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Individual Values in Organizations: Concepts, Controversies, and Research

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Abstract

The values of managers and employees in organizations are phenomena that have captured the interest of researchers, practitioners, social critics, and the public at large. Despite this attention, there continues to be a conspicuous lack of agreement on what values are and how they influence individuals. In this article we discuss how values have been defined and conceptualized. Focusing on values as desirable modes of behavior, we describe how they affect individuals in organizations and discuss some of the salient controversies that characterize contemporary research on values. Finally, we report on a comprehensive review of the most recent literature in this area.

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... Managerial and organizational research has consistently demonstrated how employees' values underpin their behavior. In addition, the alignment of people's values in organizations is known to produce positive outcomes for employees and their employers (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998). Examples of such positive outcomes include increased job satisfaction (Chen et al., 2016;Edwards and Cable, 2009;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005), higher levels of commitment (Verquer et al., 2003), enhanced performance (Hoffman and Woehr, 2006;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005) and reduced staff turnover (Boon and Biron, 2016). ...
... In line with previous research (Edwards and Cable, 2009;Meglino and Ravlin, 1998;Rokeach, 1973;Schwartz, 1992Schwartz, , 1994Bilsky, 1987, 1990), values are defined as individuals' beliefs about normatively desirable behaviors and end states, which, in part, shape emotions, behaviors, actions and decisions. This definition is underpinned by a psychological focus that places values in people's minds. ...
... An integrative review of value congruence and incongruence in the workplace Although values independently, value congruence and value incongruence all influence workplace behavior (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998), the focus of this paper is on value congruence and incongruence alone. This approach is adopted following the person vs situation debate of the early 1970s (Bowers, 1973;Mischel, 1973), which demonstrated that while person and situation variables contribute independently to behavior, this is far outweighed by their interaction (Bowers, 1973). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to integrate research conducted on work values, political values and cultural values to develop a new heuristic model of values that can be applied to workplace outcomes. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper that draws upon the work values, political values and cultural values literatures and the “similarity leads to attraction” and “dissimilarity leads to repulsion” hypotheses to advocate an integrative conceptual model spanning these constructs. Findings Integrating the three types of values with the underlying hypotheses of “similarity leads to attraction” and “dissimilarity leads to repulsion”, an internally consistent two-factor model of values is developed. This heuristic model argues that one set of factors causes value congruence and its associated outcomes and a different set of factors causes value incongruence and its associated outcomes. By conceptualizing value congruence and value incongruence as a two-factor theory, the idea is advanced that people do not assess value similarity and value dissimilarity unidimensionally, but these are two separate dimensions supported by different theoretical hypotheses and processes. Originality/value Previous conceptual work on values has isolated different types of values and considered them separately. A contribution is made by integrating the three main streams of values research. The paper is the first to advocate a two-factor theory to values and the first to incorporate the “similarity leads to attraction” and “dissimilarity leads to repulsion” hypotheses. The model repositions the focus for future research on value congruence and incongruence.
... Organisational value congruence (OVC) is widely known as the fit between individual and organisational value systems (Schmidt and Posner, 1986;Chatman, 1989;Kristof, 1996;Meglino & Ravlin, 1998;Ostroff et al., 2005;Edwards & Cable, 2009), and has been broadly discussed as a decisive factor underlying both individual and organisational behaviour. Accordingly, a good fit between individual and organisational values has been recognised as a key determinant of positive organisational outcomes such as job satisfaction, perceived organisational identity, strong employment relationships (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Meglino & Ravlin, 1998;Posner, 2010;Verquer et al., 2003), increased employee commitment (Sparrow and Wu, 1998;Finegan, 2000), and competitive advantages (Sparrow and Wu, 1998;Bosch & Prooijen, 1992). ...
... Organisational value congruence (OVC) is widely known as the fit between individual and organisational value systems (Schmidt and Posner, 1986;Chatman, 1989;Kristof, 1996;Meglino & Ravlin, 1998;Ostroff et al., 2005;Edwards & Cable, 2009), and has been broadly discussed as a decisive factor underlying both individual and organisational behaviour. Accordingly, a good fit between individual and organisational values has been recognised as a key determinant of positive organisational outcomes such as job satisfaction, perceived organisational identity, strong employment relationships (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Meglino & Ravlin, 1998;Posner, 2010;Verquer et al., 2003), increased employee commitment (Sparrow and Wu, 1998;Finegan, 2000), and competitive advantages (Sparrow and Wu, 1998;Bosch & Prooijen, 1992). On the contrary, negative outcomes like employee dissatisfaction (Meglino & Ravlin, 1998), conflicts (Chandrakumara, 2011), and lack of employee willingness to perform (Newman and Nollen, 1996) have been observed as consequences of poor OVC. ...
... Accordingly, a good fit between individual and organisational values has been recognised as a key determinant of positive organisational outcomes such as job satisfaction, perceived organisational identity, strong employment relationships (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Meglino & Ravlin, 1998;Posner, 2010;Verquer et al., 2003), increased employee commitment (Sparrow and Wu, 1998;Finegan, 2000), and competitive advantages (Sparrow and Wu, 1998;Bosch & Prooijen, 1992). On the contrary, negative outcomes like employee dissatisfaction (Meglino & Ravlin, 1998), conflicts (Chandrakumara, 2011), and lack of employee willingness to perform (Newman and Nollen, 1996) have been observed as consequences of poor OVC. ...
Article
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Given the diverse conceptualisations used in the measurement of organisational value congruence (OVC), the purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated typology of measurement criteria — as a methodological and measurement guideline — that can be employed in operationalising the measurement of OVC. Based on a review of over forty empirical articles, this typology proposes a path forward to operationalise the measurement of OVC by selecting from the proposed criteria and alternative dimensions to match the specific aims of researchers more comprehensively. The typology thus proposed identifies six key criteria and 12 dimensions therein. It further presents how different combinations of alternative dimensions in measuring OVC are used and can be used to best suit different objectives of researchers. As a concept matrix, this typology would specifically be useful for future researchers to identify how best to measure OVC to match their specific study objectives and facilitate rational comparison of OVC studies, permitting sensible knowledge sharing. Further, this typology can be extended to locate the best possible combinations for operationalising the measurement of OVC for future research.
... Recent management research has focused on the direct impact of leaders' personal values [33][34][35] on their behavior [38,39]. They combine knowledge about valuesespecially the theory of basic values and value theory [33][34][35]-and leadershipespecially the theory of leadership styles [5][6][7] and behavior theories of leadership [1][2][3][4]. ...
... Personal values include concepts or beliefs that refer to desirable behaviors or end states [23,24,55], transcending specific situations and drawing upon several ground theories about personal, organizational, and societal values [25,38]. As reported by [1], and [26], personal values provide a foundation for the selection of leaders' preferred behavior patterns. ...
... Promising stream of behavior and management studies have considered the direct relationships between the values and behaviors of leaders [38,39]. Thus, Fazio and Glavas and Kelley [60,63] reported that values are the main predictors of human behavior and recommended the utilization of value-behavior relations in leadership studies. ...
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The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of leaders’ personal values on their democratic behavior from a sustainability perspective. We specified and tested the research model, drawing upon modified versions of the theory of basic values and the autocratic–democratic leadership continuum. A total of 208 Slovenian and 196 Austrian leaders’ responses were used in hierarchical regression and structural equation modeling analysis. The results reveal a significant and positive influence of collectivistic values in both samples on democratic leadership behavior. A significant and negative effect of individualistic values on democratic leadership behavior is present in Austria, while in Slovenia, the effect is positive but not significant. Based on acknowledged associations between leader’s values, leaders’ democratic leadership behavior, and sustainable development, we argue that democratic leadership behavior contributes to the sustainable working and behavior of organizations. These results have theoretical implications, indicating how personal values affect leaders’ democratic behavior and contribute to the sustainable working and behavior of organizations. The practical implications relate to the strengthening of leaders’ democratic behavior in Slovenian and Austrian organizations. In addition, these findings will be helpful in increasing the sustainability of organizations via fostering democratic leadership behavior and its underlying personal values.
... Values are beliefs, have motivational constructs, transcend specific actions and situations, guide selection or evaluation of actions, policies; people and events and are ordered in their importance (Swhwartz 1994(Swhwartz , 2005a(Swhwartz , 2006Allport 1961;Feather, 1995;Inglehart, 1997;Kohn, 1969;Kluckhohn, 1951;Morris, 1956 andRokeach, 1973 (Rokeach and Ball-Rokeach, 1989;Krishan, 2008); however, people's motivation and consciousness are contingent and hence people re-order their values and this makes it dynamic and this enables an individual to align his/her values to the organizational values. Change in value system requires rearrangement of the relative importance given to various values (Krishnan, 2008).The stable yet dynamic nature of values makes them foundation of behavior and identity (Dose, 1999;Meglino & Ravlin, 1998). They have substantial influence on behavioral responses (Locke, 1976;Rockeach, 1973;Postman, Bruner & McGinnies, 1948;Williams, 1979;Epstein, 1979) and dictate socially desirable conduct (Kabanoff, Waldersee, & Cohen, 1995, p. 1076 by creating compulsion to conform to the social values (Kluckhohn, 1951;Krishan, 2008) Value in organizational level is determined by most of organization employees who are aware of organizational support for creating value (Chatman, 1989). ...
... Another point regarding value congruence to consider, the adverse effect of personorganization fit in high level. Literature for person-organization fit points out adverse potential results of person-organization fit in very high level and remarks incompetency for adaptation to environment and decrease in organizational innovation (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998;Erdoğan and Bauer, 2005). Homogeneity of working values that employees adopt causes homogeneity for interpreting organizational events and for reacting. ...
... Homogeneity of working values that employees adopt causes homogeneity for interpreting organizational events and for reacting. This situation blocks organizational performance in case adaptation to change and innovativeness need (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998;Schneider,1987, Erdoğan et. al, 2004. ...
Article
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The importance of human is becoming more apparent in today's competitive environment. Considering the effects of technology on work and organizations, significant factor for human-oriented issues is to have employees congruent with group. Focusing on fit as a tool for keeping this desired employee profile has become research topic for a while in human resource management. In the light of developing technology, increasing of technology-based organizations cause project-based work and working groups that are commonly occurred in these organizations increase in number. Besides person-organization fit, the result of employee's fit/misfit with the group gain importance for organizations. One of the effects caused by fit/misfit is employees' perception about their supervisors. The effects of value congruence of personal values with organizational values and group values, demographic similarity with group members and employee perception about job execution,attitude similarity with group members/supervisor on supervisor satisfaction are investigated in this research. 293 employees are selected at technology based organizations. Congruence is considered as similarity between components and measured via absolute difference. According to findings, person-organization value congruence, person-group value congruence, perceptual similarity with group in terms of age, and perceptual job attitude similarity with supervisor influence supervisor satisfaction, positively. Contrary to expectations, being different with group members in terms of job tenure explains the variance in supervisor satisfaction, positively. The findings highlight complementary fit concerning job tenure for the group apart from supplemantary fit.
