A Reevaluation of the Ambident Reactivity of the Guanine Moiety Towards Hydroxyl Radicals
ISOF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy.Angewandte Chemie International Edition (Impact Factor: 11.26). 03/2009; 48(12):2214-7. DOI: 10.1002/anie.200805372
Radically different: Contrary to previous proposals, the main reaction of the HO(*) radical with guanosine or 2'-deoxyguanosine is the hydrogen abstraction from the NH(2) moiety to give a guanyl radical. This radical, characterized by a broad band in the visible region (around 610 nm), undergoes tautomerization to the most stable isomer.
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- "· OH is so reactive that it is capable of immediately reacting, after formation, with almost any molecule in its vicinity, with little selectivity toward the various possible sites of attack. It has been held responsible for most important oxidative damage to DNA (Chatgilialoglu et al. 2009). "
ABSTRACT: In this review, we briefly summarize the reliability of the density functional theory (DFT)-based methods to accurately predict the main antioxidant properties and the reaction mechanisms involved in the free radical-scavenging reactions of chemical compounds present in food. The analyzed properties are the bond dissociation energies, in particular those involving OH bonds, electron transfer enthalpies, adiabatic ionization potentials, and proton affinities. The reaction mechanisms are hydrogen-atom transfer, proton-coupled electron transfer, radical adduct formation, single electron transfer, sequential electron proton transfer, proton-loss electron transfer, and proton-loss hydrogen-atom transfer. Furthermore, the chelating ability of these compounds and its role in decreasing or inhibiting the oxidative stress induced by Fe(III) and Cu(II) are considered. Comparisons between theoretical and experimental data confirm that modern theoretical tools are not only able to explain controversial experimental facts but also to predict chemical behavior. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology Volume 7 is February 28, 2016. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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ABSTRACT: 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-G) is the major lesion of oxidatively generated DNA damage. Despite two decades of intense study, several fundamental properties remain to be defined. Its isoelectronic 8-aminoguanine (8-NH(2)-G) has also received considerable attention from a biological point of view, although its chemistry involving redox processes remains to be discovered. We investigated the one-electron oxidation and one-electron reduction reactions of 8-oxo-G and 8-NH(2)-G derivatives. The reactions of hydrated electrons (e(aq)(-)) and azide radicals (N(3)(*)) with both derivatives were studied by pulse radiolysis techniques, and the transient absorption spectra were assigned to specific tautomers computationally by means of time-dependent DFT (TD-B3LYP/6-311G**//B1B95/6-31+G**) calculations. The protonated electron adducts of 8-NH(2)-G and 8-oxo-G showed a substantial difference in their absorption spectra, the unpaired electron being mainly delocalized in the imidazolyl ring and in the six-membered ring, respectively. On the other hand, the deprotonated forms of one-electron oxidation of 8-NH(2)-G and 8-oxo-G showed quite similar spectral characteristics. In a parallel study, the one-electron reduction of 8-azidoguanine (8-N(3)-G) afforded the same transient of one-electron oxidation of 8-NH(2)-G, which represents another example of generation of one-electron oxidized guanine derivatives under reducing conditions. Moreover, the fate of transient species was investigated by radiolytic methods coupled with product studies and allowed self- and cross-termination rate constants associated with these reactions to be estimated.
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ABSTRACT: One-electron oxidized guanine is an important reactive intermediate in the formation of oxidatively generated damage in DNA and a variety of methods have been utilized for the abstraction of a single electron from the guanine moiety. In this study, an alternative approach for the site specific, independent generation of the guanine radical, utilizing N-hydroxypyrid-2(1H)-one as a photolabile modifier of guanine, is proposed. Novel photolabile 6-[(1-oxido-2-pyridinyl)oxo]-6-deoxy- and 2',6-dideoxy-guanosine derivatives capable of generating the neutral guanine radical (G(-H)*) upon photolysis were synthesized and characterized. The generation of G(-H)* proceeds through homolysis of the N-O bond and was confirmed through continuous photolysis product analysis and trapping studies, as well as laser flash photolysis experiments.
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