Article

Interlevel dynamics in clinical inquiry

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Abstract

Within experiential paradigms of action research, clinical inquiry has hitherto received little attention. Clinical inquiry is the observation, eliciting and reporting of data which are available when the researcher is engaged in a helping relationship in the management of change. Its core elements are: the client wanting help and, therefore, being more likely to reveal important data; the clinical researcher being expected to intervene, allowing new data about the client system to surface; and the richness of the data allowing the clinical researcher to develop deep insights into the client system. Interlevel dynamics, as an extension of levels of analysis, are useful diagnostic and intervention constructs for the clinical researcher who is helping an organisation manage change. They can be used to point out areas of systemic dysfunction and intervention. A case example of clinical inquiry in an IT-organisational change context illustrates the systemic nature of clinical inquiry in dealing with human, organisational and technological issues at, and between, the individual, team, interdepartmental group and organisational levels.

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... Action Research (AR) was primarily developed from the work of Kurt Lewin and his colleagues, and is based on a collaborative problem-solving relationship between the researcher and the client system, aiming at both managing change and generating new knowledge (Coghlan, 2000). As a form of qualitative research (Myers, 1997), AR is described as a setting in which a client is involved in the process of data gathering, which is prevailingly under the charge of a researcher. ...
... Hence, a problem-focused research approach like AR could provide a natural home for and evoke a need for collaboration that brought together multiple perspectives, including those of theory and practice. In part, this is because problems represent anomalies, and present a need to step outside of the daily reality that is driven by implicit theories, and to try to achieve a detachment that enables the search for new understandings that can guide action (Coghlan, 2000). ...
... In parallel, action researchers were involved in supporting the change management and communications activities and observing the user engagement process almost of a daily basis, in order to gather further information relevant to the research; they also operated "shoulder to shoulder" with the CEO and the Project Manager, and the result of this was that the researchers not only gained a deeper understanding of the company, its culture and its management's approach, but also gradually became accepted as a non-threatening and legitimate presence (Coghlan, 2000). ...
... The reason for focusing on a certain company and its business model was that after the research completed in Projects "Pre-design" and "Challenges" it appeared that an integrating company would be the key to implementing and operating the biogas ecosystem envisioned earlier. This is an example of how in a clinical inquiry the development of solutions to initial problems creates new research problems to be solved (Coghlan, 2000;Schein, 1995;Schön, 1995), leading to a constantly evolving research problem. ...
... Clinical research, or clinical inquiry, is associated with the action research tradition and can be seen as one of the approaches in the broader paradigm of experiential action research (Coghlan, 2000). Thus, the general features of action research are also pertinent to clinical inquiry. ...
... Thus, the general features of action research are also pertinent to clinical inquiry. They include the following (Coghlan, 2000;Gummesson, 2000): ...
Thesis
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Current industrial organisation requires a transition to more sustainable modes of fulfilling society needs. There is a clear trend towards functional economy and dematerialisation, which calls for the switch from owning to delivering functionality. Still, energy and therefore fuels need to be produced in order to procure, for example, transportation services. Biofuels are able to overcome the problems of emissions and scarcity associated with fossil fuels if produced and utilised in a sustainable manner. In this thesis, the metaphor of industrial symbiosis, which implies material and energy cycling among industries, serves as an inspiration for a circular and distributed way of organising biofuel production. A biogas-for-traffic solution is utilised as an empirical case in this study. The key challenge of making such an industrial organisation economically sustainable is addressed by proposing replication and business model innovation strategies that allow creating a resilient business ecosystem around biofuel business.
... There are a number of methodologies associated with PAR, such as action research and clinical research. In this paper, we specifically focus on clinical research (8,38,(40)(41)(42)(43)(44)(45) as the methodology for performing PAR (which we refer to as PAR or clinical research or clinical inquiry interchangeably) due to its focus on extant involvement of organizations as active research participants. It builds on the idea of engaging in research activities that are based on the needs of organizations and the co-creation of solutions in collaboration with said organizations. ...