... An employee's cultural background is often captured in management research through cultural values that are often defined as assumptions of individuals that are influenced by their cultural background and that guide their feelings, thinking, and behavior (Hofstede, 2001) or as desirable modes of behavior (Meglino & Ravlin, 1998). In 1984, Hofstede developed and confirmed a cultural value framework based on four dimensions: power distance, individualism-collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity-femininity. ...
... The study focuses on beliefs about telework because it can be expected that the influence of an employee's cultural values on an employee's acceptance of work modes and systems (e.g., telework arrangement) is transmitted through an employee's beliefs related to a specific work mode or system (e.g., beliefs about telework). Cultural values refer to broad assumptions that people have about life, work, and relationships (Maznevski et al., 2002;Meglino & Ravlin, 1998). It is therefore useful to integrate more specific beliefs related to telework in the research model to explain the influence of cultural values on the effects of telework. ...
Article
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Previous research into telework and job stress is characterized by inconsistent findings and reported beneficial, nonsignificant, and dysfunctional effects of telework on employees’ job stress levels and well-being. To investigate when the effects of telework on job stress are beneficial versus dysfunctional, the study draws on telework research and cultural value theory and analyzes the moderating role of employee cultural background (i.e., individualism and power distance), the influence of which on the effects of telework is expected to be transmitted by an employee’s beliefs about telework effectiveness and isolation. Although prior research analyzed the effects of telework in different occupations and industries, a very important matter has received very little attention – namely, the effects of telework on job stress across employees with different cultural backgrounds. To successfully implement telework arrangements, organizations must know whether employee cultural background influences the effectiveness of telework. The current COVID-19 pandemic and the related implementation of telework arrangements in many countries amplify the importance of understanding the influence of culture on the effects of telework on employee well-being. The hypotheses are tested through a three-wave survey study with 604 teleworkers from different countries. The results indicate that telework only reduces job stress when employees do not believe that telework will lead to social isolation. The study further expands telework research by showing that employees with high power distance scores have negative beliefs about telework, whereas employees with high individualism scores have positive beliefs about the effectiveness of telework.
... Similarly, the most suggested reason to explain the differences and similarities among values is that they are influenced by personal experiences and by the exposure to formal socialization forces (Rockeach, 1973). In the case of the values that are relevant to specific social institutions, the process is primarily carried out during the first days that the individual is part of the social system and will be reinforced during the time the individual stays in such system (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998). Sandoval (2007;Figueroa et al, 2012:9) states that the process by which human beings have values, involves a series of intellectual and emotional conditions that are reflected in their decisions. ...
... The literature on values has evolved to report the importance of shared values between individuals in organization for the success of any organization at both the individual and organizational level of analysis. At the individual level, there is evidence in literature that gender may be an determinant of value orientations of individuals (Meglino & Ravlin, 1998). Smola & Sutton (2002) reported that men prefer extrinsic aspects while women prefer intrinsic aspects of the job. ...
Chapter
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Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (INI) has implemented Laboratories for Clinical Research Associated to Healthcare Assistance in Infectious Diseases, structures inspired on Innovative Organization of Mintzberg’s theory. In order to improve clinical research according to Integral Healthcare Model, INI’s Chagas Disease Clinical Research Laboratory has adopted this organizational innovation as an incentive mechanism based upon values of decentralization and entrepreneurial orientation. This case study uses, as methods to assess said innovation, surveying of micro costs, Activity Based Costing system, Spearman correlation test and DEA. Aggregates knowledge on the contribution of organizational values in multipurpose public health organizations and shows the effects of INI’s restructuring on development of research, diversification of healthcare and promotion of cost-effectiveness and overall efficiency.
... Organisational values are a long-term belief that connects members of the organisation to co-operate and implement the goals of the organisation. The study of organisational values on levels of an individual and a group is essential because this knowledge can help managers understand and predict attitudes towards various organisational outcomes (Meglino & Ravlin, 1998). Values also serve as standards for evaluating employee behaviour and organisational success. ...
... Values also serve as standards for evaluating employee behaviour and organisational success. Different studies show the relationship between organisational values and individual values (Ros et al., 1999;Meglino & Ravlin, 1998;Martins & Coetzee, 2011;Adamonienė & Ruibytė, 2013;Czerniawska & Szydło, 2020), self-esteem (Naus et al., 2007), ethical behaviour (Jin et al., 2007), organisational commitment (Finelgan, 2000;Abbot et al., 2005) and other important organisational factors (Mcnaughton, 2003;Hendel & Steinman, 2002;Verquer et al., 2003;Vveinhardt & Gulbovaite, 2018;Ohunakin et al., 2019;Okulich-Kazarin, Jasik-Ślęzak & Okulicz-Kozaryna, 2018). ...
Article
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A favourable organisational culture founded on the values of employees and organisation leaders must be created to achieve goals, innovate and maintain a well-functioning organisation. Knowing these values and how they are influenced by various factors, such as age, the length of service, and the nature of work, must help to change employee beliefs, norms and behaviour patterns in a way that helps to achieve greater organisational success and efficiency. The study sample size consisted of 172 employees of educational institutions and 242 employees from municipal organisations. Occupational features and occupational behaviour were evaluated using a set of organisational values (Glomseth et al., 2011). The current research aimed (1) to evaluate organisational values and feature dimensions with respect to the inter-institutional level, (2) to evaluate organisational values and feature dimensions and distinguish the most prevalent with respect to the subordination level, (3) to evaluate organisational values and feature dimensions with respect to individual variables (gender, age and the length of occupational experience). The results revealed that task effectiveness, time management and cooperation, employee-orientated behaviour were stronger in educational organisations than municipal. Authoritarian management, formality and restrictions were stronger in municipal rather than educational organisations. Compared to beliefs held by subordinates, superiors claimed that positive organisational values, such as effectiveness, cooperation, and employee-orientated behaviour, were more typical in both types of institutions. Formal communication and restrictions were more typical for employees rather than managers. Subordinates but not superiors tended to perceive and evaluate organisational values, features and behaviour differently depending on gender.
... Research on work values has been driven primarily by interest in employees' motivation (Dose, 1997), and work values have been considered to have a substantial influence on employees' attitudes and behaviors (Locke, 1976;Meglino and Ravlin, 1998;Rokeach, 1973;Van den Broeck et al., 2011). Nevertheless, work values have generally been neglected in empirical studies on motivation. ...
... Nevertheless, work values have generally been neglected in empirical studies on motivation. This negligence may have resulted from the lack of consensus about a definition of the concept (Dose, 1997;Meglino and Ravlin, 1998;Sagie et al., 1996). For example, England (1967) viewed work values as ideologies or philosophies; ...
Article
Purpose This study explores the role of intrinsic work values as a motivator in the workplace. By integrating the job demands–resources model and supplies–values fit theory, it also investigates whether autonomy and worker co-operatives can strengthen the intrinsic motivation of employees who have strong intrinsic work values. Design/methodology/approach Longitudinal surveys collected at 25 worker co-operatives and 27 corporations were analyzed with a model in which a moderated mediation model and a mediated moderation model are integrated. Findings The results revealed that individuals with strong intrinsic work values had stronger intrinsic motivation and engaged less frequently in job search behavior. The moderation analyses demonstrated that employees with strong intrinsic work values were more strongly motivated in worker co-operatives than in corporations and that this result was obtained because more autonomy was granted in worker co-operatives than in corporations. Research limitations/implications To date, little research has examined the moderating roles of autonomy and worker co-ops in the associations of intrinsic work values with employee motivation and behavior. The present study contributes to the literature on work values and worker co-operatives by providing evidence that autonomy and worker co-operatives can accelerate intrinsic motivation of employees with intrinsic work values. Practical implications Managers should grant employees enough autonomy and opportunities to participate in decision-making to stimulate their motivation, especially for employees with strong intrinsic work values. Originality/value By integrating the job demands–resources model with the supplies–values fit theory, this study proposes interaction effects of a personal resource with job and organizational resources on intrinsic motivation.
... Renshaw, Parry, and Dickmann [28] point out that many studies address the term "organizational values" without a proper definition, probably due to the difficulty of conceptualizing it, bearing in mind that values are often positioned as constructs at the individual level [29]. However, it should be noted that organizational values are important components of the organizational culture [30] and principles that are responsible for the successful management of organizations [31]. Concerning individual values, these can be defined as the internalized beliefs held by individuals about the way they should behave [32], according to their personal experiences [33], culture, and the social system where they are inserted [31,33]. ...
... However, it should be noted that organizational values are important components of the organizational culture [30] and principles that are responsible for the successful management of organizations [31]. Concerning individual values, these can be defined as the internalized beliefs held by individuals about the way they should behave [32], according to their personal experiences [33], culture, and the social system where they are inserted [31,33]. ...
Article
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Values guide actions and judgements, form the basis of attitudinal and behavioral processes, and have an impact on leaders’ decision-making, contributing to more sustainable performance. Through a bibliometric study and content analysis, 2038 articles were selected from Scopus, from the period 1994–2021, presenting global research tendencies on the subject of values, public administration, and sustainability. The results indicate that Sustainability is the most productive journal, the main research category is in social sciences, the most productive institution is the University of Queensland, the location with the most publications and research collaborations is the USA, and the authors with the greatest number of articles are Chung, from Chung-Ang University; García-Sánchez, from the University of Salamanca; and Pérez, from the University of Cantabria. Analysis of keywords shows that the most relevant are “sustainability”, “CSR”, “sustainable development”, “innovation”, and “leadership”. Time analysis of keywords reveals a tendency for lines of research in the social and work area. The results also provide data about the framing of studies in sustainability pillars and the types of values referred to and indicate the main areas of public administration studied. Finally, a future research agenda is proposed.
... The notion of values has become an important item of debate in relation to many phenomena and leadership is no exception (Groves and LaRocca, 2011) importance of values-based leadership is on the rise (Copeland, 2014). The relationship between leadership and values is a strong one and has drawn considerable academic attention (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998;Ross and Gray, 2006;Groves and LaRocca, 2011). Values serve as the foundational essence of leadership and leaders lead from their values and beliefs (Woodward, 1994) and as blueprints or foundations of various leadership functions, including decision-making, problem-solving and resolving conflict (Malphurs, 1996). ...
