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Change management - Or change leadership?

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Abstract

This paper argues that, while change must be well managed, it also requires effective leadership to be successfully introduced and sustained. An integrative model of leadership for change is proposed, reflecting its cognitive, spiritual, emotional and behavioural dimensions and requirements. The model comprises vision, values, strategy, empowerment, and motivation and inspiration. The paper concludes with a brief account of the application of the model in varied strategic change situations.

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... Als Schlüssel zu erfolgreichem Change-Management gilt Leadership, gefolgt von Unternehmenswerten und Kommunikation (Canterino et al., 2019;Yue, Men, & Ferguson, 2019;Gill, 2002). Amstutz (2013) stellt fest, dass Führungsqualität und Entwicklungsunterstützung durch Vorgesetzte das organisationale Commitment von Pflegefachpersonen positiv beeinflussen kann. ...
... Führungsqualität hat somit einen bedeutenden Einfluss auf das organisationale Commitment (Amstutz, 2013). Gill (2002) geht davon aus, dass in erster Linie effektives Leadership über den Erfolg von Change-Prozessen entscheidet (Gill, 2002). Yue, Men und Ferguson (2019) sowie Canterino et al. (2019) bestätigen inzwischen diese These. ...
... Führungsqualität hat somit einen bedeutenden Einfluss auf das organisationale Commitment (Amstutz, 2013). Gill (2002) geht davon aus, dass in erster Linie effektives Leadership über den Erfolg von Change-Prozessen entscheidet (Gill, 2002). Yue, Men und Ferguson (2019) sowie Canterino et al. (2019) bestätigen inzwischen diese These. ...
Article
Das Hauptziel der Studie ist die Ermittlung von funktionalen Anforderungen an ein elektronisches Pflegedokumentationssystem (PDS) am Beispiel der Demenz. Auch mobile PDS werden berücksichtigt. Das Studiendesign besteht aus Methoden der qualitativen Forschung, verbunden mit der Innovationsmethode Design Thinking. Aus Interviews mit elf Stakeholdern in Schweizer Pflegeheimen geht eine Übersicht von 127 Funktionen hervor, welche ein PDS abdecken soll. Dazu zählen bewohnerspezifische Funktionen, Funktionen des Pflegeprozesses und übergreifende Funktionen. Weiter geht aus der Studie ein Interaktionsdiagramm hervor, welches die wichtigsten Prozesse und Stakeholder im Kontext von PDS nennt.
... Efficient leadership is essential to perform a well-managed transition (Gill, 2002) (13) . As a result, leaders' ability to encourage, interact, and develop teams were discovered to be factors of effective change implementation. ...
... Efficient leadership is essential to perform a well-managed transition (Gill, 2002) (13) . As a result, leaders' ability to encourage, interact, and develop teams were discovered to be factors of effective change implementation. ...
... Moving towards a wasta-free management system cannot be achieved without a serious 6 engagement in an incremental change management process throughout Arab organizations. In order for this proposed change process to succeed in eliminating wasta, it must be well managed, planned, organized, directed, controlled, and should have effective leadership which can assure its introduction and sustainment (Gill, 2002). Among the most prevalent employee behaviors towards change is the resistance to the process of change itself (Kotter, 1996;Luecke, 2003;Garvin, 2003;Nadler and Tushman, 1997;Mento et al., 2002). ...
... To delve deeper into the issue, Waddell and Sohal (1998) indicate that resistance to change is a function of a variety of factors including: Management factors such as inappropriate or poor management styles (this applies to the Arab organizations where HRM systems are often outdated and ineffective (Iles et al., 2012); organizational and political factors such as corruption (according to Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 2016, five out of the ten most corrupt countries in the world are from the Arab region); non-rational factors which are not necessarily based on a rational assessment of the change such as workers who simply prefer working near particular friends or relatives; and rational factors where the employees' own rational assessment of the outcomes of the proposed change differ from the outcomes envisioned by the management. 8 However, Gill (2002) argues that the most powerful forces of resistance to change inside organizations are emotional forces. He lists six forces as follows: Firstly, dislike of imposed change. ...