... The researchers and the consultants set the stage for problem solving (11) as the context evolves and new problems emerge. This enables the practitioners to explore and act upon the emerging knowledge, thus generating actionable data (38). ...
... It is constantly produced (and sometimes overturned) throughout the research process. The actual end-point of the research is reached when all the key parts of the system have been stabilized to the point that the practitioners are able to proceed by taking action according to the knowledge generated (11,38,39). Therefore, the outcome of transformative business studies is both knowledge and actual change that can be generalized from the specific case (7,38). ...
Article
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In order to successfully transfer research results of business studies to practical application, there is a need to produce knowledge that has practical relevance and is transferrable to new contexts. This, naturally, creates requirements for the research process and methodology. In this paper, the methodology for conducting transformative business studies is presented, which is based on a combination of the design science research paradigm, participative research, and controversy mapping inspired by actor-network theory. The combination of these research methodologies and paradigms forms a methodological basis for producing transferrable research results that concern larger organizational and social change. It allows approaching ill-defined research problems through design thinking and systematically validating and verifying research results with practitioners in order to ensure the applicability of results in practice. To illustrate the methodology, we utilize an example of a method for designing business ecosystems that was developed in a collaboration between Åbo Akademi University and the research-based consultancy PBI Research Institute. This method was created during a series of projects devoted to the biogas-for-traffic business and concerned the development of enabling business ecosystems for innovations. Due to the way the knowledge was recorded, it was possible to transfer this knowledge to new contexts, such as logistics and energy business.
... In a similar vein, Beckhard (1997) highlights a strong sensing system for receiving information, a strong sense of purpose and vision of the future, structures that facilitate the work to be done, team management at the top, respect for client service as a principle, an information-driven management approach, decision making at a level closest to the client, open communication, congruent reward systems, explicit recognition for innovation and creativity, a high tolerance for different styles of thinking and ambiguity, and finally working in a learning mode where identifying learning points is part of the process of all decision making. Coghlan (2000) argues that systemic health in an organization can be viewed in terms of the harmony between (a) an individual's sense of belonging and participation in the organization, (b) the effective working of teams, (c) the coordination across teams and functions, and (d) the implementation of the organization's mission in a competitive and changing world. ...
... One could argue that a more conventional approach to dealing with the issue of alienation would be to deal with these issues in order to improve the management of the service. Coghlan (2000) asserts that management of people in organizations requires that 1. the dynamic relationship between an individual and the organization 2. the effective functioning of teams 3. the coordination of interfunctional departments 4. the strategy of the organization be viewed as a behavioral system. Rashford and Coghlan (1994) view this system as an interlevel dynamic and maintain that each level has a dynamic relationship with each other. ...
... Through this action research process the manager focused on the individual and team levels. Individuals or teams that experience stress in the work situation can adversely effect teams' ability to function effectively, which ultimately effects their ability to cope with or bond to an organization (Coghlan, 2000(Coghlan, , 2002. In this study he diagnosed that there were problems at all four levels, individuals felt isolated and powerless within the organization. ...
Article
This action research examines how a health service manager, with a clinical background, sought to develop his clinical skills in a management context. When asked to undertake an evaluation of an addiction counseling service, he found that there was evidence of systemic ill-health expressed through feelings of powerlessness, hurt, and alienation among the staff of the service. The article describes how the manager used action research, and in particular co-operative inquiry, to become an agent of healing in his own place of work. It illustrates how the co-operative inquiry process can be used to help individuals or groups to overcome feelings of alienation and powerlessness in organizations. By dealing with these feelings through a process of co-operative inquiry the conditions necessary to improve systemic health can be created to help develop a service and meet service objectives It explores the neglected subject of how managers can be agents of healing in organizations.
... This comes from the cognitive processes of the interviewees during the clinical inquiry. The mechanism is described by, for example, Coughlan and Coghlan (2016), Coghlan (2000), and Schein (1995): Schein places great emphasis on working with clients in a manner that enables them to engage in the cognitive processes of perceiving and understanding the issues that they confront so as to take action. (Coughlan and Coghlan, 2016). ...