... BWN's ability to articulate her views on this topic of values and their relevant contribution to her success was not unexpected. Successful leaders need to have a good understanding of their own values and beliefs, as they provide a means to justify their behavior (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998), while serving as a powerful and influential factor (Lord and Brown, 2001). BWN indicated that her leadership success had stemmed from her ability to: work with and influence people; to network effectively; to make decisions and maximize resources; to take calculated risks; highly motivated; transparent decision-making; confident in her capacity to plan and implement the plan/program; and her competitive and efficient nature. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to capture the journey of the first female leader in sports management in her country in the south-east Asian region for their National Sport and the values and behaviors enabling her to achieve it. Design/methodology/approach The study uses a mixed-methods case study design, quantitative and qualitative outcome measures, to assess the career progression of the first female executive director of a national sporting organization in her country, namely, BWN and her involvement in a two-week intensive sports management, leadership and development program. Findings A professional and courageous approach to identify and implement honest and evidence-based solutions were key for BWN’s success. BWN complemented professionalism with soft skills, clear communication and an outcome-based approach to challenging situations, successfully influencing change within her national sporting organization. This female leader is an inspiring role model for other women and her professionalism her most influential value driving innovation in sports management and organizational change. The positive impact she had in her community highlights the significant contributions female leaders can have within the sports leadership context, given the opportunity and scope to do so. Originality/value For the first time in her country, the unsolicited and unprecedented evidence-based approach, professionalism and proactivity assisted BWN with her colleagues accepting her as the first woman on the executive board of her national sporting body of one of the most celebrated national sports. Breaking the mold with unexpected (positive) behavior might be the secret to further breakthroughs for women in sports management.
... and 'problem-framers', architects were reliable participants for researching content and the effects found across the twenty-six cases (following the grounded inductive-deductive-abductive cycle as Strauss and Corbin (1998) Examining sustainability decision-making with the convergent values-and frames approach adds to conversations in cognate overlapping research, which has converged similar combinations of variables, contents, and contexts; specifically, values-based decision-making (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998;Hall and Davis, 2007); sustainability and environmental decision-making (Bardwell, 1991;Arvai et al., 2012); various non-technical determinants of pro-environmental behaviour (e.g. Steg et al., 2014;Stern, 2000); and design decision-making (Almendra and Christiaans, 2009;Hansen and Andreasen, 2004). ...
Thesis
In Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC), the management of project sustainability impacts is driven by both mandatory regulations, and by individual commitments which imply acceptance by choice through conscious decision. Despite initial willingness, project sustainability outcomes can betray expectations and potential, with opportunities missed for improvements on baseline regulations. Where regulations leave room for more personally-meaningful decision-making opportunities towards sustainability, previous studies showed that cognitive limitations and non-technical barriers contribute to achieving lower sustainability standards than intended, or possible. However, empirical research is scarce on the role of linking underpinning human influences with decisions—potentially protecting decision-making opportunities which support more individually-meaningful, contextualised choices towards longer-term goals. Importantly, these types of discussions dominate final outcomes of (un-)sustainability in AEC projects, and more sustainability-biased solutions may require better decision-options linked to stakeholders’ values. Adopting a case-based grounded approach, a theoretical framework and analytical lens used human values—as conceptions of most worthwhile, meaningful, and significant ideals or goals—overlaid on communication frames—as both representations and sources of meaning. The overall aim was to first identify and map their influences in typical decision-making discussions impacting sustainability, then find where any opportunities for meaningful choice survives or can thrive. Through interviews, focus groups, and questionnaires, architect-client discussions were explored from architect’s perspectives. To track how values and frames influenced decision-making, values-influence pathways were mapped via frames to decisions in client-project cases. The main findings showed how spaces for meaningful choices were made and opportunities spent when frames met values with varying compatibility based on the individual, values-based meaningfulness of framed sustainability decision-problems and associated choice-options. Numerous architects were tacitly identifying client values then ‘framing to values’ for decisions favouring sustainability during early, more aspirational briefing and design stages. Problematically, it unexpectedly emerged that later frames of critical challenges found in all cases typically activated less-supportive and higher-priority values associated with cost/profit, benefit, risk, loss, conflict or complexity to elicit unfavourable decisions, where sustainability measures normally reduced from initial agreements. This means that together ‘values-and-frames’ play significant but typically unacknowledged roles in sustainability decision-making. When heeded, values-and-frames can be harnessed for improvements to the interpersonal spaces for stakeholders to make more individually-meaningful, values-based sustainability choices. Such decisions are more likely to endure by coordinating decision-problem and choice-option frames with decision-makers’ values. The findings contribute new insights toward knowledge of how values-and-frames interactions both constrain and can improve deciding about architectural sustainability.
... Values are kinds of faith [65], inspiring intrinsic individual motivation [66], and influencing result of work by altering their behavior [25]. Toode et al. [67] shows that work values influence employees' work behavior having their turn to impact quantity and quality of work which they produce. ...
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This research aimed to indicate the effect of work values of construction employees towards creative performance and to assess the role of mediation about sharing the knowledge among those variables. This research involved 315 respondents from various construction companies in Jakarta for assessing hypothesis research. Knowledge sharing had the role as mediator among comfort and status dimensions from work values towards creative performance. This research provided information about effect of work values towards creative performance from construction industry and confirmed the role of knowledge sharing in mediating work values dimension.
... Personal values belong to the most widely studied topics across the social sciences (Meglino and Ravlin 1998;Marcus and Roy, 2019). Schwartz (1992; defined personal values as i) beliefs; ii) being related to desired goals; iii) relating to several situations; iv) serving as standards which guide actions and/or evaluations; and v) being ordered according to their relative importance. ...
... "Individual values specify an individual's personal beliefs about how he or she "should" or "ought" to behave" (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998). ...
Conference Paper
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What Makes Employees Innovative? The Role of Psychological Ownership and Person-Organization Fit Summary This study aims to examine the effect of psychological ownership on innovative work behaviour. It also aims to test the mediating effect of person-organization fit on this relationship. In this regard, a total of 625 employees working in the service industry in Turkey were asked to complete the questionnaire. The multiple hierarchical regressions were used to test the developed hypotheses. Additionally, Hayes modelling was used to test the interrelations between variables. The findings of the study indicated that there is a positive and significant relationship between innovative work behaviour and perceived psychological ownership. Furthermore, the findings also revealed that the perceived person-organization fit mediates the relationship between psychological ownership and innovative work behaviour. Further recommendations and limitations are also discussed.
... Over time, the application of values in organizations became a management concept in its own right (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998). In the typology of K. Blanchard and M. O'Connor, values become part of organizational culture and serve as the foundation of employee's commitment, a rationale for decision-making, and a signpost for the organization's direction (Blanchard and O'Connor, 2003). ...
... The fit has been found to impact employees' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions. That is, where the level of compatibility between employees' personal values and values endorsed by the organization is high this will result in reduction of role stressors such as role ambiguity and conflict because it will facilitate employees' understanding of their interpersonal environment (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998). But if the compatibility is low, this may produce lethargic and unmotivated employees (Verquer, Beehr and Wagner, 2003). ...
Chapter
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One of the important tasks of organizing is the recruitment and selection of suitable candidates for jobs in the organizations. It has been generally recognized that aligning new employees’ career goals with the strategic goals of the organization is an indispensable requirement to achieve this. The management literature, therefore, advises top managers to develop and implement mechanisms that recruit competent employees and then develop retention plans to meet their needs and expectations. This chapter provides some context-specific guidelines for foreign executives in Ghana to help them accomplish this important managerial task.
... Value similarity or value congruence has been explicitly defined by Kristof (1996) as a similarity between employee and organizational values. According to Meglino and Ravlin (1998), those . This enables them to predict the behavior of others better and, thus, more efficiently coordinate t ...
Article
Although studies of ethical fit have been informative, the need to map a variety of seemingly disparate ethics-centered constructs (e.g., values congruence, ethical conflict) to the ethical fit domain still exists. Thus, a tripartite framework of ethical person-environment fit is proposed that includes affective, behavioral, and cognitive dimensions, resulting in a parsimonious set of ethical fit types. An integrative definition of ethical fit is provided, describing what constitutes ethical fit between employees and the organizational environment. Using the proposed organizing framework, empirical research on ethical fit is reviewed, highlighting key findings, resolving conceptual challenges, and identifying areas for future research. This review of the ethical fit literature revealed that there was an inconsistent pattern of results for studies operationalizing ethical fit using affective constructs. Conversely, those using moral- cognitive constructs or a combination of affective, behavioral, and cognitive constructs consistently demonstrated positive associations between ethical fit and outcomes.
... Har lederes verdibevissthet betydning for innovasjon i organisasjoner? Verdiers betydning i arbeidslivet har fått økt oppmerksomhet den senere tid (Ladegård & Vabo, 2011;Meglino & Ravlin, 1998;Wennes & Busch, 2012). Ettersom verdier ligger til grunn for våre valg, beslutninger og handlinger , slik som innovative handlinger, fremstår verdibevissthet som vesentlig for ledere. ...
... Working together in a group of high-PSM colleagues also helps team members to understand and predict the behaviors of others within the group, which improves their coordination capacity (Meglino and Ravlin 1998) and their abilities to work together effectively. This suggests that collective motives related to serving society can reinforce positive behaviors within the group (Hackman 1992), which ultimately enables teams to carry out their tasks more effectively. ...
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To date, public service motivation (PSM) has been investigated only as an individual-level phenomenon. We argue that, in order better to understand team effectiveness in public organizations, it is essential that team characteristics are also taken into consideration. This study provides a key contribution to public management research by exploring the relationship between PSM and team effectiveness at the group level. Specifically, we introduce the concepts of team-level PSM, which describes the average level of PSM within a team, and PSM differentiation, which refers to the variance in PSM that exists across different members of a team. The data used for this study are based on a two-wave survey of 122 teams of public sector employees in Switzerland. Findings show that team-level PSM is indirectly related to team effectiveness through the process of team identification and that this relationship is strengthened when there is less variability in PSM within the team. The implications of our findings for theory and practice are discussed.
... Kajian terhadap nilai kerja semakin mendapat perhatian kerana ia dilihat sebagai faktor penggerak ke arah pencapaian matlamat bersama dan pengukuh yang dapat menstabilkan tingkah laku pekerja (McShane & Von Glinow, 2018). Nilai-nilai manusia bersepadu dalam domain kehidupan yang mempengaruhi pembuatan keputusan dan dapat menyesuaikan perhubungan antara individu dalam organisasi (Meglino & Ravlin, 1998;Locke, 2004). Nilai dirujuk sebagai suatu kepercayaan yang berupaya mempengaruhi afektif, kognitif dan tingkah laku seseorang (Locke, 2004), membentuk sikap kerja yang positif (Posner, 1992) dan tingkah laku beretika (Posner et al. 1985). ...