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Wasta, which is the typical informal network style pervasive in the Arab world, has long been believed to constitute an intrinsic feature of managerial activities and practices in Arab organizations. With a long and intertwined history on one side, and a large widespread on the other, this practice seems near impossible to dissociate from the social and professional landscape of this part of the world. While more and more studies are emerging in order to understand the mechanisms of this practice, the conditions of its emergences, the factors which stand behind its widespread, and the consequences it brings forth, less attention has been directed towards proposing a solution for this problem. Some scholars have nonetheless attempted to offer practical indications on dealing with wasta in order to limit its spread and disintegrate its operational systems. This paper, which falls in line with these works, proposes a road map towards a wasta free management system in Arab organizations. Through formulating holistic and comprehensive measures in different levels and areas, this study hopes to contribute a clear roadmap, ready for use by global business leaders, managers, HR practitioners, and government executives alike.
... For instance, the impact of management commitment (e.g., Fernández-Muñiz et al., 2007), supervisor commitment (e.g., Huang et al., 2018), and safety training (e.g., Tappura and Jääskeläinen, 2020) on employee commitment have been validated in many studies. Leadership and communication have also been recognized as the most critical factors for managing organizational change (e.g., Gill, 2002;Ogbonna, 1992). However, even though the impacts of these dimensions have been studied, there is a gap in the understanding of how these dimensions are connected to each other and how such connections differ in various environments. ...
... However, many models have been suggested to promote cultural change. Critical factors that are needed for cultural change are organizational structures, leadership modeling behavior, information and communication systems, training and orientation, first-line supervisory performance, work-team culture, performance and reward systems, and results orientation (e.g., Gill, 2002;Ogbonna, 1992;Silverzweig and Allen, 1976). ...
Article
Safety culture is a major factor of safety performance. However, a limited number of studies have been carried out on the formation of safety culture in an organization or on the relationship between the maturity of safety culture and employee satisfaction. This study analyzes the path toward the satisfaction of all employee groups through the maturation of various dimensions of safety culture within an organization. Furthermore, it compares the path between environments with high and low communication. The empirical data was gathered using a survey of employees from two Finnish industrial organizations, at all organizational levels, that received 289 responses. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and group comparisons were utilized to analyze the data obtained. It was found that employees’ overall satisfaction with safety culture is mainly affected by employee commitment. Employee commitment, in turn, is heavily dependent on top management commitment, which is mediated by supervisor commitment and safety training. By understanding how safety culture is developed in an organization, more effective paths can be identified to improve safety culture further using the results of a maturity analysis. The relationships identified suggest that individual safety culture dimensions should not be developed separately, as they are all related to each other. Finally, it is found that mature communication may specifically support the commitment of employees even without the commitment of supervisors.
... School leaders are gatekeepers for change (Fullan, 2014). Thus, their leadership effectiveness is pivotal in moving towards an inclusive education culture (Gill, 2003). School leaders play a role in promoting inclusion, addressing diversity, and embracing multiculturalism (Cherkowski, 2010). ...
... Leadership is an influence process (Bounds et al., 2013). Thus, changing attitudes of staff towards the new paradigm of inclusivity is necessary (Gill, 2003) and, perhaps, an important first step. ...
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The need to identify and address South African school leaders' challenges in developing an inclusive education culture frames the purpose of this study. A qualitative methodology using a multiple case study design in three secondary schools was employed. Data collection ensued through focus group interviews with school management teams (SMTs) and teachers. The findings highlight areas that both challenge and overwhelm SMTs. These areas include the inadequate implementation of the screening, identification, assessment and support (SIAS) policy, the need for parent support for inclusivity, and inclusive pedagogy limitations. Furthermore, there is a need for human and financial resources to support inclusive education. The study proposes a framework that clarifies the role of the SMT in facilitating inclusivity. The framework posits the need for visionary, strategic, and social justice leadership, focuses on ways to transform the school culture, and offers practical guidance for translating the SIAS policy into practice.