... A case example of clinical inquiry in an IT-organisational change context illustrates the systemic nature of clinical inquiry in dealing with human, organisational and technological issues at, and between, the individual, team, interdepartmental group and organisational levels. (Coghlan, 2000). ...
Article
Purpose To identify areas and issues for management to consider in balancing specialization and commonalization in large manufacturing corporations with multiple brands from a strategic R&D and manufacturing point of view. Design/methodology/approach Three global manufacturing corporations from the automotive sector are used as a strategic sample composing three sequential clinical research projects. The data come from complementary data-gathering methods combining documents and interviews and workshops with top executives, project leaders, platform managers and product brand managers, thus enabling triangulation. Findings The study shows that managing manufacturing corporations with multiple brands is not just on a scale between full specialization and full commonalization but instead has its own logic of categorizations and portfolio formations. In order to develop the value of the brand portfolio, management must simultaneously embrace and address a number of highly integrated corporate values and highly differentiated brand company values. Research limitations/implications This study contributes primarily by relating economy of scale in relation to the need for differentiation of products and brands that have different values, customers and market positions. A model for balancing commonalization and specialization provides several opportunities for further research and development, however generalizations are issue and context specific. Practical implications The critical issues in balancing how to deal with specialization and commonalization in a company with multiple brands are explored and summarized in a framework for the practitioner to use in analysing a real situation. Originality/value Previous literature focuses on the maximization of synergies within one brand, missing the specific dynamics of large manufacturing corporations with many entities, such as individual products and brands. This article adds knowledge regarding how to balance synergies from commonalization with important objectives to preserve the specialization and distinctiveness of each product brand.
... The interventionist and ethnographic methodology of this study captures an open-ended process of change during which practitioners indicate double binds and contradictions as they work them out in interaction (Engeström, 2000;Kerosuo, 2006). The methodology of this study is close to action research and clinical inquiry (Coghlan, 2000;Luscher et al., 2006) in building a collaborative partnership with the research subjects and enabling participatory reflection based on observations of real work activities. Unlike Coglan (2000) and Luscher and her colleagues (2006), I focus only on 9 key episodes of a change process in which individually experienced contradictions to organizational change are uncovered and lead to a collectively created change in a surgical unit. ...
... The researchers provided edited video clips of the interviews with staff members and the actual work of coordinating the clinical activity before episode 1 (see figure 1). In these ways, the researchers may have been able to accelerate the critical transition and the organizational change, as has also been observed in other studies (Luscher et al., 2006;Coghlan, 2000). ...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to research a critical transition from individually-experienced double binds to collaborative change. To this end an early phase of a change process in a central surgical unit is studied in detail. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses an interventionist and ethnographic methodology to research the shift from individual to collective during organizational change. Organizational change is studied as a resolution of evolving contradictions. In this early phase, contradictions can emerge as individually-experienced double binds and crisis. Findings – The findings of the study describe a transition in which individually-experienced double binds and crisis become a driving force for organizational change. The dissolution of contradictions as double binds and crisis is strongly connected to emotions. When emotions are unveiled and collectively worked out, they become shared and can be understood critically. A change process is usually conceptualized as proceeding through sequential phases. This study demonstrates, however, that some phases can emerge almost coincidently in organizational change. Researchers can accelerate change with interventionist and ethnographic methodology. Research limitations/implications – A challenge for change management is how to manage contradictions and emotions to enable change to happen. Emotions have an important role in change processes, which is also a challenge for further research. Originality/value – An alternative and complementary approach to studying the process of change as a transition from the individual experience of contradictions to collaboratively created change is introduced in the paper.
... Doing action research in organizations requires attention to and working with the systemic interrelationships and dependence of each of the levels with one another. Coghlan (2000) discusses how interlevel dynamics are a systemic framework. He outlines a case in which an action researcher, working in a clinical inquiry mode, was engaged in helping an organization update its IT system. ...