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Tujuan makalah ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh nilai kerja ke atas tingkah laku kerja inovatif dan kesejahteraan psikologi pekerja. Kajian ini juga menguji peranan modal psikologi sebagai pengantara dalam perhubungan ini. Data kajian (n=227) dikumpulkan daripada pegawai pengurusan dalam sektor awam di Putrajaya, Malaysia. Analisis Pengesahan Faktor (Confirmatory Factor Analysis, CFA) digunakan untuk menguji kesahan konvergen model pengukuran konstruk. Analisis pemodelan persamaan struktur digunakan untuk menganggarkan kesepadanan model hipotesis dengan data kajian. Keputusan kajian menunjukkan nilai kerja mempengaruhi kedua-dua modal psikologi dan kesejahteraan psikologi secara langsung. Hasil kajian juga menunjukkan nilai kerja mempengaruhi tingkah laku kerja inovatif secara tidak langsung melalui modal psikologi sebagai pengantara. Dapatan kajian ini menyarankan dengan memupuk dan memperbaiki nilai kerja dapat memberi kesan yang positif terhadap modal psikologi pekerja dan seterusnya dapat meningkatkan tingkah laku kerja inovatif dan kesejahteraan psikologi di tempat kerja. Abstract The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of work values on innovative work behaviours and employees’ psychological well-being. This study also examines the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationships. Data were collected (n=227) from the management officers of the public sector in Putrajaya, Malaysia. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was conducted to examine the convergent validity of the construct measures. The structural equation modeling was used to estimate the fit of the hypothesised model to the data. The findings reveal that work values influenced directly both the psychological capital and psychological well-being. The findings also show that work values indirectly influence the innovative work behaviours through the psychological capital as mediator. The study suggests that nurturing and improving work values will have positive impacts on employees’ psychological capitals thus will enhance innovative work behaviours and psychological well-being in the workplace. Keywords: Work values, psychological capital, innovative work behaviour, psychological well-being, Malaysia.
... Organisational values are shared beliefs that guide decisions and behaviours as internal actors conduct day-to-day work and interact with each other, hence why they are often considered as operational and behavioural in nature (Lepak et al. 2007). The impact of organisational values is salient because they influence how internal actors perceive their environments (Meglino and Ravlin 1998). However, the process of how the building of internal reputation occurs through organisational values remains unclear (Ravasi et al. 2018, p. 574). ...
Article
The paper enhances micro-cognitive understandings of how organisational values can build internal reputation. Drawing-on a multi-method case study of a private hospital in Malaysia, we show the process of how values are internalised within organisations. We illustrate how different internal actors are important for embedding organisational values at various stages and show the interplay between them. We show leaders are important for role modelling and engaging, managers are important for embedding and reinforcing, and employees are important for empowering and reciprocating. We argue that in order for values to be internalised, leaders, managers and employees need to effectively create, communicate and enact those values. Rather than values being imposed by a single dominant internal actor, we show that they can be diffused by internal stakeholders at different hierarchical levels. We find that the internalisation of organisational values helps to form positive perceptions of the values and creates individual behaviours that correspond to those values. While the literature has focused on what dimensions and which stakeholders influence reputation building, we show how micro-cognitive processes build internal reputation from organisational values.
... Değer veya değerler sistemi kavramları tüm sosyal bilimler disiplinlerinde kullanılan çok az sayıdaki psikolojik kavramlardan biri olduğunu belirten Rokeach ve Ball-Rokeach'a (1989:775) göre, sosyal bilimciler, siyaset bilimciler ve örgütsel veya bireysel psikologların hepsi farklı düzeydeki değerleri veya değer sistemlerini ele alır. Onlara göre bu değerler, kültürel, toplumsal/örgütsel ve bireysel değerler olarak sınıflandırılabilir.Meglino ve Ravlin (1998) ise değerlerin, kısmen genetik kısmen de kişisel ve sosyal deneyimlerle elde edildiğini savunmaktadırlar. Onlara göre, değerler hiyerarşik olarak yapılandırılmıştır. ...
Thesis
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Genel anlamda zarar vermekten kaçınma, vicdanlı ve adil davranış olarak tanımlanan etiğin, iş yaşamına yansıması iş etiği, bilime yansıması ise bilim etiğidir. Yükseköğretim kurumları olan üniversitelerde çalışan akademik personel açısından ise iş etiği ve bilim etiğinin bileşimi, akademik etik değerler ortaya çıkmaktadır. Günümüz rekabet ortamı, iletişim ve ulaşım imkânları, kültürümüzden gelen çalışmanın kutsallığı ile birleştiğinde, bireyleri çok çalışmaya yönlendirebilmektedir. Çalışmak ve etik değerler bir erdem olarak kabul edilirse, Aristoteles, kaliteli ve iyi bir yaşamın çeşitli erdemlerin dengelenmesi ile mümkün olabileceğini belirtmektedir. Çalışmak ve etik değerler arasında kalan günümüz bireylerinin, çalışmaya ve başarıya odaklanarak, etik değerleri ikinci planda bırakmaları olası görünmektedir. Akademik çevrelerde, son zamanlarda sıklıkla dile getirilen etik ihlallerin yanı sıra, bir diğer sorun akademik personelin kurumundan ve yöneticilerinden beklentileri ve bu beklentilerin karşılanmadığını düşündüklerinde ortaya çıkan küskünlükleridir. Psikolojik sözleşme olarak ifade edilebilecek bu beklentilerin karşılanmaması durumunda ortaya çıkan ihlal algısının, etik değerler ile ilişkisi, ihlalin önlenmesi için önemlidir. Bu araştırmada, temel olarak akademik etik değerlerin, işkoliklik ve psikolojik sözleşme ihlali ile ilişkisinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Literatürden faydalanılarak akademik etik değerler, işkoliklik ve psikolojik sözleşme ihlali ölçekleri kullanılmış ve bir devlet üniversitesinde uygulanmıştır. Yüz yüze ve çevrimiçi ortamda toplam 389 anket verisi elde edilmiş, bunlardan 357’si değerlendirmeye alınmıştır. Yapılan güvenilirlik ve geçerlilik analizlerini müteakiben, araştırma modeli Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli ile test edilmiştir. Yapılan analizler sonucunda, işkolikliğin işten zevk alma boyutunun, akademik etik değerlerin boyutlarını pozitif yönde yordadığı, işkolikliğin işe güdülenme boyutunun ise, akademik etik değerlerin boyutlarını negatif yönde yordadığı istatistiksel olarak tespit edilmiştir. Bununla birlikte, akademik etik değerlerin çalışılan kuruma yönelik boyutunun, psikolojik sözleşme ihlalini negatif yönde yordadığı tespit edilmiş, ancak akademik etik değerlerin diğer boyutlarının psikolojik sözleşme ihlaline etkisi tespit edilememiştir. Akademik etik değerlerin işkoliklik ve psikolojik sözleşme ihlali ile ilişkisi bu çalışma ile literatüre kazandırılmıştır.
... by arguing that value is something that has a price.Rokech's research, 1973 shows that values are about what should and shouldn't be.Meglino and Ravlin, 1998 say that value is about the result of how someone interprets information. Over time, the question arises, what is meant by the value of the company.Jensen and Meckling, 1976 show that determining the value of a company in achieving its goals is always strongly associated with the value of its shareholders. ...
... Personal values are stable beliefs that influence individual behavior (Meglino & Ravlin, 1998;Hitlin & Piliavin, 2004). Thus, in the work context, values translate as beliefs about how work should be done and how to deal with different situations (Buchanan & Huczynski, 2010). ...
Article
In recent years, the mold industry has increased and nowadays it is considered an important export industry for Portugal. However, despite its new technology and modernization, the employers complain of a lack of human resources in this sector. Some CEO's believe that many young students are not aware of the opportunities in this industry. This research analyses the main reasons for proximity and distance between students' awareness and the reality of the industry and suggests some of the strategic areas on which we can act on in order to solve the problem. These areas are the unawareness of reality and the industry opportunities; the insufficiency of a practical component in teaching; the expected salary of the students leaving the higher education maladjusted to reality; the long and uncertain working hours; and the unawareness of the job profiles and career plans in the industry This research also tries to achieve some guidelines which can be used for future procedures in mold enterprises, schools or eventually other industries with the same problem.
... Organisational values are shared beliefs that guide decisions and behaviours as internal actors conduct day-to-day work and interact with each other, hence why they are often considered as operational and behavioural in nature (Lepak et al. 2007). The impact of organisational values is salient because they influence how internal actors perceive their environments (Meglino and Ravlin 1998). However, the process of how the building of internal reputation occurs through organisational values remains unclear (Ravasi et al. 2018, p. 574). ...
Article
The paper enhances micro-cognitive understandings of how organisational values can build internal reputation. Drawing-on a multi-method case study of a private hospital in Malaysia, we show the process of how values are internalised within organisations. We illustrate how different internal actors are important for embedding organisational values at various stages and show the interplay between them. We show leaders are important for role modelling and engaging, managers are important for embedding and reinforcing, and employees are important for empowering and reciprocating. We argue that in order for values to be internalised, leaders, managers and employees need to effectively create, communicate and enact those values. Rather than values being imposed by a single dominant internal actor, we show that they can be diffused by internal stakeholders at different hierarchical levels. We find that the internalisation of organisational values helps to form positive perceptions of the values and creates individual behaviours that correspond to those values. While the literature has focused on what dimensions and which stakeholders influence reputation building, we show how micro-cognitive processes build internal reputation from organisational values.
... Role centrality, which represents an individual's belief, attitude, and value orientation, is a generalized, stable, persistent, resistant, and dynamic belief system (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998). Work and family centrality, as important components of work and family values, are critical to understanding the meanings of work, life, and wellbeing (Kittel et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Family centrality refers to value judgment regarding the relative importance of family in an individual’s life. In contrast to bidirectional research in the field of work-family relationships, much work had been done about the work centrality, whereas few works of research discussed family centrality as an independent concept. Thus, the present study systematically discussed the concept of family centrality in Chinese culture and the preliminary validation of its measurement through two cross-sectional studies. In study 1, questionnaires were distributed to two sub-samples through convenient sampling; one included 185 participants (mean age of 35.51 ± 10.30) and other included 189 participants (mean age of 31.39 ± 6.82). In study 2, through convenient sampling, questionnaires were distributed to 351 participants with a mean age of 35.15 ( SD = 9.44) years. Results of Study 1 supported that the Family Centrality Questionnaire (FCQ) has a single-factor structure with good reliability and validity. Additionally, family centrality and work centrality are two independent concepts that can be distinguished on conceptional and applicational levels. Results of Study 2 showed that family centrality had an indirect effect on life wellbeing through life involvement (β = 0.073, 95% CI [0.032, 0128]), and work centrality had an indirect effect on work wellbeing through work involvement (β = 0.089, 95% CI [0.046, 0.142]). Further, family centrality had a spillover effect on work wellbeing through work involvement (β = −0.079, 95% CI [−0.125, −0.42]), and work centrality has a spillover effect on life wellbeing through family involvement (β = −0.053, 95% CI [−0.095, −0.22]). Overall, the results showed that the FCQ can be used as a scientific measurement for future research.
