery stores. However, it seems that consumers are unable to recognize the fabricated, often imaginary differences at the brand level. The informant’s own, creative symbolic work results in this case to interpreting all grocery retail brands as similar. Managerial implications of the study are presented.

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  • ... Iklan bertindak sebagai komunikator di mana ia menginformasikan konsumen tentang produk dan layanan (Uusitalo, 2011). Kim dan Parker (2009) mengemukakan bahwa sulit untuk mengukur keberhasilan iklan produk private label dan iklan yang sukses sering kali disertai dengan citra yang baik (Steinberg, dan Jules, 2011). ...
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    Indonesia's retail business has grown with the increasing number of existing retailers. The presence of this retailer gave rise to private label products in Indonesia. Private labels are one of the retailer's strategies to be competitive in the market. The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of: Perceived Quality, Perceived Risk, Perceived Value, Perceived Price, Advertisement, Packing, Store Image, Social Influence, Consumers' Attitude to Purchase Intention Indomaret private label products in Jakarta. Data were obtained by distributing questionnaires to 350 respondents who met the criteria. Then the data were analyzed by classical assumption test, F test, t test, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. These results indicate that the Variable Perceived Quality, Perceived Risk, Perceived Value, Perceived Price, Advertisement, Packing, Store Image, Influence and Consumers' Attitude have a significant influence on Purchase Intention. Whereas Social Influence does not have a significant influence on Purchase Intention. Suggestion for research is that further research can be conducted with larger samples and different and more specific independent variables.
  • ... It could be claimed that customer have had to adapt to any changes being made in the retail structure, that they have changed their shopping behaviours to coincide with the product that retail environment is providing. For example, they have learned to travel longer distances, use a car for shopping, buy larger purchases, and be able to store them in their homes (Uusitalo, 2001). ...
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    Customers' position towards a retail outlet is essential to life for this shop in the view of its competitiveness. Namely it is only a customer who points out in what type of retail outlet he (or she) will realize his (her) purchases and what sort of purchases. The environmental development in the 90 of the 20th century meant a number of changes for post-communist countries. Formerly closed economies were opened and foreign companies have been allowed to penetrate territorial markets. In the concrete for the branch of retail business, this opening of markets has meant an incidence of trans-national retail giant companies and their super and hyper markets. Till this time, customers were accustomed to smaller shops of very limited supply of goods. This fact has caused, among others, the change of customers position towards shopping and the change of their shopping behaviours that have very sensible affected the competitiveness of small-scale retailers. In my work then I deal with the competitiveness of smallscale retail of the type of grocery, general goods, because especially these retail outlets, so called "retail outlets of village type", have suffered the greatest injuries because of super and hyper markets arrival. For a relevant assessment of competitiveness of this type of shops is necessary to identify many causing factors and to determine their weight significances. So it is impossible to exclude the factor of customers. In the article, there are introduced partial findings of my research on which basis is constructed the initial background for my next work and its outcomes.
  • ... Besides, packaging is important due to it reaches almost all consumer, therefore it is an important factor in the decision-making process, and consumer usually examined product by looking at the information provided on the packaging (Ampuero and Vila, 2006). Furthermore, advertisement acts as communicator where it informs consumers about the product and service (Uusitalo, 2001). Kim and Parker (1999) suggest that it is hard to measure the successful advertisement of private label product and a successful advertisement is often come along with a good image (Steinberg, and Jules, 2001). ...
  • ... As per Uusitalo, 2001, retail credits allude to an arrangement of store and item properties. Purchaser view of store qualities are impacted by retail organization, sort of the items, social quality, shopping aim and client base. ...
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    In an organised retail sector, retail service quality is the primary facet to gain or retain large number of customers. This study is carried out to identify the retail service quality gap in Big Bazaar retail store in Thiruvananthapuram. Survey conducted through questionnaire has 120 responses. Out of 120, 107 responses were administered for data analysis through SPSS 20.0 package. Retail Service Quality with respect to Big Bazaar retail store is measured through different statistical tools like Mean, Standard deviation, Friedman's Ranking Test and Compare Means in terms of five dimensions of RSQS. This enabled the researcher in suggesting the retail store operators in five dimensions of retail service quality to ensure that the best retail service quality is offered to the customers.
  • ... By ascertaining the desired product features and measuring their relative importance for Muslim consumers, marketers can establish the most suitable offering for a target market. Besides, marketers are progressively focusing on the distinction of product attributes by customising products to the personal and socio-economic inclinations of the consumers (Uusitalo, 2001). Thus, to contend with ever-varying consumer opinions, food producers are becoming more concerned about product attributes, as these are frequently continuous in nature. ...
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    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the key attributes that drive Muslim consumer purchase behavior in the context of imported Western food in Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used as a data collection tool. In this research, the in-depth interview data were analysed by using the manual content analysis (MCA) technique. Moreover, Leximancer software was used to reanalyse the data to enhance the trustworthiness of the MCA results. A total sample of 43 Muslim consumers from three metropolitan cities in Pakistan participated in the research. The sample comprises professionals, housewives and both college and university students. Findings Muslim consumers in Pakistan look at both the intrinsic and extrinsic attributes when purchasing imported Western food. The ruling factors explored were product taste, ingredients, freshness, hygiene, brand name and overall product quality. However, product packaging and labeling also play a significant role. Participants were of the view that imported Western food provides a better, unique consumption experience and an opportunity to choose from a wide variety of food options. Interestingly, interview findings reveal that Western food product attributes surpass the Islamic concept of moderate spending, thus convincing Muslim consumers to engage in the consumption of imported Western food. Social implications The presence of imported Western food may improve quality of life by having more opportunities and healthier options for the nation. If the Western food products are stamped Halal or made with Halal ingredients the product has a fair chance of adoption and penetration in the society. Further, it may result in overall health improvements within the society, which is already a major concern in the Pakistani consumer market. Also, food products coming from the Western world induces mindfulness; people are more aware about innovative and useful ingredients that can satisfy their taste buds. Originality/value This paper found that Pakistani Muslim consumers are not really concerned about the Islamic concept of moderate spending, and thus, established that Pakistani Muslim consumers are more concerned about product value rather than their Islamic teaching of moderate spending. From a population, with 97 per cent Muslim majority, product packaging and labeling were found to be a dominant and deciding factor, which, in itself, is an interesting finding. Further, established Western brand names help Muslim consumers to recognize products and plays a vital role in their purchase decisions. However, within product labeling, the element of halal ingredients was found to be a deciding factor, but not a leading factor, in purchase decisions.
  • ... As consumers are asked to compare small stores versus big stores, they display interesting perceptions of both types. Uusitalo (2001) study found that consumers perceive a small store is attractive because shopping there is efficient, fast, and simple. Accessibility, familiarity, and intimacy are important factors, which encourage consumers to shop in small stores. ...
  • ... British grocery retailers have for instance created a retail brand which is now regarded by consumers as being equivalent to and sometimes better than established manufacturer brands [36], [12], [5]. In other European countries, however, consumers may perceive differences between stores in terms of their formats [52], [21], [64]. ...
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    Relatively little is known about the consumer perceptions of own brands in the newly emerging markets of central and eastern Europe. This paper attempts to fill a gap in knowledge by investigating various aspects of consumer perceptions of Tesco own brands in the Czech Republic. The key data for this research was collected by structured questionnaires from Tesco supermarket customers in the Czech Republic and the UK. Non probability quota sampling was used and the sample was stratified according to gender, age and income. The results of the research indicate that the general view of Tesco own brands is slightly less positive among Czech than British customers. However, significant differences emerge when these are examined in terms of income. Increases in income lead to a decrease in the favourability with which own brands are viewed in the Czech Republic - the opposite to the position in the UK. The age of consumers was also found to be significant, although there is not a linear trend. No strong correlation was found to exist between gender and any of the characteristics under investigation. The sample was limited in size (n=100 in each country). In depth interviewing would be necessary to assess consumer attitudes further. The results of this research may help Tesco in relation to its general expansion in central and eastern Europe and its brand building in particular. The originality of the paper relates to its study of consumer behaviour in one of the emerging markets of central and eastern Europe.
  • ... With regards to research in retailing however, few retailing topics have captured the interest of researchers and practitioners alike and have examined the patronage behaviour (De Juan, 2004;Dellaert et al., 1998;Finn and Louviere, 1990;Ganesh et al., 2007). Many of prior researches on retailing gave attention to store image and significance of store attributes in considering the concept of store choice and patronage behaviour (Medina and Ward, 1999;Outi, 2001;Sinha andBanerjee, 2004, Sinha et al., 2005;Sinha and Uniyal, 2005;Carpenter and Moore, 2006). Studies that link customer service to factors such as demographic, psychographic characteristics and store format choice are rather limited and under studied despite the fact of the discovery that individual characteristics of consumers influence their shopping behavior (Medina and Ward, 1999;Fox et al., 2004;Carpenter and Moore, 2006;Baltas and Argouslidis, 2007). ...
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    Studies that link customer service to factors such as demographic, psychographic characteristics and store format choice are rather limited and under studied despite the fact of the discovery that individual characteristics of consumers influence their shopping behaviour. Despite its importance and its contribution toward better understanding of consumer purchasing behavior, there is still lack of research in this area especially in the retail sector. In validating the measurements and investigating 408 questionnaires were filled by shoppers. The research concluded with a discussion on management implications as well as recommendations that suppliers should supply the good in shopping malls through considering their demographic and psychographic responses.
  • ... Our research highlights the importance of the store image as a driver of differentiation strategies, as well as an important means of managing store positioning. As supported by the literature (Birtwistle et al., 1999, Uusitalo O., 2001), a proper understanding of the store image can help retailers in store differentiation strategies. However, according to our findings, Italian retailers do www.ccsenet.org/ibr ...