... Organizational change can sometimes fail to produce the desired results [10,11]. One of the major reasons for the failure of organizational change is focused on technical aspects such as information systems and organizational structure, while less to no importance is given to the human resource aspect [12][13][14]. ...
Article
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Modern organizations continuously undergo change processes. The focus of the organizations remains on the macro level, but the micro level (i.e., employee’s perspective) is neglected. Using the conservation of resource theory (COR), this study examines the association between organizational change and workplace incivility. This study also proposes mediating and moderating mechanisms of stress and emotional exhaustion. The data were collected from 262 respondents working in public sector organizations in Pakistan using a time-lagged technique. The results proved that change significantly impacts workplace incivility. Moreover, stress mediates their relationship and emotional exhaustion moderates it. Furthermore, emotional exhaustion also moderates the stress–incivility relationship. Public sector organizations must focus on well-planned, inclusive, and adequately managed change processes to achieve the desired outcome; otherwise, adverse behaviors, including incivility, manifest. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the organizational change and incivility relationship has not been explored in the past. Additionally, their relationship with stress and emotional exhaustion also requires empirical investigation. This study also adds to the literature on the conservation of resource theory.
... When in reality, "change programs often fail because of poor management: poor planning, monitoring and control, lack of resources and know-how, and incompatible corporate policies and practices. Good management of change is a sine qua non" (Gill, R., 2002). An American Management Association survey of 259 senior executives (1994) showed that the first key to a successful change is leadership (92% voted importance), then come corporate values, communication, and team building (84%, 75%, and 69% successively voted importance). ...
Article
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Digital transformation is a gateway to innovation and new models of organization, operations, and business models. The quick response of managers and leaders is becoming the key to successful digital transformation, followed by strategic flexibility according to data testing results. These results highlight the importance of agile leadership in today’s changing organizational environment (Fachrunnisa et al., (2020). Hence why it is imperative to take into consideration all employees’ perceptions of management to avoid resistance to change. Thus, in this research paper, we analyze the current managerial environment to better guide digital transformation through a survey destined for both managers and employees, assessing the current situation of organizational management from a diversity of perspectives. We then propose a new digital transformation managerial model based on significant correlations between the models’ variables using the Chi-squared test.
... In the same way, Burke (2010) stated that scanning the environment and gathering information, recognizing the need for change, providing clarity of vision and direction, communicating the need for change, attracting employees' attention, and overcoming resistance are fundamentals of change leadership behaviours. Gill (2002) identifies change leadership behaviours such as providing a vision, role modelling, promoting shared values, developing an implementation strategy, and empowering, motivating, and inspiring employees. Kotter stated that a vision is crucial for the success of the change initiative. ...
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Changes in Universities need to be prepared, enforced, and sustained to turn the universities into institutions that can function effectively and efficiently. Kotter’s change model is one of the most widely recognised models for leading change, and yet there are few case studies have been used this model in the academic literature. Therefore, this study aimed to test Kotter’s change model at University of Khartoum. To do so, a qualitative research design was followed. To collect data a semi-structured interview was used with 11 leaders in the University of Khartoum. The thematic analysis has shown that create an environment for change depends on create urgency, and develop a vision for change that convinces staff members to participate in the change process. It is evident that the University of Khartoum has engaged and enabled the staff members in each college and work unit to embrace the change. Besides, the analysis indicated that for the change to be implemented and sustained it needs to removing obstacles and making it the university culture. The paper recommended that the importance of change must be embedded in the vision of the University of Khartoum to create a strong climate for change in the University environment.
... If provided with an effective leadership style in such a rapidly changing scenario aiding the development of effective attitudes of employees, this can be a potential source to reduce poverty through job creation and sustainability (Anwar, 2017). Literature shows while such times of crises require changed policy and tactics, as change management is required, the role of effective leadership cannot be ignored in introducing and sustaining change (Gill, 2002). This research study is based on mixed methodology where in the study one a qualitative analysis has been conducted identifying the most effective leadership study in the scenario and the desired employee attitudes which may contribute toward a sustainable tourism industry. ...