... Interlevel dynamics are also operative for action researchers in the action research process itself. Action researchers themselves engage in interlevel dynamics as they encounter the process of the complex systems in which they enact action research projects (Coghlan, 2000;Coghlan and Brannick, 2001). Their engagement in first-and second-person research typically requires enactment of their own learning-in-action along with work with groups, between groups, and with organizations in their environments. ...
... Although positive school climates are associated with better student outcomes, efforts by psychologists are often not focused on broader contextual changes in the school ( Roeser, Eccles, & Sameroff, 1998). In addition, these efforts are sometimes fragmented and discrete, grafted onto existing curricula with insufficient consideration of the school's overall culture or ability to sustain the intervention over time ( Coghlan, 2000). These top-down interventions often leave little room for the sorts of innovations and activities that might produce more authentic, local change. ...
Article
A collaborative school-based intervention aimed at modifying relationships among administrators and teachers was implemented in three middle and junior high schools. Across the intervention schools, teachers were active collaborators in identifying problems and then articulating and implementing customized interventions to redress those problems. Analyses of both teacher (N=180) and student (N=2,631) data provide support for positive outcomes. Teachers' perceptions of school climate improved, and longitudinal models suggested that these improvements mediated the impact of treatment on teacher reports of affiliation and academic focus. In addition, the treatment had a positive impact on teachers' perceptions of principal support, which led to improvements in teacher attitudes. Furthermore, students in the intervention schools reported improvements in school climate relative to students in the comparison schools. Taken together, these results suggest that a strategy of encouraging and supporting teacher-led interventions, customized to the needs and circumstances of each particular school, can successfully revitalize school settings, leading to improvements not only in school's climate, but also in the quality of interactions within the settings. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Clinical inquiry takes place on several levels simultaneously (Coughlan, 2000). Mainly there is the project direction level and the data points. ...
Article
The prior research on product platforms has added to our knowledge from a strategic, technological, and organizational point of view. However, the existing literature, while exploring the platform concept, considers the actual development of platforms from a rather general perspective although companies develop platforms for different aims, purposes, and product scopes. Following on from this, the requirements for platform development resources, the ways of organizing platform development, and the implications for management styles have not been explored and are presumably varying. To start elaborating on this, the research behind this article uses a clinical research approach in seven platform development cases from eight years' longitudinal research in three global manufacturing automotive original equipment manufacturers. Platform development is here defined and treated as development with the aim of creating a foundation, the platform, for the subsequent development of derivative products. The analysis of the development of platform in different strategic situations and with different purposes demonstrates how combinations of changes in components and/or architecture represent a key differentiator. An important result is the advancement of the platform perspective from an architecture with a set of components to a classification of four platform development variants based on alternative changes in architecture and/or components. Each type has different complexities and characteristics influencing the project length, requirements for platform development resources, principles for organizing, and implications for management styles.
... The research process was largely based on a combination of clinical research and design science approaches. Clinical research originates from the research tradition of action research and implies engaging in solving problems that are relevant to the industry [Coget 2009;Coghlan 2000;Coghlan 2009;Schein 1993;2008;Schön 1995]. In this mode of research, the researchers help companies to diagnose and solve problems. ...
Chapter
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Biogas production and its use as traffic fuel are discussed in this chapter as an example of a system eco-innovation that is struggling to become implemented in a focal municipality. The biogas producer and distributor as the owner of the “core technology” have the potential to become the integrator of a functioning ecosystem required for the innovation to succeed. The company’s business model, however, should be transformed to incorporate the radical and system nature of the eco-innovation as well as create a business solution that would make the technology profitable. The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate how an ecosystem integrator can develop a boundary-spanning business model that is capable of integrating the multitude of stakeholders into a working biogas-for-traffic solution, thereby achieving a system change. The chapter is based on the results of two research projects during which a sustainable local biogas-for-traffic solution and the business model of the ecosystem integrator were developed together with the major ecosystem stakeholders. The main principle of developing such a business model lies in considering business models of the relevant stakeholders and managing uncertainties pertinent to their integration into the biogas-for-traffic ecosystem.