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    Increasing competition in the Italian grocery market is pressing retailers to search for new ways to differentiate themselves and gain a better competitive position in the mind of consumers. In this scenario, we intend to explore consumers’ perception of grocery retailers in order to understand which store attributes consumers consider to be most important when choosing where to shop and which store attributes consumers perceive different between retail store formats and between grocery retailers. Our findings show that consumers do not perceive great differences neither among retail store formats, nor among grocery retailers. Even if they recognize structural differences among retail store formats, they perceive a growing similarity between them in terms of meeting shopping needs. Moreover, only few retailers are perceived as highly differentiated in managing the retail mix levers. Our work provides grocery retailers a specific knowledge of the attributes that consumers consider to be most important when making grocery store choice and suggests retailers which levers they should manage in order to be perceived differentiated from competitors, achieve a sustainable competitive advantage and consolidate their position in the market.
  • ... Thus, through this study the author has made an attempt to fill this gap to some extent and the findings may provide insights to the practioners as well as to the academicians to understand the behaviour of the consumer. Uusitalo (2001) found that the consumer preferences of product attributes diverge according to the nature of product and consumer choice was based on maximizing utility from the product attributes which was dependent upon budgetary limits of the consumer (Vishwanathan and Childers, 1999). Also, Broniarczyk et al. (1998a, b) suggested that a breadth of assortment offered by the store led to store patronage and this might be because of wider range offered more of the choices (Reibstein et al., 1975) Retail Marketing in India: Trends and Future Insights and lesser of search costs (Hoch et al., 1999). ...
  • ... The preference of consumers for hypermarket players is very much dependent on the convenience for the consumer to reach the place and the availability of free parking spaces for the consumers. Location is crucial for consumers (Uusitalo, 2001), and the success of retailing is dependent upon the location and access by transportation (Shannon and Mandhachitara, 2008). According to PricewaterhouseCoopers (2004;2005), Malaysians who live in urban areas prefer to go to hypermarkets whereas those who are staying in rural areas will choose to purchase from traditional grocers, convenience stores and minimarts (Alexander, and Myers, 1999). ...
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    This research looks at consumer preference concerning shopping day and time within the Malaysian market. There are five main hypermarket players in Malaysia. The analysis of this research is based on cross-tabulation analysis between the hypermarket players and the preferred shopping day and time. Data were collected from hypermarket consumers throughout Malaysia based on proportionate convenience sampling survey technique. The findings from this research indicate that the majority of the respondents do not have any specific preferred day or time to shop. However, a consistently high percentage of the respondents prefer to shop at the weekend and late evening. It is also found that there is a significant association between the hypermarket players and the preferred shopping day and time. Since there is no study on hypermarket consumers within the Malaysian market, this research is a breakthrough discovery for the consumer preference concerning shopping day and time.
  • ... There are many factors that determine a company's position on the market and to gain a better understanding, theories regarding these factors have been examined. According to Uusitalo (2001) product range is a common factor in retailing positioning and another factor that is becoming more prevalent among both retailers and consumers is private labels (Internet 3). ...
  • ... Corsten and Gruen (2003) contended that major activities in planning, store-based ordering and replenishment are attributable to OOS and OS occurrences. Formats of stores have also been linked to OOS and OS occurrences (Messinger & Narasimhan 1997; Uusitalo 2001) In order to gain a clearer understanding as to where and which activities influenced OOS and OS, the activities were classified in accordance to where they were carried out – inside the store or outside the store. Planning activities conducted outside the stores include transport deliveries, back store management; and activities related to inventory ordering include, manufacturers and suppliers management and the warehouse/distribution centre servicing the stores (Clark 2004; Emmelhainz, Emmelhainz & Stock 1991). ...
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    Purpose Previous research on on-shelf availability of stock tends to focus on strategic planning issues, including: consumer responses to stockouts, influence of product assortment, on-shelf availability management issues, the use of technology to improve on-shelf availability, inventory planning and ordering processes. Relatively few studies have been conducted on the management of in-store operations, specifically the “last 50 yards” of the supply chain. This paper examines in-store processes of a case study supermarket chain in this area, in relation to the management of on-shelf availability (OSA) to avoid out-of-stock or over stock occurrences. Research approach A single case study with multiple exemplars was employed using a qualitative approach to understand in-store processes, and OOS or OS occurrences in a supermarket chain in Singapore. A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty store managers within the chain – a representative sample. After each interview, on-site observations of the inventory order management and replenishment process were also conducted. Findings and Originality Initial results that consider four broad factors from literature; people, process, information and technology; indicate the following in relation to the company’s in-store processes: 1. Literature states that employees should be responsible for ensuring OSA using initiatives such as performance-based remuneration. However, in this case, such efforts were only effective at certain stages of in-store operations. 2. Lack of formal storage systems in back stores did not necessarily lead to delayed replenishment as extant literature has indicated. Replenishment staff in the case were able to improvise ways to establish informal storage systems to facilitate quick replenishment. 3. Whilst literature implies that on-site supplier collaborated ordering improves inventory visibility, data shows that failure to detect processing errors results in incorrect deliveries, impacting stores’ ability to ensure OSA. Case stores have provided suppliers with on line access in their own premises, reducing errors. 4. Literature states that stores’ ordering processes are improved by electronic ordering. Data shows that errors at data entry stage can deflect intended benefits of the system. While training at systems’ implementation stage is vital, devising a fool-proof data entry system is essential. Research impact Findings indicate that management should develop employee-level responsibility beyond what literature implies, to include on-shelf availability and back store management. In addition, supplier access to data through their own site access impacts ability to ensure on-shelf availability to avoid OOS and OS occurrences. Practical impact This study has shown the importance of management encouraging employees’ understanding of how on-shelf availability can affect continual store patronage, and including this issue in performance evaluation. Whilst prescribed in-store processes have been advocated to achieve on-shelf availability and ease of replenishment, employees should be empowered to vary implementation based upon experience and context in order to achieve required outcomes. Keywords: In-store process, out-of-stock, over stock, supermarkets.
  • ... Ailawadi and Keller (2004) categorized these private labels under 4 tiers. They are ( 1).Low quality and low priced generics without any labels on their packages; (2).Medium quality private labels; (3).Somewhat less expensive but comparable quality store brands; (4).Premium quality private labels that surpass the quality of national brands but are higher priced than the national brands. ...
  • ... Consumers categorize grocery stores according to functional criteria because shopping for groceries is a mandatory chore and therefore must satisfy utilitarian needs (Uusitalo, 2001). They associate large grocery stores, such as hypermarkets, with a wide variety of goods. ...
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  • ... Previous research has identified several in-store attributes contributing to a grocery stores' attractiveness and being essential for store choice. These include product range (Uusitalo, 2001; Carpenter and Moore, 2006; Briesch, et al., 2009), product quality (Reutterer and Teller, 2009; Wong and Dean, 2009), price level (Baltas and Papastathopoulou, 2003; Mitchell and Harris, 2005), service quality (Carpenter and Moore, 2006; Ann and Koenraad, 2010), and storescape quality (Hsu et al., 2010). Store atmospheres have been shown to affect perceptions of value and probability to return to the store (Grewal et al., 2003). ...
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    In this paper we ask whether there are differences in which attributes are important for satisfaction with grocery shopping in supermarkets compared to convenience stores. We also examine whether accessibility attributes and attractiveness attributes have different impacts on satisfaction depending on consumer characteristics and shopping behaviour in different store formats. The results show a higher overall satisfaction with supermarkets than convenience stores, and within these store formats a higher satisfaction with the chosen store format. This study has increased understanding of the differences between supermarkets and convenience stores with respect to how these store formats makes consumers satisfied depending on the way they do their shopping.
  • ... Ankstesni pirkëjø tyrimai atskleidë, kad parduotuvës pasirinkimas priklauso nuo pirkëjø elgsenos, kai jie jauèia vienokius arba kitokius poreikius, pavyzdþiui, pirkëjai renkasi vienokio tipo parduotuvae savaitgalá, kai ásigyjami didesni prekiø kiekiai, ir kitokio tipo parduotuvae, kai jiems reikia vieno ar keliø maisto prekiø (duonos, pieno ir pan.) [26]. Taèiau tyrimai, kuriø metu bûtø nagrinëjami pagal pirkimo elgsenà skirtingai pirkëjø segmentai, iki ðiol buvo gana reti, nors praktine jø nauda sunku abejoti [27]. ...