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This study has proposed to apply change leadership as a vehicle forward for sustaining the growth of the tourism industry to eradicate poverty through the Pakistani tourism industry. Applying a mixed method approach, this article has attempted to uncover the role a change leader can play to help achieve the United Nations’ sustainable development goals of poverty reduction. In this study, one of the authors interviewed stakeholders of the tourism industry to find out the major drivers of the industry and identify the leadership style that may prove to be effective in the said industry. In the next phase of the study, a survey method approach was used where different tourism companies and hotel chains were included for analysis. The study aimed to check employee’s perception of change leadership and its impact on their resilience and ultimately the sustainable organization performance of companies’ operationalizing in the sector with moderating impact of sustainable tourism attitude in times of a crisis. In total, 430 full-time workers in the tourism industry were contacted for a self-administered survey achieving a response rate of 83%. The findings of the study confirmed that in the presence of a change leader, the process of adaptation to sudden changing situations amidst financial crises, pandemic, and climatic change, becomes bearable and employees can cope with the work situations without pushing them to quit the industry. The study has a significant contribution toward a rapidly growing and focused industry, which can play a major role in the economy of any country leading toward job creation and poverty reduction.
... In the same way, Burke (2010) stated that scanning the environment and gathering information, recognizing the need for change, providing clarity of vision and direction, communicating the need for change, attracting employees' attention, and overcoming resistance are fundamentals of change leadership behaviours. Gill (2002) identifies change leadership behaviours such as providing a vision, role modelling, promoting shared values, developing an implementation strategy, and empowering, motivating, and inspiring employees. Kotter stated that a vision is crucial for the success of the change initiative. ...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in Universities need to be prepared, enforced, and sustained to turn the universities into institutions that can function effectively and efficiently. Kotter's change model is one of the most widely recognized models for leading change, and yet there are few case studies have been used this model in the academic literature. Therefore, this study aimed to test Kotter's change model at University of Khartoum. To do so, a qualitative research design was followed. To collect data a semi-structured interview was used with 11 leaders in the University of Khartoum. The thematic analysis has shown that create an environment for change depends on create urgency, and develop a vision for change that convinces staff members to participate in the change process. It is evident that the University of Khartoum has engaged and enabled the staff members in each college and work unit to embrace the change. Besides, the analysis indicated that for the change to be implemented and sustained it needs to removing obstacles and making it the university culture. The paper recommended that the importance of change must be embedded in the vision of the University of Khartoum to create a strong climate for change in the University environment.
... Project plan changes, due to their effects on different dimensions, are essential; consequently, some experts name this change leadership [47]. The management knowledge competency is related to factors that fall into the complexity categories of context and interdependency. ...
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An ongoing question is what constitutes the characteristics of a project manager. This is the subject of many studies. The characteristics, skills, abilities and knowledge of project managers—essential factors in a project’s success—describe their level of competency. This study aims to assess the relationship between project manager competencies and project complexity in the information technology (IT) sector. In total, 21 semi-structured interviews were conducted with senior practitioners associated with complex IT projects in the private and public sectors. All transcripts were analysed through grounded theory and content analysis, with experts approving the results. Our study identified 41 competencies within project complexity, with these grouped under the following 10 dimensions: project management (PM) knowledge; management skills; interpersonal skills and attributes; professionalism; expertise; emotional skills; contextual skills; influencing skills; team working; and cognitive skills. According to this research, leadership is the core competency of a project manager, while project management knowledge is the most essential of these competency dimensions. This study’s findings can assist both academics and practitioners in simplifying the complexity of projects and helping to achieve a project’s objectives.