... Doing action research in organizations requires attention to and working with the systemic interrelationships and dependence of each of the levels with one another. Coghlan (2000) discusses how interlevel dynamics are a systemic framework . He outlines a case in which an action researcher, working in a clinical inquiry mode, was engaged in helping an organization update its IT system. ...
Article
Levels of analysis are commonly used as frameworks for researching, understanding, and intervening in organizational systems. Levels of analysis typically refer to the identification of issues at units of complexity, such as the individual, the group, the intergroup, and the organization. The construct of levels of analysis is traditionally an important dimension of action research. This article reviews the traditional use of levels of analysis as the focus of action research and extends the notion to levels of aggregation or interlevel dynamics. It illustrates how interlevel dynamics are important both as the focus of action research and to the action research process itself.
... One of the members of this research team was dean of a professional school and actively engaged in the merger process. This participation in clinical inquiry was accomplished through observation as well as eliciting and reporting of data in a methodology similar to Coghlan (2002). ...
Article
Purpose Mergers in higher education seem to be more common as academic institutions work to control costs and avoid program duplications in challenging economic times and adopt the more common cost saving measures often espoused from business mergers. The purpose of this paper is to highlight successes from a complementarity-based merger of two institutions in the University System of Georgia (USG) and present results over time. Design/methodology/approach A case study methodology was employed to explain why a particular merger resulted in greater growth compared to other system-wide academic mergers. This research focuses on a single merger of two institutions in Georgia, one of seven such mergers in the USG institutions to date, involving Gainesville State College and North Georgia College and State University to become the University of North Georgia. Observations are made and complimented by secondary data to rank growth among the seven USG consolidations. Findings The case findings highlight the success from the complementarity of these institutions. While the two were unique institutions, the success of the merger was linked to the underlying complementarity issues. Originality/value Using the strategic issues inherent in mergers from the business literature, the merger of the two institutions is profiled and discussion and recommendations are provided along with areas for future research.
... In other words, the process is defined by the organization's needs and problems whereas the focus of much action research is framed by the researcher. Second, clinical inquiry is based on the notion of systemic health (Coghlan, 2000). Those applying this approach seek to understand the processes than inhibit systemic health and help improve the organization's state of being so that the client becomes "actively involved in diagnosing their own situation and helping to formulate interventions that will work in their culture" (Schein, 1993, p. 703). ...
Article
Enterprises in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have had to fundamentally reform how they are managed and operate to cope with the switch from central planning to a more market based economy. In understanding these challenges and how firms are reacting to them, the clinical inquiry approach, a variant of action research, is deemed particularly appropriate. Research following this approach was conducted with a case study enterprise drawn from the Moldovan wine industry. The process encouraged self-diagnosis and intervention and a PSEFI (Problems, Strategies, Evaluations, and Future Issues) matrix was drawn to guide and assess the companys evolution. Reflections on the benefits of the clinical inquiry approach in transitional economies, compared to more conventional business support and research methods are discussed.
... The research process behind this article is based on clinical inquiry. Clinical research originates from the research tradition of action research and implies engaging in solving problems that are relevant to the industry (Coget, 2009;Coghlan, 2000;Schein, 1993Schein, , 1995Schein, , 2008Schön, 1995). In this mode of research, the researchers help companies to diagnose and solve problems. ...
Article
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This article contributes to engineering project research by studying how projects relate to their surrounding context. The article presents a framework for the analysis of workflow interdependencies in a project that is situated in a business ecosystem. The analysis is used to reduce costly conflicts in the business ecosystem, and the framework shows how the project is positively impacted by the resolution of those conflicts. The framework elaborates James Thompson’s notion of pooled, sequential and reciprocal interdependence and distinguishes between compatible-reciprocal and contentious-reciprocal interdependencies. The relationship between interdependence types and their corresponding coordination and governance mechanisms, originally posited for interdependence between tasks and groups within a single organization, applies equally well to interdependence types and governance mechanisms across firm boundaries within a business ecosystem. We analyze a cargo vessel development project within the short sea logistics business ecosystem to illustrate how the proposed framework can remove unproductive workflow conflicts and enhance value creation.