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    Rapid development of a retailing sector and the emergence of multiple retailers (also called chain stores or chains of stores) significantly increased the power of retailers over other members of products distribution channels. Large retailers, and especially chain stores become more and more independent from manufacturers and suppliers, take over the functions of wholesalers, make orders for manufacturing private label (or store brand) products, take part in product manufacturing processes. The implementation of modern information technologies enables multiple retailers to manage information about customers, their habits and demands of various products. The usage of this information allows multiple retailers to make a purposeful impact on customers’ behaviour by using various marketing tools. The development of retail companies and chain stores also increases competition among retailers themselves. Therefore retailers pay more attention to the analysis of competitors and search of new competitive strategies. Positioning concept is being implemented in retailing for assuring differentiation and positive opinion of customers. Besides that, intensive competition among retailers forces them striving to address customers’ needs better. Therefore segmentation, targeting and evaluation of target segment(s) customers’ needs and requirements become very important. In case of multiple retailers, segmentation procedures are quite complicated because chain stores most often seek to serve the largest possible group of customers. Therefore traditional segmentation, based on demographic, geographic and psychographic criteria here is not fully suitable. For this reason more attention should be paid towards segmentation that is based on customer behaviour. This issue is not yet comprehensively analyzed and not many empirical surveys are performed yet. This article analyses the possibilities to segment markets on the basis of shopping occasions. The analysis concentrates on customers of chain stores that are operating in Lithuania. Data were collected during two surveys. The first one was qualitative, and it included a set of in-depth interviews with customers. The second was quantitative and it was performed as a part of National Omnibus survey. Both surveys took place in July – August, 2004. The research results allowed defining several typical shopping occasions. These shopping occasions can be characterized by the type of needed products, their quantity and shopping frequency. Depending on the specifics of the concrete needs at the moment, the same customers experience various needs and this triggers different shopping occasions. Then they relate specific shopping occasion with the types and brands of their known retail outlets. Customers were able to even name the chain stores, which in their opinion were the most suitable for a particular shopping occasion. The fact that the majority of customers occurs in several buying occasions and prefers different stores allows concluding that a ‘customer share’ concept can be very much applicable in retailing. Supporting the idea of differentiation, this concept could help understanding, evaluating and satisfying customers’ needs better. As a result, retailers can improve their overall competitive positions. The results allow claiming that segmentation of multiple retailers’ customers on the basis of shopping occasions is efficient and deserves more attention from managers of chain stores. It is important to further analyse the possibilities of segmentation according to shopping occasions in retailing, thus broadening traditional segmentation according to demographic, geographic and psychographic characteristics of retail customers. Possibly, the list of initially defined shopping occasions has to be expanded or changed. Finally, a similar survey of chain stores operating in the other retail sectors would help evaluate whether the concept is applicable under broader circumstances. Parduotuvių tinklų pirkėjų segmentavimas pagal pirkimo progas Santrauka. Intensyvi konkurencija tarp mažmeninės prekybos įmonių skatina geriau tenkinti pirkėjų poreikius. Todėl labai aktualūs tampa pirkėjų segmentavimo klausimai, siekiant išskirti tikslinį segmentą ir nustatyti jo poreikius bei reikalavimus. Tradiciniai demografiniai, geografiniai ir psichografiniai segmentavimo kriterijai gerai tinka tik segmentuojant santykiškai nedidelės ar siauriau specializuotos mažmeninės prekybos įmonės pirkėjus. Didelės mažmeninės prekybos įmonės ir parduotuvių tinklai teikia paslaugas daugybei pirkėjų, kurie pasižymi įvairiomis socialinėmis, demografinėmis bei psichografinėmis charakteristikomis. Šiuo atveju vien tradicinių išorinių segmentavimo kriterijų nebepakanka. Todėl straipsnyje nagrinėjami segmentavimo pagal pirkėjų elgseną klausimai. Tyrimų objektu pasirinkus parduotuvių tinklų pirkėjų elgseną, buvo siekiama įvertinti tinklų pirkėjų segmentavimo pagal pirkimo progą (angl. buying occasion) galimybes. Tyrimų rezultatai atskleidė, kad gali būti išskirtos tam tikros pirkimo progos, kurias galima apibūdinti įsigyjamų prekių pobūdžiu, kiekiu ir apsipirkimo dažnumu, atspindinčios skirtingus pirkėjų poreikius. Paprastai pirkėjai kiekvienai pirkimo progai renkasi geriausiai jas atitinkančias parduotuves, kurios gali skirtis savo tipu ir dydžiu. Tokios išvados leidžia kalbėti apie pirkėjo dalies (arba pirkėjo išlaidų dalies) koncepcijos taikymą parduotuvių tinklų pirkėjų elgsenai nagrinėti. Taigi parduotuvių tinklų pirkėjų segmentavimą pagal pirkimo progas galima laikyti veiksmingu, nors jis kol kas nėra naudojamas tinklų veikloje. Pagrindiniai žodžiai: mažmeninė prekyba, parduotuvių tinklas, segmentavimas, diferenciacija, pirkimo proga, pirkėjo išlaidų dalis. Article in Lithuanian.
  • ... The digital displays resulted in a sales lift, more SKUs purchased, and shoppers spending more time in hypermarkets, but they had minimal impacts on sales and time spent shopping in the supercenters. The hypermarket results are in line with the qualitative shopping time findings of Uusitalo (2001), namely, that shoppers lose their sense of time when shopping in larger retail establishments. As a result, they appear more likely to become immersed in the environment, including looking at instore displays. ...
  • ... Product distribution and retailing play a critical role in delivering the products to the consumer's doorsteps. Uusitalo (2001) argued that the structure and strategies of retailing are being shaped by the intense competition and struggle over market shares. Food retail formats are experiencing rapid modernization across the emerging economies (Goldman, Ramaswami, & Krider, 2002;Lund & Marinova, 2014;Melis, Campo, Breugelmans, & Lamey, 2015). ...
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    This study aims to analyze the retail channel structure and level of competition across retailers in distributing health and wellness food products in India. Compound annual growth rate (CAGR), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) have been used to analyze the data. It is evident from the analysis that level of competition varies across the retail channels of health and wellness food products and has been increasing over the years. The study provides valuable insights to the companies involved in producing and marketing of health and wellness food products for an effective channel distribution strategy.
  • ... In case of apparel and tobacco products product assortment, retailer's attitude and discounts was found to be significant. Whereas store image, product availability and retailers attitude was found significant in case of Chemist category [31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40]. Finally in the cosmetic category, product assortment, product availability and retailers attitude was found significant. ...
  • ... In their intensive literature review, Thogersen, Pedersen, Paternoga, Schwendel, Aschemann-Witzel (2017) commented that there is a limited study examining the interaction between the effects of organic and COO on consumers' food preferences and choices, and as a future research agenda, they addressed the issue of whether the impact of COO information on consumer attitudes toward organic products will be diminished or amplified by the presence of other quality cues. In light of this, because consumers have different quality perceptions throughout different stores (Ngobo & Jean, 2012;Black et al., 2014, Uusitalo, 2001, store category was included in this study as an external quality cue affecting consumers expectations from the products within the store. In addition to a store category, gender was also incorporated as it was found to moderate consumers' perceived food quality (de Tavares Canto Guina & de Moura Engracia Giraldi, 2015;Kumpulainen, Vainio, Sandell & Hopia, 2018). ...
  • ... Advertisement acts as a communicator where it educates shoppers about the item and service (Uusitalo, 2001) and generally, purchasing intention is related to the consumers' behaviour, knowledge, perception, and attitude. However, the significant interest in social media marketing (i.e., advertising) is in terms of advertising from both researchers' and practitioners' perspectives. ...
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    Celebrity endorsement will create profound brand awareness. Sensible and passionate appeals are related to the advertisement. In sensible appeals, the item is accentuated principally on its advantages and passionate appeals meet the consumer’s psychology, enthusiasm, and social prerequisites. Thus, this study would like to examine the relationship of advertisement’s influence and celebrity’s endorsements in purchase intention of Korean cosmetic products. The result reveals that both advertisement and celebrity endorsement has a strong relationship with purchase intention. Ultimately, celebrity endorsement has a strong influence in convincing netizen purchase intention towards Korean cosmetic product.
  • ... The effect of store characteristics on in-store leisure experience dimensions Store characteristics comprise all the functional attributes related to the physical characteristics of a store's merchandise (e.g. quality, variety, price, and availability) (Uusitalo, 2001) as well as store environment cues. Store environment cues can be further grouped into three categories: ambient, design, and social (Baker et al., 2002). ...
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of store characteristics (i.e. product availability, product quality, store layout, employee politeness, décor, music, lighting, and aroma) on the various dimensions of in-store leisure shopping experience (i.e. hedonic, flow, escapism, challenge, learning, socialising, and communitas). Design/methodology/approach In order to achieve the study’s objectives, a quantitative on-site survey was conducted. Respondents were interviewed upon exiting fashion retail stores. Findings Findings indicate that not all store characteristics impact the various dimensions of experience in the same way. Product quality and in-store music were found to be the most important in-store characteristics that affected the majority of experience dimensions. Other important store attributes that emerged were store layout and ambient scent. Conversely, product range actually had a negative impact on in-store experience. Practical implications By orchestrating the most influential in-store characteristics, fashion retailers could be delivering unique in-store experiences to their customers. This research shows that they would benefit from designing experiential strategies that focus on merchandise quality, price, and availability while simultaneously carefully managing ambient (music and scent) alongside design factors (store layout and décor). Careful consideration should be paid to merchandise variety in order to avoid potentially negative effects on customers’ shopping experience. Originality/value Until now most studies that document the relationship between store elements and shopping experiences have examined the effects of store characteristics on a limited number of experience dimensions. This study adds to the body of research into in-store leisure shopping experience in two ways: by shedding light on its multi-dimensional nature, and by analysing the effect of the different store elements on the various components of the in-store experience.
  • ... Image is a combination of retailers functional qualities (or tangible, physical, practical attributes) and psychological attributes (or intangible, symbolic, emotional attributes) (Thompson, Chen, 1998;Sit, Merrilees, Birch, 2003;Sheinin, Wagner, 2003;Bloemer, De Ruyter, 1998). Some authors argue that physical characteristics dominate in image perceptions, because they directly facilitate the accomplishment of shopping tasks (Uusitalo, 2001). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Intense competition in retailing sector requires searching for new and more effective tools of competing with rivals. One of the possible ways seems to go through applying positioning concept in retailing. Positioning in retailing refers to strategy for development of a desirable image, which would help to differentiate a retail company and move away from direct price competition. Besides that, image management provides possibilities for increasing customer perceived value and/or increasing prices. The paper presents methodology for establishing multiple retailers’ positions. This methodology is based on evaluation of image attributes’ importance for customers. Factor analysis allows revealing more general latent factors that are used to evaluate retailers’ positions in a perceptual space. This allows drawing conclusions on how much Lithuanian multiple retailers are similar or differentiated from the standpoint of their customers. First Published Online: 14 Oct 2010
  • ... The bulk of research on grocery stores illustrate that several attributes may be important, for example, Reutterer and Teller (2009) showed that service quality, price level, and product quality were important. Product supply was shown by Uusitalo (2001) as well as by Carpenter and Moore (2006) to be the most important attribute when choosing grocery store. Kahn and McAlister (1996), Reutterer and Teller (2009), and Wong and Dean (2009) on the other hand showed that product quality was the most important attribute, while Baltas and Papastathopoulou (2003) and Mitchell and Harris (2005) found price level to be the most important attribute. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive set of grocery store attributes that can be standardized and used in empirical research aiming at increasing retailers’ understanding of determinants of grocery store choice, and assessing how the relative importance of the attributes is affected by consumer socio-demographic characteristics and shopping behaviour. Design/methodology/approach – An internet survey of 1,575 Swedish consumers was conducted. A large set of attributes was rated by the participants on seven-point scales with respect to their importance for choice of grocery store. Principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in a reduced set of reliably measured aggregated attributes. This set included the attractiveness attributes price level, supply range, supply quality, service quality, storescape quality, facilities for childcare, and closeness to other stores, and the accessibility attributes easy access by car, easy access by other travel modes, and availability (closeness to store and opening hours). Findings – The results showed that accessibility by car is the most important grocery store attribute, storescape quality and availability the next most important and facilities for childcare the least important. It was also found that socio-demographic factors and shopping behaviour have an impact on the importance of the store attributes. Originality/value – A comprehensive set of attractiveness and accessibility attributes of grocery stores that can be standardized and used in empirical research is established. The results are valid for the Swedish-European conditions that differ from the conditions in North America where most previous research has been conducted. The results reveal the relative importance grocery-shopping consumers place on controllable attractiveness attributes compared to uncontrollable accessibility attributes as well as the relative importance of the attributes within each category.