... Hence, this study is built on three phases of change leadership by Kotter (1996): creating the climate for change, engaging and enabling the whole organization in leading change, and implementing and sustaining change. Gill (2003), therefore, states that leading change enables the forceful movement of the members toward common visions, mission and goals of the higher education institutions. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine Kotter's leading change model at the Faculty of Education University of Khartoum with a major purpose of evaluating the contribution of this theory to enhance the importance and understanding of leading change at the University context. In doing so, a survey research design was employed. Among 239 staff members at the Faculty of Education University of Khartoum, data were collected from 106 (44.00%) respondents using questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using one sample t-test. The result showed that creating a climate for change has been practised in the Faculty of Education University of Khartoum. The Faculty of Education University of Khartoum has engaged and enabled the whole organization in the change process. The findings also indicated that the Faculty of Education University of Khartoum has implemented and sustained change process. Hence, the implication of these findings adds to the understanding of how college officials ought to play a role model in embedding the change in their behaviors.
... This information helps to understand how change has been managed historically. The understanding of the organization's willingness, as well as the ability to adapt to the next wave of transformation [189], can serve as a baseline for designing essential change elements and can also help in establishing a contingency plan. ...
Article
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This paper aims to propose an Industry 4.0 implementation model relevant to the composite manufacturing industry and offer it to academia and manufacturing practice in order to aid successful change and adoption. The research scope is defined at an intersection of challenges within the composites industry, as well as Industry 4.0. A critical review of relevant papers was used to establish key trends and gaps in professional practice. Exposed challenges and opportunities were then synthesized to propose a conceptual framework for implementing Industry 4.0. Findings suggest that the predicted growth of the composites sector depends on the paradigm shift in manufacturing. Industry 4.0, including automation, and horizontally and vertically integrated business models are seen as enablers. However, the value proposition or organizational resistance in establishing such integration is not sufficiently addressed or understood by the industry. Achieving a successful design for manufacturing (DFM), or, more generally, design for excellence (DFX0), is identified as the target performance objectives and key business process enablers used to introduce Industry 4.0 technology. The identified key gap in professional practice indicate the lack of a model used for structuring and implementing Industry 4.0 technology into composite businesses. The existence of an identified gap, evidenced by the lack of literature and available knowledge, reinforces the need for further research. To enable further research, and to facilitate the introduction of Industry 4.0 in composite manufacturing firms, a conceptual implementation framework based on the systems engineering V model is proposed. The paper concludes with topics for further investigation.
... Teams feel empowered when it is believed that the leadership has confidence in them and decisions taken by them will not be altered by the leadership. Practically, it is about bestowing employees with skills, knowledge, opportunity, resources, self-confidence and freedom to bring change (Gill, 2002). ...
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As diagnostic and dialogic Organizational Development (OD) are major approaches to manage change, therefore, according to Marshak and Bushe (2018) this can be an exceptional area for OD scholars to explore "Under what conditions are diagnostic or dialogic approaches the most appropriate intervention and most likely to succeed"? The purpose of this study was to develop a better understanding of how organizations with unlike conditions carry out change by adopting OD approaches in the two banks of Pakistan: MCB bank and Bank Alfalah. Since the OD approaches bifurcate into the conventional form of diagnostic OD and the emergent form of dialogic OD, it is mainly essential to explore which organizational conditions support diagnostic OD and which conditions are more suitable for dialogic OD. The study adopted a qualitative case study design. Data was collected through five interviews and three focus groups from each bank. Thematic analysis has been used to theorize from the data. The major findings indicated that both OD approaches are being practiced in Pakistani banks therefore, it may not be assumed that the diagnostic OD has become ineffective and irrelevant, and replaced by dialogic OD. Diagnostic forms can be suitable for the organizations having problem solving orientation, quantitative business goals, bureaucratic culture and preference for formal communication; whereas dialogic forms can be best approach for organizations having conditions like employees' inclusion in decision making, empowerment of employees, capacity building orientation and a culture of dialogue. This belief confirms the fact that multiple realities exist in organizations and there is no single best method to deal with situations of different nature.