... Mientras que la legalidad está basada en las normas y leyes que se deben de cumplir. En esta concepción, las instituciones formales se basan en la aplicación del marco legal, mientras que las instituciones informales aplican lo que la sociedad cree que debe funcionar, es decir, son legítimas (Meglino y Ravlin, 1998). ...
Thesis
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El objetivo principal de esta tesis doctoral, Transición hacia la formalidad de las micro y pequeñas empresas: una aproximación del entorno institucional y sus niveles, es profundizar en el conocimiento de cómo el entorno institucional en sus diferentes esferas (macro, micro y meso) afectan la decisión del micro y pequeño empresario en la transición hacia la formalidad en países emergentes. La literatura ha analizado ampliamente el macroentorno institucional, especialmente el efecto de la burocracia, y la mayor parte de la evidencia ha considerado una decisión binaria el hecho de convertirse en empresa formal. Se ha prestado escasa atención al estudio de los niveles de formalidad cuando, en la realidad, el proceso hacia la formalidad puede ser algo gradual. En este sentido, cobran especial relevancia las percepciones de los empresarios sobre los trámites que han realizado y que deben completar para conseguir formalizar totalmente su empresa. Con respecto al análisis del microentorno, que establece que la decisión de formalización viene determinada por las características del individuo y de la empresa, se hará hincapié en el estudio del género que apenas ha sido analizado. En países emergentes, cada vez hay más mujeres que optan por ser empresarias y deben decidir si permanecen en la informalidad o dan el paso a la formalidad. Y, desde el nivel del mesoentorno institucional, es escasa la literatura que analiza la influencia del entorno más cercano del empresario en su decisión de ser formal. Casi no hay evidencia del efecto contagio que puede tener la informalidad proveniente de regiones cercanas con elevadas tasas de informalidad y corrupción. Un avance de este trabajo es explorar algunas relaciones existentes entre los distintos niveles del entorno institucional y, por ello, se presentan tres objetivos específicos. Primero, se pretende conocer, para empresas que han iniciado el proceso de formalización, de qué manera el macroentorno, la percepción de los emprendedores sobre los trámites de formalización y el microentorno que considera las condiciones de la industria son relevantes para determinar el nivel de formalidad. El segundo objetivo específico se refiere al macro y mesoentorno, y analiza el efecto contagio de la informalidad y la corrupción entre empresas ubicadas en regiones cercanas (contexto regional - mesoentorno). Además, examina la relación entre corrupción (macroentorno) y formalidad. Finalmente, para el tercer objetivo específico se estudian los factores del micro y mesoentorno que limitan el potencial de crecimiento de las mujeres empresarias y los motivos para que estas empresas permanezcan en la informalidad, teniendo en cuenta su tamaño (microentorno) y su contexto local (mesoentorno). Esta tesis centra el estudio en micro y pequeñas empresas en Perú. La falta de evidencia empírica en América Latina hace relevante la presente investigación junto con el hecho de que Perú es una de las economías emergentes con mayores índices de informalidad. Para realizar análisis empíricos que cubran los objetivos, se recurre a fuentes de información secundaria. Se han utilizado datos de la Encuesta Nacional de la Micro y Pequeña Empresa (EMYPE) correspondiente al año 2012 con una muestra de 4 619 micro y pequeñas empresas (para el primer objetivo); y la Encuesta Nacional de Hogares (ENAHO), con información del período 2011-2017 y un marco muestral de 168 regiones (para el segundo objetivo). Asimismo, la ENAHO del período 2014-2018 se emplea con una muestra de 49 775 micro y pequeñas empresas para el último objetivo. Se utilizan modelos de regresión logística y de regresión espacial. Cabe mencionar que los modelos de panel espacial son una novedad en el análisis de la formalidad empresarial. Los resultados en referencia al macro y microentorno muestran evidencia empírica de que la manera en que los empresarios perciben la facilidad de los trámites de formalización —en empresas que han iniciado el proceso— aumentan la probabilidad de ser formales. Este efecto se mantiene, incluso, en empresas que pertenecen a sectores de alta informalidad. Se demuestra que la percepción u opinión que tenga el empresario sobre el proceso de formalización es relevante para que pueda terminarlo y considerarse una empresa formal. Los resultados del segundo objetivo de investigación, relacionados con el macro y el mesoentorno, confirman que la informalidad no solo está limitada a un espacio geográfico, sino que fluye con la interacción del empresario con sus redes de contactos más cercanos, generando un efecto contagio. De acuerdo con lo anterior, se establece que el análisis espacial o regional asociado a la cercanía geográfica y la construcción de un espacio común se debe incorporar en la literatura de los determinantes que explican la formalidad empresarial. A este respecto, se evidencian factores geográficos decisivos para que el empresario sea formal. Por último, los resultados del análisis de los factores del micro y el mesoentorno determinan la diferencia de género en el tratamiento de la formalidad en empresas con más de tres años de operación. Esto conduce a establecer que existen determinantes relacionados con el tamaño y el contexto local que caracterizan a las mujeres empresarias informales, y que son diferentes de los hombres empresarios. Además, las empresarias informales deciden permanecer en este sector debido a que sus negocios son de subsistencia, mientras que los hombres consideran que la informalidad es una oportunidad que deben aprovechar. Se concluye que existen factores del macro, micro y mesoentorno que influyen en la decisión del empresario hacia la formalidad. Para incentivar la formalización de las micro y pequeñas empresas en Perú, se deben aplicar políticas inclusivas (por tipo de género) dirigidas a crear una mayor cultura tributaria y que permitan dar a conocer las ventajas y oportunidades que ofrece la formalización. La formalidad les posibilita acceder a fuentes de financiación, ampliar su cartera de clientes y mejorar los canales de comercialización; todo ello contribuirá a que las empresas salgan de la sobrevivencia hacia una etapa de crecimiento. Además, es necesario incluir políticas descentralizadas que agilicen el proceso de formalización, especialmente en regiones donde existen mayores tasas de informalidad. Palabras claves: mypes, niveles de formalidad, informalidad empresarial, informalidad espacial, diferencia de género, mujer empresaria.
... Literatürde kişi örgüt uyumu ile ilişkili olduğu görülen birçok örgütsel sonucu ele alan çalışmalar mevcuttur. Bunlar arasında ihtiyaçların giderilmesi bağlamında kişi örgüt uyumunun daha iyi iş tutumu sergilenmesine yardımcı olması (Caldwell ve O'Reilly, 1990), iş yerinde stres seviyesini düşürmesi (French, Caplan ve Harrison, 1982), yüksek performans değerlendirmeleri (Judge ve Bretz, 1992), örgütsel performans (Govindarajan, 1989), iş gören devrinin azalması (Meglino ve Ravlin, 1998), iş seçimi ve işe alım kararı (Darnold, 2008), yüksek örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı (Lamm, Shaw ve Kuyumcu, 2010), psikolojik yetkilendirme, işe katılım (Kimura, 2011) ve algılanan örgütsel destek (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchinson ve Sowa, 1986) sayılabilir. ...
... Quantitative research is often distinguished from qualitative research by the fact that quantitative research uses numbers rather than words (Creswell, 2014). Quantitative approaches to studying values at an individual level typically try to understand what is important to people (Meglino & Ravlin, 1998). Personal values are often measured using selfreported surveys in which values are ranked according to their importance using Likert scales. ...
Chapter
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The aim of this chapter is to investigate how research on values in organisations is conducted by mapping the field through the lens of methodological approaches. Selecting suitable methods for a given research purpose or a specific research question is an essential skill for researchers. By linking aim and research question with design and methods, the chapter presents a brief overview of the quantitative and qualitative approaches that have been used to study explicit and implicit values in organisations. The ways in which these applied research methods have enabled or hindered our understanding of values at work are discussed. Mixed methods approaches are discussed as a possible avenue for future research on values in organisations.
... Internally, organizational culture enables coordinated interactions among different units inside an organization to effectively learn, transfer, and generate knowledge, tolerating a hyper ambiguous context where uncertainty is certain. Core cultural values are widely shared within an organization through basic common assumptions to interact internally and externally among different groups of interest to ensure efficiency, productivity, and smooth coordination (Meglino & Ravlin, 1998). ...
Article
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This paper extends the resource and knowledge-based view by integrating dynamic capability theory into a people-centric view of the firm in new and highly dynamic contexts. Juxtaposing people management and human resource management, we commend people centricity for knowledge management and dynamic capability formation within a context of highly dynamic environments induced not only by disruptive technology, unpredictable crises, and high-velocity emerging markets but augmented through simultaneous multilevel crisis events. We propose a novel and holistic framework of strategic people management that incorporates four dynamic constituents—leadership, culture, learning, networking—that help to acquire, transfer, and create knowledge relevant for a firm’s sustainability. These unbundled constituents interact to create a systematic effect and co-evolve with a firm’s dynamic capabilities. The paper emphasizes people-centricity as the infinity source of valuable, rare, inimitable, and organizational resources, such as knowledge workers, to continuously create, transfer, convert, and manage knowledge flows.
... Establishing shared values and reinforcing these values within a team facilitates coordination in unanticipated situations (Jones & Sullivan, 1994). Individuals who share the same values tend to interpret events in similar ways, they are better in anticipating others' behavior, and informal selfcoordination is supported (Meglino & Ravlin, 1998). Moreover, shared values within a team support peer-control as a mechanism that enables teams to better self-regulate interdependent activities (see Merchant, 1985;Merchant & Van der Stede, 2017). ...
Article
In the creative industries, creative output is often produced in temporary project teams, staffed with employees from within the organization. In this study we make two main contributions regarding the management of creative performance in such teams. First, we provide evidence for a fundamental trade-off inherent in creative teamwork. Team creativity benefits both from high team member autonomy and high task interdependence, but when team leaders give higher autonomy to team members then this undermines the positive effect of a more interdependent design of teamwork on team creativity, and vice versa. Second, we argue that cultural control at the organizational level is an effective means to resolve this team-level trade-off and to enable teams to leverage both high autonomy and high task interdependence for higher team creativity. We test our hypotheses using survey data collected at three different organizational levels (team members, team leaders, and agency heads) from 372 individuals of 101 temporary project teams within 53 advertising agencies, and find evidence consistent with our predictions.