... This study deploys a clinical management research (CMR), a method that involves 'observing, eliciting and reporting of data which are available when the researcher is engaged in a helping relationship in the management of change' [16]. The method is suitable because it allows case firms and their management to gain deeper and richer insights into a particular problem [6]. ...
Chapter
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Engineer-to-order (ETO) manufacturers operate in an increasingly volatile, uncertain, and complex business environment, which has added more complexity to their already complex supply chain operations. As they navigate the ramifications of the COVID-19 pandemic, they need knowledge-based guidance on selecting and implementing approaches to increasing resilience. Based on a clinical management design, this study develops a systematic approach for a case firm that recently transitioned from single sourcing to multi-sourcing. The goal is to strike a balance between the total cost of acquisition and supply chain resilience. The study reveals that effective implementation of multi-sourcing in ETO production requires involving the purchasing and supply function (PSF) right from the design stages. Besides, it is essential to deploy a cloud-based procurement system that facilitates interactions between PSF and the suppliers, as well as other critical organisational functions involved in an ETO project.
... Clinical inquiry/research occurs when the researcher is engaged in helping organizations (Coghlan, 2000;Coghlan & McDonagh, 2001;Quick & Garvin, 2000;Schein, 1987Schein, , 1993aSchein, , 1995Schein, , 1999Schein, , 2008. As such, it is synonymous with process consultation (Schein, 1995) whereby the consultant creates a helping relationship with a client that enables the client "to perceive, understand and act on the process events that occur in the client's internal and external environment in order to improve the situation as defined by the client" (Schein, 1999, p. 20). ...
Article
The hypothesis underpinning this philosophical reflection on Schein's notion of clinical inquiry/research is that clinical inquiry/research has solid foundations in the operations of human cognition and in the nature of the realm of practical knowing. The reflection draws on the work of the philosopher Bernard Lonergan, who articulates both a clear account of the operations of human knowing and of the realm of practical knowing where knowledge is contextually embedded, and there is a primary concern for the practical and the particular. The purpose of engaging in this philosophical reflection is to articulate the epistemic grounds on which clinical inquiry/research is based to aid clinical researchers to understand and appropriate its vibrant philosophy. The aim is to provide scholar-practitioners with an epistemology, a methodology, and an array of methods to conduct clinical inquiry/research.
Article
Action research is well grounded in the worlds of organizational and community psychology. The practice of action research within each of these fields has been shaped by their dominant settings, theories, and values; where these diverge, rich learning opportunities have been created. Each phase of the action research cycle has particular challenges that can be overcome by integrating theories from both fields. This article outlines organizational theories as they apply to action research in community settings in three particular areas: the ecological context, collaboration and consensus, and sustainability. Using Price and Smith's (1985) four-cycle model of action research as a framework, we then present a case study example of how organizational theories have become part of our action research practices. Specifically, we will illustrate issues and challenges involved in coordinating social and emotional learning programs in two overlapping contexts: urban elementary schools and high schools. We found that building explicit knowledge of organizational theory brings important perspectives and tools to action research in community settings. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
Since the 1950s the process of information technology (IT) related change in organizations has been problematic regularly resulting in reports of persistent underperformance and failure, a situation well supported by empirical research. On closer inquiry it emerges that this plight is a product of the behavioural patterns of both the executive and IT occupational communities with their respective economic and technical mindsets. This article not only makes explicit the plight with IT related change and its behavioural underpinnings but also establishes the role of clinical inquiry, as an action research form of organization development, in fostering a more systemic approach to change. The article makes explicit the dual roles of organizational scientists in this domain which involves simultaneously attending to effective social action and the development of robust social theory.