  • ... Thus, through this study the author has made an attempt to fill this gap to some extent and the findings may provide insights to the practioners as well as to the academicians to understand the behaviour of the consumer. Uusitalo (2001) found that the consumer preferences of product attributes diverge according to the nature of product and consumer choice was based on maximizing utility from the product attributes which was dependent upon budgetary limits of the consumer (Vishwanathan and Childers, 1999). Also, Broniarczyk et al. (1998a, b) suggested that a breadth of assortment offered by the store led to store patronage and this might be because of wider range offered more of the choices (Reibstein et al., 1975) and lesser of search costs (Hoch et al., 1999). ...
    Research
    Full-text available
    Purpose: A large population with continuous increasing purchasing power has made India a cynosure for Indian and international retailers. But this scenario also poses a challenge for retailers in maintaining customer loyalty. This paper addresses this challenge by examining the influence of nature of product and frequency of visits on store loyalty. Design/Methodology: A questionnaire was designed and administered by self, to collect data on store loyalty and other dimensions under discussion. Each of the items on loyalty was evaluated on a five-point Likert scale. Mall intercept method was used to collect the data. Three hundred and fifty-two respondents from various cities of Uttarakhand were selected using a systematic sampling method out of which 250 respondents completed the valid information. Data was analysed using Factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Findings: Results showed that average Indian consumer are not frequent visitor to organized stores and most of them were visiting for consumer care products rather than for grocery or vegetables. It was also that neither product type nor frequency of visits influences store loyalty. The interaction effect was also absent. These results are in contradiction to prior studies. Research Limitations/Future scope: There must be other factors like price, location, convenience, etc. in addition to the nature of the product and the frequency of visit responsible for store loyalty which should be studied in future research. Consumers in this study were restricted to Uttarakhand only thus, the representation of sample might have been limited. Implications: The findings offers insight to the marketers as well academicians. The study makes it evident that the behaviour of customers residing in towns has to be studied in detail in order to identify their latent needs.
  • ... (Harcar vd., 2006: 56). Market markalar n n ya da › ulusal markalar n tercih edilmesinde farkl l k yaratan faktörlerin › › genel olarak "kültürel farkl l klar" (Uusitalo, 2001;Berkowitz vd, 2005;Kongsompong, › 2006), "demografik özelliklerle birlikte müşteri-ürün tipleri" (Dick vd., 1995;Baltas, 1997;Orel, 2006;Baltas vd., 2007;Zielka ve Dobbelstein, 2007) ve "tüketiciler taraf ndan geliştirilen değer bilincinin, psikografik özelliklerinin"(Ailawadi vd., 2001) olduğunu göstermektedir (Ak n vd, 2009: 130). Bütün bunlardan hareketle çalışmanın amacı market markalı ürün satın alma eğiliminde olan Niğde merkez ilçede yaşayan tüketicilerin psikografik özelliklerini ortaya koyarak, bunun market markalı ürün satın alma eğilimine olan etkisini tespit etmektir. ...
  • ... The present study aims at contributing to the literature on retail format, particularly consumer perceptions of retail format development (e.g. Uusitalo 2001;Jain and Bagdare 2009;Kaswengi and Diallo 2015;Nilsson et al. 2015) and cross-format behavior (e.g. Bustos-Reyes and González-Benito 2008;Skallerud, Korneliussen, and Olsen 2009;Jayasankaraprasad and Kathyayani 2014). ...
    Article
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    A changed technological landscape and radically changed consumer behavior are forcing retailers to rethink their business models, retail formats, and retail offerings. The global retailer IKEA is no exception in this development. Recently, the traditional IKEA format, which has been so successfully duplicated across the world over the years, has been complemented with other formats that are new and innovative for IKEA. Based on an empirical investigation of consumer perceptions of the store format development in Hamburg-Altona, Germany, the present study explores format development and its influence on store image and clientele, considering also the purpose of visiting IKEA and how this seems to have changed with the introduction of the new format. We also discuss the core aspects of the IKEA formats, and the fact that although some things have changed, others have stayed the same to preserve the IKEA image.
  • Conference Paper
    This paper presents an application of the importance-performance analysis (IPA) to identify opportunities for improving service quality in retail contexts. This work builds previous quality scales prevalent in service management literature. Data was collected for customers’ quality expectations and perceptions across two different retail store formats in Portugal: supermarkets and hypermarkets. The results of the study suggested that managerial decisions regarding service in stores should be adjusted to the characteristics of each retail format. Data analysis supported the existence of differences in the IPA, between supermarkets and hypermarkets, notably for quality dimensions related to reliability and personal interaction.
  • Article
    This article describes the conditions of local retailers after the penetration of national retailers and foreign retailers. A local retailers is one of emergence originates from a local area. The form of their enterprise changes from the former conventional or traditional shops into local retailers which are managed according to modem standard with its "self service" concept after the penetration of national orforeign retailers. Several main factors that play important roles in the development of local retailers include capital resources, human resources, demographic characteristic, regulation, designs, merchandise and promotion. Think regionally and act locally strategy can be used to maintain consumers of local retailers.
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    Full-text available
    According to modern service science theory, value is jointly generated by several partners forming a service system. In this work, we focus on a simple two-party system consisting of a service provider and its customer. The value created by this service system hinges on the contribution of both parties. That is, it also depends on the collaboration of the customer, which is a key characteristic of services in traditional definitions. Providers, however, lack knowledge on how to identify and measure the influence factors for value cocreation, such as customer contribution. Being aware of customer contribution, providers could design and manage value propositions purposefully. In this work, we provide a first version of a framework of influence factors for value co-creation in service systems, which may serve providers as a guideline for identifying different types of customer contribution.
  • The objective of the study is to identify the selected retail marketing mix elements influencing on business performance of retail groceries and to suggest strategies for improving the performance of these retail shops. In the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka, many groceries and self-selection retail shops are emerging in Sri Lanka after the prolonged war. However, many retail shops are struggling in the operation of their business. These retail small supermarkets are one of the most lucrative businesses among village people and many families are fully depending on these businesses. Hence, it is pertinent to identify the reasons and find ways and means to assist these small retail supermarkets to grow with profit. Findings suggest that business performance of retail shops mainly depends on implementation of customer relationship management, improving marketing communication and on building up corporate image. These factors are leading to increased business performance of groceries.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Lack perceived quality in Saudi Arabia has been repeatedly identified as one of the most formidable barriers to people for engaging in customer loyalty.Despite, the widespread establishment of shopping malls all over the country, the statistics revealed that Saudi consumers, although trying grocery shopping in some shopping malls, still prefer to do their grocery shopping activities in traditional grocery stores and convenience stores (Othaim, 2012).This paper provides an overview perceived service quality and customer satisfaction which affect Saudi customer loyalty and it reviews relevant previous studies that investigate the relationships among said three variables. This paper provides the critical remarks and direction for future research.
  • Article
    The evolution of store formats and the resultant consumers’ cross-shopping behavior has been the prevalent trends in Indian food and grocery retailing. More recently, however, the growing incidence of cross-format shopping—defined as consumers shopping regularly at each of two or more types of grocery retail outlets—has become a subject of research, as it is regarded as a necessary evil associated with concentric retail growth. The aim of the article is to identify factors influencing consumers’ cross-format shopping in relation to four retail formats—kirana stores, convenience stores, supermarkets, and hypermarkets. Furthermore, it investigates the impact of identified factors on repatronage behavior relative to four types of retail outlets. The mall intercept survey method was used to collect data from 1,040 adult food and grocery consumers. Results from exploratory factor analysis and zero-order correlation matrix indicate that value for money, value for time, shopping situations, shopping motives, and store attributes are significant and positively correlated with cross-format shopping. The multiple discriminant analysis provides empirical support, suggesting that value for money, task definitions, value for time, shopping trip pattern, basket size, price-conscious and local shopping motives, price promotions, customer service, store environment, distance to store, and monthly household income are not only the significant predictors but also able to discriminate repatronage intentions toward four types of retail outlets in an emerging retail market. The present study provides useful information on consumers' intertype cross-shopping (e.g., crossing from kirana store type to supermarket type and vice versa) between four types of grocery retail outlets.
  • Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    The purpose of the research is to examine the relationship between consumer's Private Label Brand (PLB) purchase intention and the variable such as store loyalty, price and quality. For the achievement of this purpose, three research hypotheses were proposed examining the relationship of consumer's purchase intentions towards PLB and other research variables (price, quality and store loyalty). The sampling frame of this survey based study consist of Malaysian shoppers who usually engaged themselves to purchase from famous retail stores (e.g. Giant, Tesco, etc) in the state of Selangor. The sample was assumed at 400. The outcome shows there was a relationship found among all the given variables. All the stated hypothesis were found to be supported.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The research aims to examine the perceptions of relative novice users of self-service checkouts (SSCOs) and if these perceptions change before, during and following use. Employing a diary approach with 31 respondents relatively unfamiliar with SSCOs, the research will document their experiences with this technology across stationary, hardware and grocery stores in two Scottish cities (Glasgow and Dundee). Findings suggest that the majority of respondents were motivated to use the technology because of time saving and convenience. However, the actual experience of using SSCOs was not always considered quicker when compared to staffed checkouts because of technical issues, lack of staff assistance and the impersonal, sometimes stressful and controlled nature of the cramped SSCO environment. Following post-use reflections, the majority of respondents’ opinions did not change from their initial perceptions and indicated that they would prefer not to use the technology in the future. Based on the findings, this study makes some practical suggestions centring on the design and usability of SSCOs, which may go some way to reducing customer dissatisfaction and frustration with the technology, especially from the perspective of new users of the technology.