... When an organizational crisis occurs, decision-making needs to be very fast, and management needs flexibility in order to quickly cope with work tasks [76]. When faced with crises of uncertainty, resistance to organizational change will hinder members of the organization from being able to respond quickly and effectively to said crises, as well as cause members to be prone to emotional exhaustion [77]. ...
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Since the end of 2019, COVID-19 has continued to spread around the world. The police have performed various epidemic prevention and routine duties. This study explores how police officers’ COVID-19 fear, resistance to organizational change, intolerance of uncertainty, and secondary trauma affect emotional exhaustion and insomnia in the context of COVID-19. A total of 205 valid police samples were collected in this study, and the established hypotheses were tested using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The results of the study confirmed that during the COVID-19 outbreak, secondary trauma of police officers positively affects emotional exhaustion and insomnia; intolerance of uncertainty positively affects emotional exhaustion; resistance to organizational change positively affects intolerance of uncertainty and emotional exhaustion; intolerance of uncertainty mediates the relationship between resistance to organizational change and emotional exhaustion; COVID-19 fear positively influences secondary trauma.
... In the leadership of KH.A.Kamaludin S.Ag, M.Pd (1992-2012) changes have been made. Gill (2003) suggested Leardeship is about showing the way: using personal power to win the hearts and minds of people to work toward a common goal. While Hooper and Potter (2000) suggest that the leadership of change is developing a vision of the future, crafting strategies to bring that vision into reality and ensuring that everybody in the organization is mobilizing their energies towards the same goal. ...
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Change in an organization is very necessary as an effort to improve its quality. In this study, researchers conducted the research on how the efforts of Islamic boarding schools to make changes. This study aims to investigate how the change management of Islamic boarding schools. This research was conducted at Darul Kirom Islamic Boarding School Jatisampurna Bekasi West Java. The research method used is descriptive qualitative research method, which means a research method aimed at describing existing phenomena using triangulation data collection techniques, namely through the main research instrument the researchers themselves are supported by observation, interviews and document studies. Based on the research analysis, conclusions can be drawn, among others: 1) In relation to the management of Islamic boarding school changes have been carried out using an exploration, planning, action and integration approach. This is evidenced by changes in the organizational structure, management of the boarding school, infrastructure, curriculum and human resources at the Darul Kirom Islamic boarding school. 2) Of the two leaderships that have occurred, have a very meaningful role. This is evident in the journey of the Islamic boarding school, each leadership has a role in the changes that continue to develop until now. 3) The driving factors for the change in the Darul Kirom Islamic boarding school are influenced by two factors, namely external factors and internal factors.
... Bu amaçla lider desteği ölçeği, araştırma modeline dahil edilmiş, öncül değişken olarak kullanılmış ve örgütsel değişime açıklık ile arasındaki korelasyon incelenmiştir. Ölçüt bağımlı geçerliği için bu değişkenin seçilmesinin sebebi, yapılan çalışmalarda lider desteği ile örgütsel değişime açıklık arasındaki ilişkilerin sıklıkla tartışılmış olmasıdır (Gill, 2002;Herold vd., 2008;Michaelis vd., 2009;Carter vd., 2013;Paulsen vd., 2013;Yue vd., 2019). Yapılan çalışmalarda, lider desteğini hisseden, değişim yönetimi uygulamaları hakkında yeterince bilgilendirilen, bu süreçte karar verme mekanizmaları içerisinde yer alan çalışanların, değişime daha açık oldukları belirtilmektedir (Wanger ve Banas, 2000;Axtell vd., 2002;Bommer vd., 2005;Devos vd., 2007;Lyons vd., 2009;Bouckenooghe, 2010). ...