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After examining the main principles and historical origins of Edgar Schein's clinical inquiry, this article introduces dialogical inquiry, an extension of clinical inquiry. Following clinical inquiry's main principles, dialogical inquiry adopts a dialogue over videotaped segments of behavior as its main tool. The goals of dialogical inquiry are (a) to raise participants' awareness about how they interpret work situations in the moment, so that they can increase their effectiveness and (b) to allow the researcher to build actionable academic knowledge. The process of dialogical inquiry has four phases: (a) a life interview with the participant, (b) shadowing and filming the participant in action in the work environment, (c) selecting episodes from the videotaped shadowing for discussion, and (d) a discussion with the participant about these episodes. Like clinical inquiry, and more generally action research, dialogical inquiry is intended to be a method that can help fill the gap between theory and practice.
Book
The five-volume set IFIP AICT 630, 631, 632, 633, and 634 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International IFIP WG 5.7 Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, APMS 2021, held in Nantes, France, in September 2021.* The 378 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 529 submissions. They discuss artificial intelligence techniques, decision aid and new and renewed paradigms for sustainable and resilient production systems at four-wall factory and value chain levels. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: Part I: artificial intelligence based optimization techniques for demand-driven manufacturing; hybrid approaches for production planning and scheduling; intelligent systems for manufacturing planning and control in the industry 4.0; learning and robust decision support systems for agile manufacturing environments; low-code and model-driven engineering for production system; meta-heuristics and optimization techniques for energy-oriented manufacturing systems; metaheuristics for production systems; modern analytics and new AI-based smart techniques for replenishment and production planning under uncertainty; system identification for manufacturing control applications; and the future of lean thinking and practice Part II: digital transformation of SME manufacturers: the crucial role of standard; digital transformations towards supply chain resiliency; engineering of smart-product-service-systems of the future; lean and Six Sigma in services healthcare; new trends and challenges in reconfigurable, flexible or agile production system; production management in food supply chains; and sustainability in production planning and lot-sizing Part III: autonomous robots in delivery logistics; digital transformation approaches in production management; finance-driven supply chain; gastronomic service system design; modern scheduling and applications in industry 4.0; recent advances in sustainable manufacturing; regular session: green production and circularity concepts; regular session: improvement models and methods for green and innovative systems; regular session: supply chain and routing management; regular session: robotics and human aspects; regular session: classification and data management methods; smart supply chain and production in society 5.0 era; and supply chain risk management under coronavirus Part IV: AI for resilience in global supply chain networks in the context of pandemic disruptions; blockchain in the operations and supply chain management; data-based services as key enablers for smart products, manufacturing and assembly; data-driven methods for supply chain optimization; digital twins based on systems engineering and semantic modeling; digital twins in companies first developments and future challenges; human-centered artificial intelligence in smart manufacturing for the operator 4.0; operations management in engineer-to-order manufacturing; product and asset life cycle management for smart and sustainable manufacturing systems; robotics technologies for control, smart manufacturing and logistics; serious games analytics: improving games and learning support; smart and sustainable production and supply chains; smart methods and techniques for sustainable supply chain management; the new digital lean manufacturing paradigm; and the role of emerging technologies in disaster relief operations: lessons from COVID-19 Part V: data-driven platforms and applications in production and logistics: digital twins and AI for sustainability; regular session: new approaches for routing problem solving; regular session: improvement of design and operation of manufacturing systems; regular session: crossdock and transportation issues; regular session: maintenance improvement and lifecycle management; regular session: additive manufacturing and mass customization; regular session: frameworks and conceptual modelling for systems and services efficiency; regular session: optimization of production and transportation systems; regular session: optimization of supply chain agility and reconfigurability; regular session: advanced modelling approaches; regular session: simulation and optimization of systems performances; regular session: AI-based approaches for quality and performance improvement of production systems; and regular session: risk and performance management of supply chains *The conference was held online.