  • Chapter
    The chapter focuses on the role played by Private Labels (PLs) in the retailer-consumer relationship. Specifically, the results of a survey aimed at investigating the ability of a specific kind of PL, namely Premium Private Label (PPL), to improve customer loyalty to the retailer are presented. After reviewing the literature on the PLs’ role in the retailer-customer relationship, a theoretical model is proposed and tested by administering a questionnaire to a sample of retail customers and then applying structural equation modeling. Four key components of PPLs’ image, namely quality, assortment, access, and value, are studied as antecedents of customer satisfaction to the PPL, while customer loyalty to the PPL is considered as a mediator between customer satisfaction to the PPL and customer loyalty to the retailer. Results show that PPLs positively impact on customer loyalty to the retailer through a causal relationship driven by PPL quality and PPL value.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    This paper focuses on problematic of use of association rules in exploring consumer behavior and presents selected results of applied data analyses on data collected via questionnaire survey on a sample of 1127 Czech respondents with structure close to representative sample of population the Czech Republic. The questionnaire survey deals with problematic of shopping for meat products. The objective was to explore possibilities of less frequently used data-mining techniques in processing of customer preference. For the data analyses, two methods for generating association rules are used: Apriori algorithm and FP-grow algorithm. Both of them were executed in Weka software. The Apriori algorithm seemed to be a better tool, because it has provided finer data, due to the fact that FP-growth algorithm needed reduction of preference scale to only two extreme values, because the input data must be binary. For consumer preferences we also calculated their means. This paper explores the different preferences and expectations of what customers' favorite outlet should provide, and offer. Customers based on the type of their outlet loyalty were divided into five segments and further explored in more detail. Some of the found best association rules suggest similar patterns across the whole sample, e.g. the results suggest that the respondents for whom a quality of merchandise is a very important factor typically also base their outlet selection on freshness of products. This finding applies to all types of retail loyalty categores. Other rules seem to indicate a behavior more specific for a particular segment of customers. The results suggest that application of association rules in customer research can provide more insight and can be a good supplementary analysis for consumer data exploration when Likert scales were used.
  • Purpose As a result of the growth of the modernization of retailing, small family grocers have suffered because of the disadvantages of their limited operating resources in comparison to those of corporate chain retailers. The purpose of this paper is to use the biological analogy of natural selection to illustrate how the idea of retail coexistence rather than mutually exclusive competition can work to the benefit of small family grocers. The inherent differences between chain retailers and small family grocers are examined and their inherent advantages identified. The appropriate strategies for small family grocers toward the particular market are then proposed. Design/methodology/approach The review of literature is implemented through the lens of biological analogy to identify the inherent advantages of small family grocers over chain retailers. Resource-advantage (R-A) theory is then incorporated to explain the synthesized framework. Findings Size and operational orientation are identified as the inherent differences that small family grocers can utilize to gain some inherent advantages over chain retailers in relation to the proposed segments. The establishment of a personal relationship with the customer is the key inherent advantage that is naturally facilitated by the individual orientation of the small family grocer. Within R-A theory, inherent advantage is seen as a special case of a comparative advantage in resources. Originality/value The different viewpoint inspired by the biological analogy that permits small family grocers to shift their mindset from retail competition to retail coexistence and to re-examine their own inherent advantages to serve the heterogeneous demand of consumers.
  • Article
    This paper explores perceptions of service quality in the small retail business context. Specifically, the study applies the extant SERVQUAL models (Parasuraman et al., 1988; Dabholkar et al., 1996) in a convenience store (c-store) context. The study examines the reliability and validity of the service quality measure in a c-store context and, additionally, models the implication of perceived service quality on customer satisfaction and patronage intentions in c-store context. Additionally, this study examines which dimensions of service quality are most important in c-store context. The results suggest that perceived service quality positively influences customer satisfaction and patronage intentions in the convenience store industry. Further, availability of merchandise and courtesy are strongest determinants of patronage intentions and customer satisfaction. The study offers prescriptive and descriptive insights for c-store operators.
  • Article
    The study reveals that young and high income consumer preferences for grocery shopping are gradually shifting from local kirana stores to organized retail stores. The study was carried out in the market of Indore. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to analyze the data collected with the help of a structured questionnaire. The main objective of the study is to understand whether Indian consumers are likely to move from conventional kirana stores to organised retail grocery stores while shopping for groceries. The study found that the customer perceived to be more satisfied with organised retail store when compared with conventional kirana stores in relation with price and benefits in shopping.
  • Article
    Purpose This paper aims to focus on the consumers' decision process to clarify the salient attributes within the in-store environment of small independent grocers. Thus, the relative importance among environmental factors and their explicit monetary values is clarified. Design/methodology/approach The conjoint approach was applied to form a set of hypothetical environments virtualised through an interactive computer-aided simulation. Each of the 241 respondents was asked to evaluate their patronage intention on the basis of a given set of 18 virtual environments. Findings The results revealed the greater importance of the social environment in comparison to design and ambient cues, which consumers use in determining their patronage of stores. The final recommended environment offers some explicit value added to customers. Originality/value In contrast to most environmental studies, this study considered consumers' decision processes, using conjoint analysis to clarify the relative importance and value of the environmental aspects affecting small independent grocers.
  • Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the dimensions of customer expectations and study the moderating role of demographics in the context of fresh food retail. Design/methodology/approach: A structured questionnaire was designed using extant literature review followed by expert opinions. The survey was conducted among the customers in the twin cities of Maharashtra in India. The factors of customer expectations were identified using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and further confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis in SPSS and AMOS, respectively. The significance of the customer expectations on customer satisfaction was studied using structural equation modeling. Subsequently, the role of demographics was studied using two-step cluster analysis and multigroup moderation. Findings: During EFA three factors emerged, namely, product-related features, in-store quality and store support services. Structural model evaluation found product-related features and in-store quality significantly influencing the customer satisfaction, while store support services were found as a non-significant factor in the region studied. Further, using cluster analysis customers were segregated into three groups, namely, traditional, autonomous and premium customers, where the premium customers were found to prefer the store support services on a higher scale, and similar results were obtained using multigroup moderation. Demographics, namely, gender, age, respondents’ income and marital status moderated for product-related features and in-store quality. Interestingly, respondents’ income also moderated for the store support services. Practical implications: The findings provide directions for store managers of the fresh food category to align supply chain decisions with the unique requirements of customers considering their socio-economic characteristics. Originality/value: On the basis of social exchange theory, the authors found that in a mutually beneficial relationship, concerning the value proposition, retailers need to address the requirement of the different income group customers for store support services.
  • Article
    Brands constitute today an essential part of the market communication companies are engaged in. One dimension of brand marketing is labelling. Information that labels convey is transformed into meaning through the perception and information processes of the consumers. Associations that ecotourism labels generate have not interested tourism researchers although ecotourism is a fast expanding business sector. The purpose of this article is to study associations that the Swedish ecotourism label activates among potential Finnish ecotourists, and to investigate if the respondents find it appropriate that Finnish ecotourism firms use the Swedish ecotourisin label. The results, which are based on personal interviews, show that the respondents associate the Swedish ecotourism label to Vikings, rune carving, environmentally friendly tour, and family adventure. The values the Swedish ecotourism association wants to convey by their label is not completely fulfilled. The respondents are of the opinion that ecotourism labelling is important but they question the suitability that Finnish ecotourism firms use the Swedish ecotourism label.
  • Chapter
    Die Betriebsformen des Handels sind während der letzten Jahre in der deutschsprachigen Handelsforschung in den Hintergrund getreten. Dies muss den interessierten Beobachter erstaunen, handelt es sich bei den Betriebsformen doch eigentlich nicht um praxisferne theoretische Konstrukte, sondern vielmehr um Konzepte, die in der Handelspraxis von hoher Bedeutung sind. Auf der Wahl der Betriebsform bauen in der Regel zahlreiche operative Marketingaktionen auf. Es handelt sich bei der Betriebsformenentscheidung somit um eine Grundsatzfrage, deren strategische Tragweite kaum hoch genug eingeschätzt werden kann.
  • Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand the beliefs of local grocery retailers about online grocery retailing. Using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the study explores the outcome, normative and control beliefs held by the local grocers about online grocery retailing which would eventually translate into behavior. Factors influencing local grocers intention to participate or refusing to participate in the online grocery retailing was investigated. Design/methodology/approach In total, 20 in-depth interviews with local grocery retailers were conducted ranging from small to large sized retail stores from a city in the western part of India. The sample included two groups of local grocers – first, grocers who partnered with online retailers as suppliers. This group included those retailers who had partnered but discontinued later and second, grocers who had not partnered with online retailers. In-depth interviews with the local grocery retailers were conducted using TPB as a basis to uncover local grocers’ beliefs toward online grocery retailing and predict their behavior. Findings The outcome beliefs were classified into five broad heads – business expansion; gaining visibility and reputation; customer expectations; inventory management; and margins, costs and technical issues. The normative belief was that the actions and response to online grocery retailing would be governed by their referent group – the consumers. The main control belief was that partnering with online grocery retailing would result in loss of control regarding their business operations. Research limitations/implications The results indicated that in a country like India especially in small to medium size towns, online grocery retailers would have to think of creative ways to involve the local grocery retailers to grow their business. The local grocers due to their size were able to adapt to the requirements of their referent consumers without any additional cost. They were unlikely to give up control regarding how they run their business. The main limitation of this study was the exploratory nature of this study which makes it difficult to prioritize the importance given to each belief. The study sample was restricted to one city in India, and future studies could include other cities. Practical implications The findings have practical implications for online grocery retailers who wish to expand into emerging markets like India. It provides understanding about the local grocery retailers who were the major competitors of online grocery retailers. It provides direction to integrate and partner with the local grocers and utilize them for mutual benefits. Originality/value Given the absence of academic literature in the public domain, this study provides a platform for future studies in this area. This paper is a systematic attempt to uncover the underlying beliefs of local grocery retailers who were the key players in the grocery retailing business.