... Values are enduring beliefs that a specific conduct is personally or socially preferable and the impact of values has a pervasive influence in how people perceive their environments (Meglino & Ravlin, 1998). Top managers aim to pass on their values to employees as a means of shaping behavior and directing the firm while also acting as lenses or filters that determine how leaders process information (Enz, 1988). ...
Article
In today’s knowledge economy, an engaged and inspired workforce that is also a learning community, enables business success. Companies that learn the fastest and adapt well to changing environments perform the best over time. Although academic research indicates this positive link between learning and business success, there is no comprehensive framework that defines what constitutes a learning culture. Certainly from a practitioner standpoint, a C-Suite perspective on what constitutes a learning culture, is yet to be researched. On a similar vein, although academic research has established the central role that senior leaders play in shaping organizational culture in general, the role of C-Suite leaders in shaping a learning culture is relatively unexplored. This research aims to explore these gaps and supplement current knowledge with a practitioner’s perspective that companies and C-Suite leaders can apply. This study delivers an integrative learning culture model from the perspective of C-Suite leaders and identifies their role in shaping that culture. The research methodology is qualitative and is based on 20 interviews with C-Suite leaders. Exploratory logical research was applied to develop a C-Suite perspective driven model that integrates underlying assumptions, espoused values, and behaviors of a learning culture, as well as the role of C-Suite leaders in shaping that culture. Associations are established to prior research, bridging between practitioner and academic realms and providing theoretical validity.
... Values form the core of our personality, and influence the choices we make, the people we trust, the appeals we respond to, and the way we invest our time and energy (Posner, 2010). Values affect ethical behavior (Mubako, Bagchi, Udo, and Marinovic, 2020), and personal and organizational effectiveness (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998). Perceptual organization plays a role in linking values to choice behavior (Ravlin and Meglino, 1987). ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to see if women value power less than men do and if MBA education reduces this gender difference in power value. Design/methodology/approach The impact of a two-year residential full-time MBA program on students’ values was studied using a longitudinal design and data collected over two years from a business school in India. Values were measured when students entered the program and again when they graduated. The sample consisted of 230 students (90 women and 140 men). Findings While entering the MBA program, female students considered power less important than male students did. Results of matched sample t -tests show that power, hedonism, stimulation and tradition become more important and benevolence, universalism, conformity and security become less important over two years of MBA education. The increase in the importance of power value is significantly higher for women than for men. Originality/value To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first study to show that women’s value ratings for power value increase much more than that of men over two years of management education.
... Values are central to an individual's psyche (Russell, 2001). Although values are generally instilled in early life they are not, however, necessarily stable and can be changed through interventions or changes in conditions (Meglino & Ravlin, 1998;Solomons & Fataar, 2011). Value definitions are numerous, with definitional efforts spanning more than half a century. ...
Article
Ecotourism is one of the fastest growing tourism niches in South Africa. Higher education institutions offering undergraduate ecotourism management programmes are tasked with producing graduates that can promote the sustainability of the sector and should therefore direct their efforts to the fostering of appropriate behaviours; values are the underlying determinants of behaviour. Employing an exploratory sequential mixed methods design, the purpose of the study was to develop a framework for a values-based undergraduate ecotourism management curriculum. Thematic analysis of the empirical materials elicited from semi-structured interviews with 12 ecotourism managers resulted in the identification of 51 values. The values were subsequently rated by managers from the wider ecotourism industry through the administration of an e-survey (n = 101). A principal components exploratory factor analysis further reduced the values into four factors – “self”, “outward”, “reciprocation” and “betterment”. This informed the framework which ultimately serves as a reference point for educational practitioners.
... Interest in human values and beliefs dates back many years (Lewin 1935;Kluckhohn and Strodttbeck 1961;Dorfman and Howell 1988). Researchers have found that personal values influence how individuals behave within teams, groups, and organizations, as well as the way they interact with others (Meglino and Ravlin 1998). Values represent what are personally or socially preferable behaviors or outcomes over others. ...
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As social media proliferates, this platform provides multiple entry points for organizational and consumer communication. Social media are Internet sites where people interact freely, sharing and discussing information about each other and their lives, using a multimedia mix of personal words, pictures, videos and audio” (Kodish, 2015). Walaski’s (2013) social media categories include blogs, microblogs, social net working sites, professional networks, video sharing, and content-driven communities (i.e. crowd sourcing). Customer relations managers using social media to communicate with their colleagues and clients must navigate various opportunities and constraints (Haenlein and Libai, 2017). In 2016, The Gartner Group, among others, argued that organizations need to consider how to best augment or retrofit data analytics and IT systems for the digital age in relation to social media, particularly within a big data context (Smilansky, 2015). Big data is high volume, high velocity, and/or high variety information assets that require new forms of processing to enableenhanced decision-making, insight discovery and process optimization (Moorthy, Lahiri, Biswas, Sanyal, Ranjan, Nanath and Ghosh, 2015). Big data is fast-paced and includes large amounts of data or information that is accumulating. In this study, big data that is used by companies in their organizational development included crowd sourcing from social media platforms and enterprise level data, as well as analytics approaches. These three types of big data are used to enhance organizational agility and inform strategy at the intersections of their economic, political, and social place and space (Bhimani, Mention and Barlatier, 2018).
... Values are defined as global beliefs about desirable end states or modes of behavior that underlie attitudinal processes (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998;Rokeach, 1973;Rokeach and Ball-Rokeach, 1989). There are two popular theories related to value by Schwartz (1992Schwartz ( , 2005 and the theory of the expectancy-value by Rotter (1972). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the dimensions of organizational learning (OL), entrepreneurial orientation (EO), personal value toward the firm performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in North Sumatera, Indonesia. Design/methodology/approach This study used a quantitative methodology using Smart partial least squares of the structural equation model. A survey is done by distributing the questionnaires to the respondents (owner-managers) of SMEs across sectors. Using a convenient sampling technique, 128 respondents are selected. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 11 hypotheses are tested. Findings It is found that the innovativeness of EO and personal value both have a significant relationship with firm growth. While OL is significantly related to the innovativeness of EO, risk-taking of EO and proactiveness of EO. Then, both innovativeness of EO and proactiveness of EO significantly mediate the relationship of OL and firm growth. However, OL, proactiveness of EO and risk-taking of EO are insignificantly related to firm growth, while risk-taking of EO also insignificantly mediates the relationship of OL and firm growth. Originality/value EO (innovativeness, risk-taking and proactiveness) is deemed a crucial factor in running businesses by SMEs, while OL and personal value play a significant role in creating a competitive advantage that is needed for growth.
... Considering the development of the concept of person-organization fit, it is seen that there are more models on value-based conceptualization (Chatman, 1989;Chatman, 1991;Meglino and Ravlin, 1998;Cable and Edwards, 2004). Kristof (1996) stated that there are four focal points of person-organization fit. ...
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The purpose of this study is to determine the mediating role of person-organization fit on the effect of organizational alignment on job satisfaction of academic and administrative personnel, based on the theory of person-organization fit. For this purpose, the research is carried out on 141 personnel working at a state university. SPSS Process Macro is used to test the research hypotheses. According to the findings obtained from the research data, organizational alignment has a significant effect on increasing the degree of person-organization fit in organizations. Organizational alignment and person organization fit have positive and significant effects on job satisfaction. Finally, the person-organization fit has a mediating role in the effect of organizational alignment on the job satisfaction of academic and administrative personnel. Bu çalışmanın amacı kişi-örgüt uyumu kuramından hareketle, örgütsel uyumlanmanın personelin iş tatmini üzerindeki etkisinde kişi-örgüt uyu-munun aracı rolünü tespit etmektir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda araştırma bir devlet üniversitesinde çalışan 141 personel üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma hipotezlerini test etmek için SPSS Process Macro uygulaması kullanılmıştır. Araştırma verilerinden elde edilen bulgulara göre örgütsel uyumlanmanın örgütlerde kişi-örgüt uyumunun derecesini artırmada önemli düzeyde etkiye sahip bir örgütsel değişken olduğu ortaya konmuştur. Örgütsel uyumlanmanın ve kişi örgüt-uyumunun iş tatmini üzerinde pozitif yönlü anlamlı etkilere sahip olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Son olarak örgütsel uyumlanmanın akademik ve idari personelin iş tatmini üzerindeki etkisinde kişi-örgüt uyumunu aracı role sahip olduğu belir-lenmiştir..
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In the light of developing technology, increasing of technology-based organizations cause projectbased work and working groups that are commonly occurred in these organizations to increase in number. Therefore, the result of employee’s fit/misfit with the group gains importance for organizations. The effect of employees’ fit with their group on their satisfaction with supervisor is investigated in this research. Person-group fit is examined by means of 3 dimensions: the employees’ perception about demographic similarity with group members (relational demography, similarity of personal values with group values, and congruence of personality traits with group members’ ones. 124 working group-sampling (640 employees) is selected at technology-based organizations. According to findings, employees’ perception of demographic similarity concerning group (47 %) and value fit (35 %) affect satisfaction with supervisor, positively as expected. Contrary to expectations, personality traits similarity with group members explains the variance in the satisfaction with supervisor, negatively (28%). The findings highlight complementary fit concerning personality traits for the group in addition to supplementary fit.
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The values people hold tend to be relatively enduring. An important exception appears to be values adaptation in response to major, life‐altering situations. Major events can act as triggers for people to adapt their values based on the new context. In particular, collective traumas—such as the COVID‐19 pandemic—may incite immediate values change. The aim of the current paper is to compare business school students' value orientations before and after the COVID‐19 global pandemic outbreak. We investigated responses from two comparable samples of business students: one surveyed before and one surveyed after the outbreak of the COVID‐19 pandemic. The subjects' individual value orientations were aggregated and analyzed by comparing the distribution of the first group's pre‐COVID‐19 outbreak responses with the second group's post‐COVID‐19 outbreak responses regarding the importance given to values in the Rokeach Values Survey. We further explored specific demographic differences in personal versus social orientations and competence versus moral orientations for our samples. Results confirm differences in business school students' pre‐COVID‐19 outbreak versus post‐COVID‐19 outbreak value orientations, with the post‐COVID‐19 outbreak sample reporting greater attention to social values, as predicted, and competence values, not as predicted. Implications of our findings are discussed.