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This paper reviews the origins, techniques and roles associated with action research into information systems (IS). Many consider the approach to be the paragon of post-positivist research methods, yet it has a cloudy history among the social sciences. The paper summarizes the rigorous approach to action research and suggests certain domains of ideal use (such as systems development methodology). For those faced with conducting, reviewing or examining action research, the paper discusses various problems, opportunities and strategies.
Chapter
Invention and Early Development: Mid-1980s to About 1993 Adoption of the New Methods: 1993 to 2000 Incorporation: 2000s Sustaining Change in a Fast Changing World: Large Group Methods and OD Interventions Rules of Thumb for Sustainable Change Consulting Case Examples: Using Large Group Methods to Make Sustainable Culture Change Conclusion
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Learning is now widely accepted as the currency of survival in an era of constant change. Many businesses, however, are struggling to learn how to learn. The cultural and structural issues they need to confront in order to acquire the flexibility and responsiveness to learn were articulated in 1990 in The Fifth Discipline by Peter M Senge of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Measuring Business Excellence revisits this now landmark work to review its continuing relevance to the aspirant learning organization.
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Discussions of action research in information systems (IS) often proceed as if there were one definitive action research method. This paper describes and analyses the different frameworks, assumptions and goals that characterise the diverse forms of action research. A more inclusive action research paradigm is delineated that offers a basis for validating a wider range of IS research. Acceptance of the full range of the diverse forms of action research may enable the IS field to be more explicit about its research methodology, thereby enabling criteria to be improved and applied to a broader range of IS research.
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Levels of analysis are common frameworks for describing organizational dynamics, both in the general organizational and the information technology (IT)-organizational literature. Levels of analysis - individual, group, intergroup and organizational - are typically presented as constructs under which particular organizational dynamics can be grouped and analysed. Rarely is there any emphasis placed on how events on one level can affect the dynamics of other levels. This article introduces Rashford and Coghlan's framework of organizational levels which describes levels as systemically interrelated and interdependent and, through examples, argues that the IT-organizational literature needs to adopt a more dynamic construct of levels of analysis to account for how IT affects individuals, teams, interteam coordination and organizations concurrently.Journal of Information Technology 1998 13, 139–149. doi:10.1080/026839698344918
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"Adapted from the text of the Sixteenth Annual Frederick J. Gaudet Lecture, sponsored by the Stevens Chapter of Psi Chi, The National Honor Society in Psychology, Stevens Institute, Hoboken, N.J., April 30, 1991"--P. 1. Includes bibliographical references (p. 30). Edgar H. Schein.
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Incluye bibliografía Introducción al pensamiento sistémico, aplicado especialmente al comportamiento organizacional.
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Cover title. Invited address to the Third Biennial International Conference on Advances in Management, Sheraton Tara Hotel, Framington, MA., June 28. 1996.
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Clarifies a confusion existing in the field of consultation and organization development between formal research and data-driven inquiry on the one hand and clinical research and client-driven inquiry on the other. Illustrates the difference between the two approaches by showing the effects of particular approaches to data gathering. Shows how the clinical approach is synonymous with process consultation by being driven by the client′s agenda and argues that the clinical approach is more appropriate for consultation and organization development projects.
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Includes bibliographical references (p. 18).
Organization Development: A Process of Learning and Changing
  • W.W. Burke
Systemic Work with Organizations
  • D Campbell
  • Coldicott, T. , Kinsella, K
Organization Development
  • W French
  • C Bell
Action research as applied to organization development
  • Frohman, M, Sashkin, M, Kavanagh, M
IT-enabled organizational change: New developments for IT specialists
  • Markus, M.L, Benjamin, R
The Dynamics of Organizational Levels
  • Rashford, N.S, Coghlan, D
Practicing Organization Development
  • Rothwell, W, Sullivan, R, McLean, G
Process Consultation Revisited: Building the Helping Relationship
  • E.H Schein
Productive Workplaces
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forthcoming), “Can OD help the IT dilemma? OD in IT-related change
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