  • Article
    Results of four studies demonstrate that perceptions of how different a brand is from other brands in the product category affect perceptions of the brand's position within the category. Specifically, perceptions that a brand is strongly discrepant result in a subtyped (or niche) position, whereas perceptions that a brand is moderately discrepant result in a differentiated position within the general category. Perceptions of discrepancy are affected both by the extent of discrepancy on an attribute and whether the discrepant information is concentrated in a single ad for the brand or dispersed across multiple ads for the product. The effects associated with a subtyped position, in comparison with a differentiated position, are identified (study 1) and are found to increase with time (study 2). The subtyped versus differentiated distinction for a strongly versus moderately discrepant brand is validated with a sorting task (study 3). This distinction is shown to hold in the context of multiple discrepant brands that differ in their extent of discrepancy (study 4). Implications of the findings for a theoretical understanding of subtyping versus differentiation and for the application of positioning strategies in the marketplace are discussed.
  • Article
    To practitioner and researcher alike, consumer values play an important role in understanding behavior in the marketplace. This paper presents a model linking perceived product attributes to values.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Conveying a brand image to a target market is a fundamental marketing activity. The authors present a normative framework, termed brand concept management (BCM), for selecting, implementing, and controlling a brand image over time. The framework consists of a sequential process of selecting, introducing, elaborating, and fortifying a brand concept. The concept guides positioning strategies, and hence the brand image, at each of these stages. The method for maintaining this concept-image linkage depends on whether the brand concept is functional, symbolic, or experiential. Maintaining this linkage should significantly enhance the brand's market performance.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    A changed technological landscape and radically changed consumer behavior are forcing retailers to rethink their business models, retail formats, and retail offerings. The global retailer IKEA is no exception in this development. Recently, the traditional IKEA format, which has been so successfully duplicated across the world over the years, has been complemented with other formats that are new and innovative for IKEA. Based on an empirical investigation of consumer perceptions of the store format development in Hamburg-Altona, Germany, the present study explores format development and its influence on store image and clientele, considering also the purpose of visiting IKEA and how this seems to have changed with the introduction of the new format. We also discuss the core aspects of the IKEA formats, and the fact that although some things have changed, others have stayed the same to preserve the IKEA image.
  • Article
    This study aims to analyze the retail channel structure and level of competition across retailers in distributing health and wellness food products in India. Compound annual growth rate (CAGR), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) have been used to analyze the data. It is evident from the analysis that level of competition varies across the retail channels of health and wellness food products and has been increasing over the years. The study provides valuable insights to the companies involved in producing and marketing of health and wellness food products for an effective channel distribution strategy.
  • Purpose As a result of the growth of the modernization of retailing, small family grocers have suffered because of the disadvantages of their limited operating resources in comparison to those of corporate chain retailers. The purpose of this paper is to use the biological analogy of natural selection to illustrate how the idea of retail coexistence rather than mutually exclusive competition can work to the benefit of small family grocers. The inherent differences between chain retailers and small family grocers are examined and their inherent advantages identified. The appropriate strategies for small family grocers toward the particular market are then proposed. Design/methodology/approach The review of literature is implemented through the lens of biological analogy to identify the inherent advantages of small family grocers over chain retailers. Resource-advantage (R-A) theory is then incorporated to explain the synthesized framework. Findings Size and operational orientation are identified as the inherent differences that small family grocers can utilize to gain some inherent advantages over chain retailers in relation to the proposed segments. The establishment of a personal relationship with the customer is the key inherent advantage that is naturally facilitated by the individual orientation of the small family grocer. Within R-A theory, inherent advantage is seen as a special case of a comparative advantage in resources. Originality/value The different viewpoint inspired by the biological analogy that permits small family grocers to shift their mindset from retail competition to retail coexistence and to re-examine their own inherent advantages to serve the heterogeneous demand of consumers.
  • Book
    The Long Interview provides a systematic guide to the theory and methods of the long qualitative interview or intensive interviewing. It gives a clear explanation of one of the most powerful tools of the qualitative researcher. The volume begins with a general overview of the character and purpose of qualitative inquiry and a review of key issues. The author outlines the four steps of the long qualitative interview and how to judge quality. He then offers practical advice for those who commission and administer this research, including sample questionnaires and budgets to help readers design their own. The author introduces key theoretical and methodological issues, various research strategies, and a simple four-stage model of inquiry, from the design of an open-ended questionnaire to the write up of results.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    This paper focuses on problematic of use of association rules in exploring consumer behavior and presents selected results of applied data analyses on data collected via questionnaire survey on a sample of 1127 Czech respondents with structure close to representative sample of population the Czech Republic. The questionnaire survey deals with problematic of shopping for meat products. The objective was to explore possibilities of less frequently used data-mining techniques in processing of customer preference. For the data analyses, two methods for generating association rules are used: Apriori algorithm and FP-grow algorithm. Both of them were executed in Weka software. The Apriori algorithm seemed to be a better tool, because it has provided finer data, due to the fact that FP-growth algorithm needed reduction of preference scale to only two extreme values, because the input data must be binary. For consumer preferences we also calculated their means. This paper explores the different preferences and expectations of what customers' favorite outlet should provide, and offer. Customers based on the type of their outlet loyalty were divided into five segments and further explored in more detail. Some of the found best association rules suggest similar patterns across the whole sample, e.g. the results suggest that the respondents for whom a quality of merchandise is a very important factor typically also base their outlet selection on freshness of products. This finding applies to all types of retail loyalty categores. Other rules seem to indicate a behavior more specific for a particular segment of customers. The results suggest that application of association rules in customer research can provide more insight and can be a good supplementary analysis for consumer data exploration when Likert scales were used.
  • Article
    The evolution of store formats and the resultant consumers’ cross-shopping behavior has been the prevalent trends in Indian food and grocery retailing. More recently, however, the growing incidence of cross-format shopping—defined as consumers shopping regularly at each of two or more types of grocery retail outlets—has become a subject of research, as it is regarded as a necessary evil associated with concentric retail growth. The aim of the article is to identify factors influencing consumers’ cross-format shopping in relation to four retail formats—kirana stores, convenience stores, supermarkets, and hypermarkets. Furthermore, it investigates the impact of identified factors on repatronage behavior relative to four types of retail outlets. The mall intercept survey method was used to collect data from 1,040 adult food and grocery consumers. Results from exploratory factor analysis and zero-order correlation matrix indicate that value for money, value for time, shopping situations, shopping motives, and store attributes are significant and positively correlated with cross-format shopping. The multiple discriminant analysis provides empirical support, suggesting that value for money, task definitions, value for time, shopping trip pattern, basket size, price-conscious and local shopping motives, price promotions, customer service, store environment, distance to store, and monthly household income are not only the significant predictors but also able to discriminate repatronage intentions toward four types of retail outlets in an emerging retail market. The present study provides useful information on consumers' intertype cross-shopping (e.g., crossing from kirana store type to supermarket type and vice versa) between four types of grocery retail outlets.
  • Article
    Results of four studies demonstrate that perceptions of how different a brand is from other brands in the product category affect perceptions of the brand's position within the category. Specifically, perceptions that a brand is strongly discrepant result in a subtyped (or niche) position, whereas perceptions that a brand is moderately discrepant result in a differentiated position within the general category. Perceptions of discrepancy are affected both by the extent of discrepancy on an attribute and whether the discrepant information is concentrated in a single ad for the brand or dispersed across multiple ads for the product. The effects associated with a subtyped position, in comparison with a differentiated position, are identified (study 1) and are found to increase with time (study 2). The subtyped versus differentiated distinction for a strongly versus moderately discrepant brand is validated with a sorting task (study 3). This distinction is shown to hold in the context of multiple discrepant brands that differ in their extent of discrepancy (study 4). Implications of the findings for a theoretical understanding of subtyping versus differentiation and for the application of positioning strategies in the marketplace are discussed.
  • Article
    To practitioner and researcher alike, consumer values play an important role in understanding behavior in the marketplace. This paper presents a model linking perceived product attributes to values.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Small- and medium-size growers use direct marketing and farmers' markets to access customers and avoid supply chain intermediaries that increase costs of getting products to consumers. This study examined consumers' use of agricultural product information sources and their shopping outlet patronage preferences for one type of locally grown produce: avocados. Two farmers' market segments were identified: 1) shops only farmers' markets and 2) cross-shops grocery stores. Product information came from a variety of sources: media, retailers, and organizations. "Buy Local" or "product origin" were considered in produce shopping decisions. One dimension, "Buy Local," was significant in differentiating farmers' market segments.
  • Article
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    Conveying a brand image to a target market is a fundamental marketing activity. The authors present a normative framework, termed brand concept management (BCM), for selecting, implementing, and controlling a brand image over time. The framework consists of a sequential process of selecting, introducing, elaborating, and fortifying a brand concept. The concept guides positioning strategies, and hence the brand image, at each of these stages. The method for maintaining this concept-image linkage depends on whether the brand concept is functional, symbolic, or experiential. Maintaining this linkage should significantly enhance the brand's market performance.
  • Article
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    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive set of grocery store attributes that can be standardized and used in empirical research aiming at increasing retailers’ understanding of determinants of grocery store choice, and assessing how the relative importance of the attributes is affected by consumer socio-demographic characteristics and shopping behaviour. Design/methodology/approach – An internet survey of 1,575 Swedish consumers was conducted. A large set of attributes was rated by the participants on seven-point scales with respect to their importance for choice of grocery store. Principal component analysis (PCA) resulted in a reduced set of reliably measured aggregated attributes. This set included the attractiveness attributes price level, supply range, supply quality, service quality, storescape quality, facilities for childcare, and closeness to other stores, and the accessibility attributes easy access by car, easy access by other travel modes, and availability (closeness to store and opening hours). Findings – The results showed that accessibility by car is the most important grocery store attribute, storescape quality and availability the next most important and facilities for childcare the least important. It was also found that socio-demographic factors and shopping behaviour have an impact on the importance of the store attributes. Originality/value – A comprehensive set of attractiveness and accessibility attributes of grocery stores that can be standardized and used in empirical research is established. The results are valid for the Swedish-European conditions that differ from the conditions in North America where most previous research has been conducted. The results reveal the relative importance grocery-shopping consumers place on controllable attractiveness attributes compared to uncontrollable accessibility attributes as well as the relative importance of the attributes within each category.