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Sosyal bir davranış olarak çalışma, toplumsal etkileşimin bir yansıması olarak görülmektedir. Bunun doğal sonucu olarak çalışma, birey ve toplum arasında güçlü bir ilişki bulunmaktadır. Bireyin çalışmaya bakış açısını biçimlendiren çalışma kültürü, içinde yaşanılan toplumun kültürü ile etkileşim halindedir. Dolayısıyla, her toplum, sahip olduğu değerleri, inançları, örf, adetleri ve kendine özgü kültürel dokusu ile çalışma hayatını etkileyebilmektedir. Bu anlamda bireylerin çalışmaya bakış açısı, çalışmaya yüklenen anlam, çalışmaya bağlılık, çalışma disiplini ve çalışma değerleri farklılık gösterebilmektedir. Örgütler sahip oldukları farklı değerler ile kendi çalışma kültürlerini oluşturmaktadır. Söz konusu değerler, örgütün verimliliğine, performansına, istikrarına ve başarısına önemli katkılar sağlamaktadır. Bu çalışmada, değer temelli çalışma kültürünün oluşturulmasının örgütleri nasıl etkilediği ortaya konulmakta ve konuya farklı bir perspektiften bakılması amaçlanmaktadır. Work as a social behavior, is perceived as reflection of social interaction. As a natural result, there is a strong relation between work, individual and society. Work culture that shapes an individual's perspective to work, is in interaction with the culture of the society we live in. Therefore, every society may affect the working life with its own values, beliefs, customs and cultural texture. In this sense, an individual's perspective to work, meaning of work, work commitment, work discipline and work values may vary. The socalled values provide an important contribution to efficiency, performance stability and success of the organizations. In this study it is aimed to analyze the subject from a different perspective; how value-based work culture effect organizational processes.
Thesis
Werte haben aufgrund ihrer Wichtigkeit für Individuen sowie für Unternehmen an Bedeutung gewonnen, da sie unter anderem zur Orientierung und Identitätsbildung dienen. Dies gilt gesamt gesellschaftlich, sowie im Wirkungsgefüge von Genossenschaften. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird im Rahmen der vorliegenden kumulativen Dissertation zunächst eine Schnittmenge aus gesellschaftlichen (Individualwerten) und genossenschaftlichen (Unternehmenswerten) Werten erstellt. Hierfür wurden zum einen zahlreiche repräsentative gesellschaftliche Wertestudien analysiert und zum anderen eine umfangreiche nationale und internationale Analyse der genossenschaftswissenschaftlichen Literatur erhoben. Ziel der Bildung einer Schnittmenge war es, einen gemeinsamen Nenner an Individual- und Unternehmenswerten zu analysieren, um anschließend eine empirische Befragung, basierend auf grundlegenden Werten der Gesellschaft und der Genossenschaften, durchführen zu können. Im Ergebnis der beiden Analysen ergab sich eine Schnittmenge von 16 Werten, welche als Fundament der quantitativen empirischen Erhebung, entlang eines strukturierten Fragebogens, dient. Im weiteren Verlauf der vorliegenden Dissertation wurde geklärt, was die deutsche Gesellschaft über Genossenschaften und deren Prinzipien und Werte weiß. Als differenzierende Faktoren sind einzelne Determinanten wie Geschlecht, Generation, Bundesland und Genossenschaftssparte vergleichend analysiert worden. Grundsätzlich hat eine deutliche Mehrheit der deutschen Gesellschaft den Begriff Genossenschaften schon einmal gehört. Die genossenschaftlichen Werte und Prinzipien sind jedoch deutlich unbekannter als der Begriff Genossenschaft. Wissensdefizite sowohl beim Begriff Genossenschaft als auch bei den genossenschaftlichen Werten und Prinzipien liegen überwiegend bei Frauen sowie bei den jüngeren Generationen Y und Z vor. Entgegen der Erwartungen sind keine Unterschiede über den Bekanntheitsgrad des Begriffs Genossenschaft sowie über deren Werte und Prinzipien im Ost-West-Vergleich der Bundesländer erkennbar. Jedoch ist der Bekanntheitsgrad von Genossenschaften sowie deren Werte und Prinzipien von der genossenschaftlichen Sparte abhängig. Daraus kann geschlussfolgert werden, dass die Probanden, welche mit der Sparte der Genossenschaftsbanken vertraut sind, den Begriff Genossenschaft häufiger schon einmal gehört haben und die genossenschaftlichen Prinzipien und Werte eher kennen, als die Probanden, welche mit gewerblichen oder ländliche Genossenschaften vertrauter sind. Des Weiteren ist anzumerken, dass Genossenschaftsmitglieder besser über den Begriff Genossenschaft sowie deren Werte und Prinzipien informiert sind als die allgemeine deutsche Bevölkerung. Während die gesellschaftlichen Werte die Individualwerte der deutschen Gesellschaft darstellen und als „wichtig“ bis „sehr wichtig“ eingestuft werden, sind die genossenschaftlichen Werte die Unternehmenswerte, welche von der Gesellschaft als „weniger wichtig“ wahrgenommen werden. Bei Auflistung der Individual- und Unternehmenswerte wird deutlich, dass die Reihenfolgen nicht identisch und die Mittelwerte stark voneinander abweichend sind. Freiheit ist der wichtigste Individualwert, wohingegen Freiheit bei den Unternehmenswerten auf dem letzten Rangplatz steht. Währenddessen ist Solidarität der wichtigste Unternehmenswert, welcher jedoch in der Rangfolge der Individualwerte auf Platz 12 angesiedelt ist. Weitere interessante Unterschiede, aber auch Übereinstimmungen wie beim Wert Sicherheit lassen sich in den Rangfolgen der Individual- und Unternehmenswerten feststellen. Generell ist anzumerken, dass Frauen und die ältesten Alterskohorten, also die Traditionalisten, sowohl die Individual- als auch die Unternehmenswerte wichtiger einstufen als Männer und die jüngeren Generationen Y und Z. Vor diesem Hintergrund stehen Genossenschaften insbesondere im Rahmen ihres strategischen Managements vor der Entscheidung, wie sie mit dem Ergebnis umgehen wollen. Dementsprechend bietet sich bezüglich der Anwendung von Werten entweder die Anpassungs- oder die Differenzierungsstrategie an. Bei der Anpassungsstrategie werden bewusst die Werte kommuniziert, welche die ausgewählte Zielgruppe als wichtig erachtet. Bei der Differenzierungsstrategie werden explizit Werte kommuniziert, welche historisch und spartenspezifisch mit der individuellen Genossenschaft in Verbindung gebracht werden können. Neben der Herausforderung des Wertepluralismus, der sowohl in der Gesellschaft als auch in Genossenschaften und deren Wertekommunikation vorzufinden ist, stellt die Heterogenität der Mitgliederstruktur sowie deren Wertewahrnehmung der Unternehmenswerte eine zusätzliche Herausforderung für Genossenschaften dar. Zur Operationalisierung von Werten in der Unternehmenskultur der Genossenschaften sollte aus diesem Grund die Mitgliederstruktur im Einzelfall analysiert und die strategische Ausrichtung des Managements dementsprechend gewählt werden. Abschließend ist festzuhalten, dass Werte zwar als abstrakt gelten. Jedoch stellen sie bei kontinuierlicher Anwendung im strategischen Management, sowie bei der präzisen und zielführenden Kommunikation, einen wesentlichen Beitrag zur Unternehmensmission und -vision dar. Damit können sie einen erheblichen Anteil zur Steigerung der positiven Wahrnehmung und des Unternehmenserfolgs beitragen können.
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In recent years, researchers, especially in human resource development, have categorized meaningful work as an important job characteristic. Though meaningful work has largely been examined in western cultures, the topic is becoming increasingly important in eastern societies as well. Prior literature typically frames meaningful work as a psychological construct or human resource function that focuses on an employee’s well-being. However, economic utility theory is absent from most discussions of meaningful work. I frame meaningful work using utility theory to highlight various challenges that organizations face when trying to improve meaningful work. Based on this theoretical framework, I provide practical, realistic solutions to foster human resource development and meaningful work. Organizations that better understand the challenges faced when addressing meaningful work will likely find success in implementing impactful solutions.
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This study aims to identify the basic values of crowdfunding digital startup leaders at iGrow and kitabisa and also to understand how these values were created. Individual value systems are related to people's attitudes and behavior, especially in the leadership decision-making process. iGrow as an investment company for agriculture products has an orientation toward achieving profits, while kitabisa as a social movement platform has a social orientation toward helping others. This study used a qualitative approach through the in-depth interview from snowball sampling that served as the primary data. The research result proposed nine main values identified from leaders of both startup companies. The main values of iGrow leader were achievement goals, hard work, legacy, togetherness, and role models, while those of Kitabisa leader were rational, learning, hustler, genuine caring, and legacy. From the process in which these values were created, this study proposed a theory on a different path of value creation, called the value creation pathway. These research findings were only limited to the two leaders from iGrow and Kitabisa.
Chapter
In the context of this research work, we committed a reflection on the contribution of the contextual Intelligence (CI) and Knowledge Management (KM) in the survival of some start-ups housed to an Academic and Scientific Incubator (ASI) of the National School of Engineers (ENISO) at the University of Sousse in Tunisia). The study KM in the context of entrepreneurship: in particular, how entrepreneurs utilize and create knowledge, and build on knowledge as a core competency. The starting point of this reflection is the vulnerability of start-ups in their launch phase from which ensues the question of research relative to the capacity of the contextual intelligence to favor the survival of these young companies. In this paper, we used the investigation made in our master’s thesis which mobilized a qualitative method coherent with the exploratory character of the study. The results allowed noticing that the practice of contextual intelligence by the incubated start-ups seems, in the light of this first result, to have a mattering weight compared with the conditions of incubation and to the intrinsic factors of survival of the start-up. This exploration of the causes of failure of some start-ups incubated in an ASI allowed verifying the importance of KM in this context. It especially allowed bringing out two factors for avoiding failure: the cohesion between the team members and their ability to co-create value and the perseverance and the obstinacy of the entrepreneur. We highlight that, at the micro-level (IAS), start-up entrepreneurs are floundering with too much irrelevant and timely less information. Few tools and skills are available to deal with information effectively and convert them into knowledge. Through the SECI model of Nonaka and Takeuchi (1994), we try to explore the actual reasons for the failure of some incubated start-ups and verify the proposition of the attribution of this failure to the lack of KM and co-creation of value.