  • Article
    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine consumer behavior towards Greek convenience stores chains and to determine the criteria on which store selection is based. The paper also analyses the stores’ position in the retail sector. Design/methodology/approach – A random sample of 360 convenience store consumers was surveyed across four major cities. Data were collected through personal interviews, using a structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was applied to further evaluate the information. Findings – Consumers choose convenience stores mainly to cover their daily needs and save time on shopping, despite their dissatisfaction with the provided services. The survey also identified the characteristics of convenience store customers and their preferences. Originality/value – The principal contribution of the present research is its focus on consumer behavior towards convenience stores in Greece.
  • Article
    Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to investigate the existence of differences in service quality assessments across distinct retail store formats. We address customers' quality assessments for physical aspects, personal interactions, reliability and policies dimensions in hypermarkets and supermarkets to analyse the impacts for satisfaction and loyalty. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The study builds on previous scales for service retail quality to develop a survey addressing customers of hypermarkets and supermarkets in Portugal. Data analysis addressed 248 complete questionnaires and involved statistical testing to explore differences in service quality expectations across retail store formats. The regression analysis was used to estimate impacts of each service quality dimension for customer satisfaction and loyalty intentions. Findings ‐ The results support the existence of differences in customers' service quality assessments across retail store formats, notably for the expectations about different quality dimensions. Differences were also observed on the impacts for customer satisfaction and loyalty, in particular for the dimensions of reliability and personal interaction. Research limitations/implications ‐ The results suggest that managerial decisions regarding service in stores should be adjusted to the characteristics of each retail format. The generalizability of the results should be assessed by means of further investigation in other retail contexts. Originality/value ‐ Retail customers patronize multiple types of retail stores that compete on diverse service attributes. Building on existing service measurement scales, this paper provides a contribution to understand customer's quality assessments across distinct store types to inform retail quality and service differentiation strategies.
  • Article
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    Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the on-going cultural turn in retail marketing by offering an overview of the interdisciplinary field of socio-cultural retailing and discussing how this body of work can contribute conceptually, methodologically and substantively to the field of retail marketing. Design/methodology/approach ‐ This paper is based on a literature review of socio-cultural retail studies in marketing, cultural geography, sociology, and anthropology. The literature is analysed in relation to the substantive, conceptual and methodological domains of retail marketing. Findings ‐ Drawing on the literature review, the authors argue that socio-cultural retail studies can contribute to the field of retail marketing substantively, conceptually and methodologically, thus broadening its current scope and domains. Originality/value ‐ This paper provides an overview of an interdisciplinary field and identifies how it can contribute to the field of retail marketing. It is valuable for retailing researchers interested in socio-cultural approaches to the study of contemporary retailing.
  • The main purpose of this study is to explore cross-format shopping motives among grocery consumers and to categorise cross-format shopping typologies based on identified motives. The paper also aims to identify common consumer subgroups amongst the customer base of different retail formats and differences among shopper segments in relation to format choice and repeat patronage (loyalty). In this method, exploratory qualitative (semi-structured personal interviews) and quantitative research (mall intercept survey) approaches were used. Primary data were collected from 1040 grocery consumers by self-administering a structured questionnaire. Multivariate techniques including exploratory factor analysis, k-means cluster analysis, multiple discriminant analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and χ 2 tests were applied to test the formulated propositions. This paper identifies nine cross-format shopping motivations: value for money, value for time, price-conscious, local shopping, shopping enjoyment, social shopping, variety seeking, entertainment, and brand-conscious motives. Based on these central dimensions, this paper finds five cross-format shopper segments: economic shopper, convenience shopper, price-promotional shopper, hedonic shopper, and social shopper. The study also indicates that there are significant differences amongst shopper typologies in relation to retail format choice and repatronage. This study provides specific knowledge of the cross-shopping motives to the grocery retailers that consumers consider important when making format choices. The study also helps retailers develop various retailing strategies to increase store format loyalty. Despite the importance of understanding grocery consumers' cross-shopping, little research has been conducted to investigate the growing incidence of cross-format shopping. Given the absence of published academic literature in relation to cross-format shopping behaviour in the context of emerging retail markets, the empirical evidence may serve as a departure point for future studies in this area of concern. The research is relevant to grocery retailers in terms of format development.
  • Article
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    Purpose – The hypermarket industry in Malaysia has created a huge momentum for modern retailing concepts. The industry has been developing impressively, and the word hypermarket seems in need of a new definition. There is an overlap of the definitions for hypermarket, supermarket and shopping mall. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to focus on recent Malaysian hypermarket retailing developments that could be used as sources for definition. A few expansion opportunities are also emphasized in this paper. Design/methodology/approach – A review of the literature from various research studies in the field was made. In order to strengthen the existing findings, practical implementations on hypermarket retailing within the Malaysian market were also studied in this research. In general, this research focuses on hypermarket retailing in the Malaysian scenario. Findings – Malaysian hypermarkets can be defined using retail developments within the industry as sources for definition works. This industry can also be expanded further through: product brand extension; service experience enhancement; self‐checkout technology; coupons promotion; online hypermarket; and one district one industry (SDSI) market intervention program. Originality/value – The definition of hypermarket in this research paper is streamlined further to differentiate it from a supermarket or shopping mall. With the potential expansion opportunities, it is expected that there will be a clearer path to outgrow this industry.
  • In the last few years, we have seen significant changes in the Italian retail environment which suggest that the patterns of retailing competition are more complex than in the past. In order to expand their target market in a context of economic recession, retailers are implementing new strategies aimed to stimulate the switching between different store formats. As a result, store formats are getting similar and new "hybrid" formats are emerging. This paper investigates the interformat competition between grocery store formats in the Italian retail market in order to understand which formats are converging and which, otherwise, are maintaining their distinctiveness. Our findings show that the rivalry between store formats (interformat) is becoming more intense than the competition within store formats (intraformat). These results have significant implication on both retailers and trade marketing strategies.
  • Article
    The paradigm shift in consumerís socio-economic, demographic, geographic and psychographic dimensions has changed the face of Indian food and grocery retailing. The present paper endeavours to make a detailed study on the association and predictability of consumerís demographic dimensions towards supermarket store format choice behaviour in food and grocery retailing. The study is purely based on primary data collected from 1040 retail customers from forty different food and grocery supermarket stores through mall intercept technique using structured and non-disguised questionnaire in twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad in Andhrapradesh. The descriptive statistical tools (percentiles mean standard deviation and cross tabulations) and inferential statistical tools (Chi-square, Correlations, Regressions, and ANOVA) were used to test the formulated hypotheses. It was found that customersí age, monthly household income, family size, distance travelled to store, gender, education and occupation have been the significant predictors of store choice behaviour. Various managerial and marketing implications are elaborately discussed in this paper.
  • Article
    Demand for consumer goods in rural markets in the emerging economies is increasing, and these markets are being targeted by multinational companies marketing consumer goods. While all companies are designing distribution strategies to reach the existing rural retail outlets and the periodic markets, a few companies are also developing innovative modes of distribution. Despite the availability of a product in the rural retail formats, some rural consumers were found to make their purchases from a nearby town. This article studied the outshopping behaviour of rural consumers and identified that the decision of what and where to purchase consumer goods could be inferred by identifying their urban orientation. A ‘person–situation’ framework is used to segment the rural market based on the rural consumers’ urban orientation. This framework would help marketers plan their distribution for the rural consumers. The article also suggests a good promotional strategy should support the distribution strategies.
  • Article
    Consumers’ choice of private brands reflects distinct differences in terms of product categories, and indications are that demographic and psychographic factors are also influential in terms of the sales of private vs. national brand foods. This study investigated the relationship between selected demographic and psychographic variables and consumers’ brand preferences for selected food products in a South African context. A mall intercept, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data (n = 620) in an urban area at prominent supermarkets. Findings revealed that consumers’ choice of private brands is probably associated with the product category. Although the present study could not expose significant relationships with psychographics for different grocery products, certain demographic factors seem noteworthy. Home language and education level seemed to be more significant indicators of brand preference, which suggests that consumers’ ability to interpret label information may be influential. This study concluded that brand preference depends on specific demographics for each product, and that psychographic factors were not significant in terms of product choice. Brand preference research therefore seems to be product and region specific and related to specific demographic variables.
  • Article
    A strategy formulation procedure for retailers is described. The changing retail environment has brought problems for some traditional forms of retailing, and indeed failure for some stores, but it has also brought opportunities, particularly for the store management that has been prepared to consider different ways of selling.
  • Article
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    The aim of this preliminary study is to identify the possible causes inhibiting consumers from purchasing Chinese own brands. In view of the absence of literature on this aspect of commerce in Asia, a review of Western literature was conducted. The data for this study is from semi-structured in-depth interviews with Chinese retail consultants and grocery shoppers in Shanghai, China. The results of the study show that negative low price image, low perceived own brand quality, and the importance of “face” in Chinese culture are the key factors resulting in negative sentiment toward Chinese grocery own brands. The results of this investigation are expected to provide a basis for making recommendations for the use of both international and Chinese retailers when building Chinese grocery own brands. The findings of this study have been generated from a small group of interviewees in a single city and thus cannot be considered conclusive. Therefore further research in other cities of China and other Asian countries should be conducted. The study offers novel views from the consumer perspective on the unwillingness to buy own brands in emerging markets.
  • Article
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    This paper concerns the management and organization of the marketing function within large multiple retail organizations. The elements of the retailer's marketing mix are identified and the hypothesis is developed that the breadth of control over the marketing mix by a marketing department should correlate positively with commercial performance. A postal survey of British retailers failed to demonstrate such a relationship, indicating that there is no obvious justification for a retailer to centralize most of its marketing in one large department. Instead, a positive correlation is found between there being strength in marketing in the retailer's buying department and commercial performance indicating that marketing that marketing expertise should not be concentrated into a specialist department.
  • Article
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    As a highly customer-sensitive business, retailing is one of the most socially active industries. Nevertheless, when addressing retailers as brands, the retailing literature has failed to account for their unique social orientation, exposing a gap in the literature. This article utilizes the sociological view of brands to socially construct a conceptual retail brand model from the customer standpoint. An ethnographic study of grocery retailing revealed that the store has, metaphorically, a tree-shaped culture, which can organically model the interplay between building the retailer brand as a culture and the phases constituting the social-self concept.
  • We apply modern financial portfolio theory (MPT) to managing portfolios of retail formats. The objective of MPT is to maximize overall portfolio return for a given level of portfolio risk. We applied MPT to three prominent hotel firms to determine the ideal mix of formats in their hotel brand portfolios, using revenue per available room (RevPAR) as a proxy for return on investment. We found that all three firms could improve their returns and reduce their risk by reallocating the number of hotel rooms (i.e., scarce resources) across their different retail formats.
  • Article
    Some brand strategists have distinguished between symbolic and functional brands, i.e. brands that basically satisfy consumers’ functional or product-related needs and brands bought to enhance self- or social esteem. It has been suggested that brands should be positioned as either functional or symbolic but not both. However, empirical research on the dimensionality of brand symbolism/functionality has been lacking. In this study, scales were developed to assess a brand’s symbolic or functional association with consumers. Subsequent data analysis suggests that brand symbolism and functionality are separate phenomena and, further, that symbolism comprises two dimensions, termed prestige and personality expression. Thus, contrary to current thinking, it seems that brands can be successfully positioned as both symbolic and functional and, if a symbolic brand concept is desired, prestige or upscaleness is just one of the possible positioning options available.
  • Purpose – Retailing in India is an unchartered territory. Food and grocery is the most promising area for setting up retail business in India. An understanding of shopper retail format choice behaviour will enable retailers to segment their market and target specific consumer groups with strategies premeditated to meet their retail needs. The purpose of this paper is to make a detailed study on the effect of shoppers' demographic, geographic and psychographic dimensions in terms of format choice behaviour in the fast growing Indian food and grocery retailing. Design/methodology/approach – Descriptive research design is adopted applying mall intercept survey method using structured questionnaire for data collection. Both descriptive (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistical tools like ?2, factor analysis and multivariate analysis are used to analyse the data collected from 1,040 food and grocery retail customers from upgraded neighbourhood kirana stores, convenience stores, supermarkets and hypermarkets in conjoint cities of Secunderabad and Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh in India. Findings – The findings suggest that shoppers' age, gender, occupation, education, monthly household income, family size and distance travelled to store have significant association with retail format choice decisions. The choice decisions are also varied among shoppers' demographic attributes. The findings from shoppers' psychographic dimensions like values, lifestyle factors and shopping orientations resulted in segmentation of food and grocery retail consumers into hedonic, utilitarian, autonomous, conventional and socialization type. Practical implications – The study has practical implications for food and grocery retailers for better understanding the shopper behaviour in the context of changing consumer demographic and psychographic characteristics in an emerging Indian retail market. The findings may help the retailers to segment and target the food and grocery retail consumers and, as a consequence, to undertake more effective retail marketing strategies for competitive advantage. Originality/value – Given the absence of published academic literature and empirical findings relating to store format choice behaviour in food and grocery retailing in India, this study may serve as a departure point for future studies in this area of concern. The research is also relevant to retail marketers in terms of format development and reorientation of marketing strategies in the fastest growing Indian retail market.
  • Discusses Wal-Mart’s entry into Europe. Explains the factors that have contributed to the success of the company, for example an efficient logistics system, extensive internal communications, and a capacity for innovation and reinvention. Outlines Wal-Mart’s strategy for expanding into Europe, which is based on acquisition. Details the main challenges to Wal-Mart’s entry into Europe, namely the size of the competition and cultural differences.
  • Article
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    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to present a review of the existing research themes in the area of retail branding, and note how these have developed as the conceptualisation of “branding” in retailing has itself evolved. Design/methodology/approach – This paper reviews existing research themes within retail branding. There is a vast body of academic literature on branding, or aspects of branding in retailing. The initial focus of academic work was upon the product perspective via studies of the store brand. This body of work is summarised under five broad themes – the characteristics of store brand prone consumers and the product attributes which attract consumers; the growth of and motivations for retail brand development; the role of changing channel relationships and behaviours on store brand development; intra‐category brand relationships; and the concept of copycat brands. From this initial, rather narrow, perspective research has evolved, taking on a wider view the brand in retailing which in turn has encompassed the store and the organisational perspectives. Findings – The evolution of branding in retailing from studies of store brands to the exploration of the retail‐er as a brand has been matched with a widening of the conceptualisation of the brand in retail research: from the product as a brand to the store as a brand and most recently to the organisation as a brand. This has implications for future research in terms of the themes under investigation, research design, and the research methodologies employed. Originality/value – The paper summarises the themes in existing retail branding research, notes the evolution of thought in retail brand research and suggests areas for future research.
  • The marketing of own brands is a feature of modern multiple retailing. Retailers can create brand image by advertising their own products or creating brand equity in their own stores and transferring such imagery to their physical products. The costs of branding to the retailer are approximately an order of magnitude lower than that to the manufacturers of brands sold via those same retailers. Despite their inherent advantage in managing brands, retailers have often chosen to ape the presentation of established brands. Affronted brand owners can sue under British law for “passing off”, but the protection offered appears limited to the idea of protecting the shopper from confusion, rather than the brand owner from unfair competition. Empirical evidence is presented as to how a “lookalike” brand can acquire the image of the established brand, leading to the challenge of a theft of identity. Whether changes to British law and the different legal situation in other countries takes account of this phenomenon is questioned.
  • Article
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    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a marketing strategy for a modern food/grocery market based on consumer preferences and behaviour. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 101 households having sufficient purchasing power were personally surveyed with a structured questionnaire. These households are spread across the well-developed Gomtinagar area of Lucknow city. Simple statistical analysis such as descriptive statistical analysis, frequency distribution, cross tabulation, analysis of variance, and factor analysis to assess the consumers' preferences for food and grocery products and market attributes were carried out. Findings – The preferences of the consumers clearly indicate their priority for cleanliness/freshness of food products followed by price, quality, variety, packaging, and non-seasonal availability. The consumers' preference of marketplace largely depends on the convenience in purchasing at the marketplace along with the availability of additional services, attraction for children, basic amenities and affordability. Results suggest that most of the food and grocery items are purchased in loose form from the nearby outlets. Fruits and vegetables are mostly purchased daily or twice a week due to their perishable nature, whereas grocery items are less frequently purchased. Research limitations/implications – This paper analyses the buying behaviour of the consumers under survey with respect to food and grocery items. These consumers are in a relatively advantageous position in terms of purchasing power and awareness of health and nutrition. Practical implications – The results may help the food processors and outlet owners to understand a diversified set of preferences for products and market attributes, so that they can make better decisions in the emerging organized food and grocery retail environment. Originality/value – The topic is relatively less researched in emerging markets especially where organized retail is still in its early stages.
  • Article
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    Purpose – This article seeks to understand whether Indian consumers are likely to move from traditional kirana stores to large organized retailers while shopping for groceries. Design/methodology/approach – Two hypotheses were proposed: H1: customer patronage differs for different grocery store attributes and H2: customer perceptions of grocery store attributes differ for kirana stores and organized retailers. The study was carried out across four Indian cities- two major and two smaller cities with around 100 respondents from each city. Stratified systematic sampling design with a sample size of 409 was used for the study. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to analyze the data collected with the help of a structured questionnaire. Findings – Customer patronage to grocery stores was found to be positively related to location, helpful, trustworthy salespeople, home shopping, cleanliness, offers, quality and negatively related to travel convenience. Kiranas do well on location but poorly on cleanliness, offers, quality, and helpful trustworthy salespeople. The converse is true for organized retailers. Research limitations/implications – Kiranas have major disadvantages on all customer perception scores except location. These scores being less important determinants of patronage compared with location, in the short run kiranas may not be ousted out of customers’ favour. However, in the long run if they do not work on these other factors, they would face oblivion. Practical implications – Kiranas need to upgrade their facilities to be able to compete with the organized retailers, who are expected to improve their location scores rapidly in the near future. Originality/value – The paper predicts whether the foray of large organized grocery retailing would close down millions of kirana shops and result in loss of livelihood, suggesting measures to counter the onslaught.
  • Article
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    Retailers, it is said, are behaving as brands. Tests whether retailers can be considered to be brands by comparing the current practices of British retailers against four criteria for a brand which are developed from the existing literature on branding. The four criteria are that the brand should: differentiate; be capable of a separate existence; command a premium price and; offer the customer some psychic value. Concludes that retail brands not only exist but also exist in two forms: the more obvious merchandise brands, commonly known as own-brand that are now marketed as more than generic commodities; and the less obvious process brand that represents the experience that retailers provide. Argues that the process brand is purchased with the shoppers' time rather than with their money. The process brand has value to the retailer as it generates customer flow, customer loyalty and higher expenditure.
  • Article
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    Purpose – This paper aims to explore the mechanism of brand internalisation when a brand transcends national borders. It focuses on the ways international and local managers interpret the brand, develop brand understanding and enact it through communication with other colleagues. Design/methodology/approach – The research is based on a case study of IKEA in Russia and China during 2003-2004. Findings – The processes of brand conceptualising, comprehending and activating are identified, characterised by a weakening collective sense making amongst employees locally. Brand activating represents a discontinuity stage of brand internalisation when a shared brand understanding by employees becomes increasingly difficult to achieve. As such managers should broaden their brand contexts to include cultural elements and cues, involve local staff as well as adopt roles which facilitate collective sense-making processes. Research limitations/implications – New research should explore local employees' brand experiences throughout their brand internalisation. It should also delve deeper into the ways they enact their brand in relationships with other local stakeholders. Practical implications – The study argues that international managers need greater awareness of theirs' and local employees' roles in brand internalisation. Managers need to create common frameworks for sense making and work towards partnership relationships with local stakeholders. Originality/value – This is an original paper of value to global retailers and other branded organisations.
  • Retail image and store positioning are factors which influence consumer loyalty and retail success. This paper discusses the effect of store image on store choice in fashion retailing and analyses the responses from customers of multiple fashion retailers selling menswear clothing in Glasgow. It examines the principal dimensions involved in customer perception of store image, using a multi-attribute model, and compares these with retail employees' image perceptions of their own store. The paper then highlights the implications of understanding store attributes for encouraging customer loyalty. It concludes by emphasizing the importance of company-image perception by retail staff and proposes that, for the fashion sector, this needs be more positive than the views held by target customers.