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The aim of this paper is to examine values as a component of organisational work ethicality, uncovering the contextual realities of values and explore the diversity of work ethicality in the entrepreneurial context in Sri Lanka. Organisational work ethicality is explained through egoistic work ethicality, utilitarian work ethicality and deontological work ethicality. With a view to get a deeper understanding of the diversity of organisational work ethicality, a qualitative approach is adopted. Twelve entrepreneurs were selected for in-depth interviews. A thematic analysis was carried out for field notes with the support of NVivo 6 version. Findings of this study reveal that the entrepreneurial thinking and their interpretations derived different social meanings of organisational work ethicality. The final outcome shows that rather than single dominant work ethicality, a combination of work ethicalities was preferred by most of the entrepreneurs. Within this mix of ethicalities, deontological ethicality and egoistic work ethicality seem to be equally practised by the entrepreneurs. The utilitarian ethicality seems to be practised at a minimum level. As a result, the implicational value of this study lies on at the organisational level and policy making level to rethink and reestablish a mechanism to improve ethical aspects of the businesses in order to maximise social well-being while doing the right things for the society and strengthening shareholders’ protection. KeywordsBusiness Ethics, Business Practices, Deontological Work Ethicality,Egoistic Work Ethicality, Entrepreneur, Utilitarian Work Ethicality, Values
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This study examined work values of undergraduate students in two comparable state universities in Russia and the United States. The study investigated how work values of undergraduate students in these two cultures differ across country and gender. Examining undergraduate students' work values give us insights into their flexibility at work, motivation for employment, and job persistence.It is imperative to gain such insights of the global work force for employees and employers with respect to future employment. Such knowledge will help us address future graduates' needs as well as foster an efficient and pleasant work environment.The current study showed that there are significant differences between American and Russian students regarding work values and attitudes toward unemployment. The key findings indicated that Russian students had a more positive attitude toward work than American students on most items measuring work values, whereas American students had more negative attitude toward unemployment and a much higher life satisfaction than Russian students.
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Work values have been receiving increased research attention. Ravlin, Meglino, and their associates have recently conceptualized and provided measurement of work values. Although the effects of work values on job satisfaction, commitment, and individual decision making have been studied, work values have not been explicitly linked to job choice decisions. Using a sample of professional degree students and a policy-capturing design, we examined the influence of organizational work values on job choice in the context of job attributes that have been shown to affect this decision process. Organizational work values significantly affected job choice decisions. Individuals were more likely to choose jobs whose value content was similar to their own value orientation.
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The Minnesota Importance Questionnaire (MIQ), measuring work values, was administered to 23 monozygotic and 20 dizygotic reared-apart twin pairs to test the hypothesis that genetic factors are associated with work values. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. In the univariate analysis, intraclass correlations were computed to estimate the proportion of variability in work values associated with genetic factors for each of the 20 MIQ scales and for the 6 higher order work value scales. The multivariate analysis used maximum likelihood estimation to separate the genetic and environmental factors for the correlated higher order scales. Results from both analyses indicated that, on average, 40% of the variance in measured work values was related to genetic factors, whereas approximately 60% of the variance was associated with environmental factors and error variance. Implications for job enrichment and motivation theories are discussed.
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This research note examines the relationship between age and work values and indicates possible avenues for future research and theoretical development. Cherrington (1977) has presented three arguments explaining why older workers are more work oriented than younger workers. First, one's perspective and frame of reference are changed by the sheer number as well as the different kinds of experiences associated with growing older. Second, specific historical experiences, such as the great depression or World War II, have a strong impact on one's work values. Third, the work values of older and younger workers are different because older workers received different kinds of training and socialization pressures than did younger workers. Two empirical studies have reported a significant positive relationship between age and work values. Susman (1973) found that older workers reported greater pride in job accomplishment among a sample of 256 employees. Aldag and Brief (1975) reported a significant correlation coefficient of .305 between age and the pro-Protestant ethic scale of Blood (1969). In contrast, Taylor and Thompson (1976) reported negative relationships between age and three of the five work values they measured. However, the relationships were not particularly consistent. Empirical comparisons of older and younger workers show that older workers generally have higher incomes, more seniority, higher socioeconomic status, and less education. It is necessary, therefore, to determine whether work values are related to age or to other explanatory variables.
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Contrary to popular opinion, the vast majority of complaints about the poor quality of school graduates who enter the workforce are not about a lack of academic skills but instead focus on deficiencies of appropriate work attitudes and behaviors. In fact, attitudes and behaviors have a significant impact on workforce quality and can be developed both in schools and on the job.
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On the basis of H. A. Simon (1990), the value of concern for others is proposed to derive from a process whereby individuals accept social information without carefully weighing its personal consequences. This value may thus reflect a sensitivity to social information that is unrelated to helping others. In 3 studies examining individuals’ reactions to performance feedback, the reactions of persons high in concern for others were less contingent than those of persons low in concern for others on the personal costs and benefits of accepting and responding to feedback. In contrast, persons low in concern for others were likely to reject feedback that did not result in valued personal outcomes. Because many models of organizational behavior maintain that individuals act on the basis of their evaluation of personal consequences, this value may relate to a wide range of organizational phenomena.
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This research investigates a particular value-assessing instrument, the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS), for its applicability to cross-cultural marketing. The study establishes that in measuring values a Likert type of scaling approach is not significantly less reliable than the more cumbersome ranking approach used by psychologists. Scaling also may be better suited to marketing applications. A “multiprofile-multimethod” matrix analysis suggests that the Rokeach “terminal” and “instrumental” profiles are reliable and distinctive.
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Understanding and predicting behavior in organizations requires a consideration of person and situation factors, and how these factors interact. This paper develops and longitudinally tests a model of person-organization fit (POF). POF is defined, and antecedents (selection and socialization) and consequences (commitment, performance, and tenure) are examined.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Research has not adequately separated the factors responsible for prosocial behaviors intended to benefit specific individuals from those intended to benefit an organization. Antecedents of the behavior of 100 secretaries were examined as a function of the beneficiary of the behavior. The value of concern for others and empathy explained significant variance in prosocial behaviors directed only at specific individuals (prosocial individual behavior). Perceptions of reward equity and recognition explained significant variance in behaviors directed only at the organization (prosocial organizational behavior). With these effects removed, the relationship between job satisfaction and prosocial organizational behavior was no longer significant, whereas the relationship between job satisfaction and prosocial individual behavior remained significant. Results suggest that the psychological processes that underlie prosocial behavior are different depending on the beneficiary of the behavior.
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The present paper examines the effect of a central cultural value, individualism-collectivism, on social loafing in an organizational setting. A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that collectivistic beliefs influence the incidence of social loafing. Forty-eight managerial trainees each from the United States and the People's Republic of China worked on an in-basket task under conditions of low or high accountability and low or high shared responsibility. The results of regression analyses demonstrate the moderating role of collectivistic beliefs on social loafing, and they are discussed in terms of social responsibility and its relation to performance in work groups.
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Data from 492 college students indicated that group size and individuals' identifiability, sense of shared responsibility, and levels of individualism or collectivism influenced peer-rated cooperation in classroom groups. Levels of individualism or collectivism moderated the effects of size and identifiability on cooperation but not those of shared responsibility. These findings suggest that models of free riding and social loafing provide insights into individualistic cooperation in groups but are limited in their ability to explain the cooperation of collectivists.
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To understand better the differences in power between subunits, this paper examines the relationship between perceived departmental power and the extent to which departments appear to share important organizational values with top management. Critical contingency perspectives on intraorganizational power are used as a catalyst for exploring similarity of organizational values as an additional determinant of power. Interview and survey data from a quick-service restaurant chain and a robotics company are used to provide support for the role of perceived similarity in values for determining power. Perceived value congruity between department members and top managers, examined from the perspectives of both groups, was found to account for unique variance in departmental power when controlling for the effects of critical contingencies. An objective measure of the similarity of values between department members and top managers, however, was unrelated to departmental power.
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This research investigates a particular value-assessing instrument, the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS), for its applicability to cross-cultural marketing. The study establishes that in measuring values a Likert type of scaling approach is not significantly less reliable than the more cumbersome ranking approach used by psychologists. Scaling also may be better suited to marketing applications. A "multiprofile-multimethod" matrix analysis suggests that the Rokeach "terminal" and "instrumental" profiles are reliable and distinctive.
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This article addresses some of America's pressing problems and the important role of administration and executive leadership in remedying the problems. Three major problems are described: the degradation of the environment, the growing number of people included in the "underclass," and the ethical abuses which have been so prevalent recently. These problems are traced to some basic values that currently are widely held in American society. These values include 1) a short-term rather than a long-term perspective; 2) a focus on the ends rather than the means; and 3) an emphasis on the individual over the community. We call this combination of values the ethic of personal advantage. Our suggestions for reform include educational debate, legal oversight and restrictions, and internal organizational changes. But most of all courageous leadership is needed. Our problems must be raised to the level of a national debate centered on reform and guided by our administrative and managerial elite.
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Research into the relationship between personal values and organizational phenomena has enjoyed a lengthy history. As a result, there is fair agreement among management scholars about two things: what values are and with what they vary. There are also substantial gaps in understanding, including how (if) values cause behavior and what happens to them when the individual joins an organization or enters an occupation. The authors identify some possible reasons for these gaps, having to do with the level(s) at which the values construct is conceptualized, methodological irregularities in values research, and neglect by management scholars, and discuss attendant corrective actions.
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Description: "Research in Organizational Behavior, Volume 4"
Article
This study surveys 155 executivesfrom the People's Republic of China (PRC), Hong Kong, and Canada to investigate whether norms for organizational design and management are subject to a process of globalization. The survey consisted of structured questionnaires using two different sets of Likert-like importance rating scales. One set of scales examined organizational design norms. The other setfocused on the desired attributes of a good manager The balance of the evidence from this study supports the hypothesis of globalization. However, the study also indicates that some norms of organizational design that reflect basic cultural values are resistant to change and convergence. Furthermore, the study indicates that regulatory and political differences may be reflected in local adaptation of organizational and management design norms.
Article
In 1968 and 1971, the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) obtained national data for rankings of 18 terminal and 18 instrumental values. In 1974 and 1981, the Institute for Social Research (ISR) obtained additional data for the same 18 terminal values. In a 1985 study, Inglehart compared the 4 sets of terminal value rankings thus obtained and found them to be remarkably stable. These same data also show, however, that Americans underwent dramatic value changes during the same period. The most disturbing finding is that equality, the value previously found to be highly correlated with antiracist and liberal attitudes, decreased more than any other value. This and other value changes contradict well-established NORC, Gallup, and ISR findings showing (a) impressive increases in antiracist attitudes and (b) a "much more variable" and (c) "much lower level of support" for attitudes toward implementation of integration. We propose a theoretical explanation of the three sets of contradictory findings. Moreover, we offer a theoretical explanation of naturally occurring stability and change in American value priorities.
Article
Questionnaire data were obtained from 149 enlisted men in the U.S. Navy. The job scope (JS)-satisfaction with the work itself (SWI) relationship was examined for the study's total sample and for subsamples created by grouping individuals on the basis of their degree of belief in the Protestant Ethic (PE). It was hypothesized and found that the JS-SWI relationship was positive and significantly different from zero for the study's total sample and each of the three PE subsamples. Contrary to one of the study's hypotheses, PE did not moderate the JS-SWI relationship. The study's results were discussed in terms of their implications for theory and practice in the area job design.