Article
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In this study, it is aimed to develop an "Openness Toward Organizational Change Scale" that can measure the phenomenon of openness to change, which is one of the employee attitudes that provide positive impact and support for change and its results in organizations, with valid, reliable and the most appropriate number of expressions. Three different working groups consisting of industry, education and health sector workers were used in the research. The validity of the scale was made by exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively. According to the results of the analysis, it was determined that the “Openness Toward Organizational Change Scale” has a single dimension and a structure consisting of 6 items. In addition, the criterion-dependent validity of the scale was ensured by making use of the leader support scale. Then, reliability analyzes were performed and it was proved that the scale was highly reliable. The results obtained show that the developed scale is a valid and reliable scale for measuring the tendency of individuals working in all enterprises and institutions in Turkey to be openness toward organizational change.
... Leadership and management are key factors in the processes associated with all forms of change (Gill, 2002;Herold et al., 2008), and effective leadership has been identified as a key factor in the success of change initiatives (Kotter, 1995;Todnem, 2005;Hornstein, 2015). Leadership can be understood as a set of functions and roles that must be fulfilled to address all important aspects of the workplace and processes occurring within it (Mintzberg, 1990), and the ability to lead employees in a change process is often considered to be one of a leader's most important tasks (Burnes, 2004;Todnem, 2005). ...
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Purpose: In the introduction of new technologies into organizations, there has been an increasing trend to recruit and make use of so-called “super users” to help ensure the future use of the technology in question. Little is known about the criteria that should ideally be considered in the selection of these super users, or about the best way to carve up the roles and responsibilities in this process between super users and middle management. In this study we investigated (1) which criteria should be emphasized in the selection of super users, and (2) how middle management and super users understand and negotiate the responsibilities of their respective roles during implementation of technological change. Methods: We conducted 10 individual semi-structured interviews and used thematic analysis of this data set to identify selection criteria, roles, and responsibilities. Results: We found that the main selection criteria for super users should be: (1) availability and local knowledge, (2) technological skills, (3) pedagogical skills, and (4) proactiveness. The main roles and responsibilities that should be carved up between management and super users can be grouped into two overarching categories, each with several subcategories. Within the Learning culture category, the responsibilities are to (1) facilitate collective learning, (2) engage with criticism, and (3) promote collective sharing; and within the Individual learning category, to (4) facilitate individual learning, (5) provide instrumental support, and (6) provide emotional support. Discussion and conclusion: Based on the findings, we propose a conceptual model of technological implementation and the construction of a culture of organizational learning, entitled ECo-System Of Learning in Organizations (ECSO-Learn); we additionally show how a learning agent (previously known as a super user) can be recruited so as to best fit into this model of long-term organizational learning.
... PYE is essential in the current work setting, in which numerous employees have shifted to WFH arrangements. For example, Gill (2002) argued that empowered workers manage changes and adapt well to the change processes. In addition, Amundsen and Martinsen (2014) noted that empowered employees possess the power, initiative, decisionmaking right, and autonomy from top management to handle day-to-day business activities. ...
Article
Purpose-Existing studies have demonstrated the significances of job, personal and social resources in stimulating work engagement (WKE). However, the role of psychological empowerment (PYE) in linking these resources to WKE has received limited attention. Hence, drawing on the conservation of resources (COR) theory, this paper investigates the effects of friends and family support (FFS), supervisor support (SST), and employee resilience (ERS) in stimulating PYE for WKE amid the uncertainty associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach-With a survey instrument, the authors collected data from 259 knowledge workers in Malaysia and analyzed the hypothesized model with the partial least square (PLS) structural equation modeling technique. Findings-The data support the significant effects of FFS, SST, and ERS on PYE. Also, PYE was a significant mediator of FFS, SST, and ERS effects on WKE. Originality/value-This study offers empirical support for the relevance of COR theory in explaining how employees adjust to the burden of uncertainty and psychological stress associated with the COVID-19 mandated "work from home" (WFH) practices through their engagement in work.
... However, Christensen et al. (2016) and Broekema et al. (2017) point out that organizational culture can contribute both to the favourable outcome and the negative outcome when it limits the prevention, preparedness, and recovery of organizations crisis. Furthermore, successful changes require vision, strategy, and a culture of sustainable and shared values (Gill, 2002). Culture is also expressed in less conscious and operational matters between members of an organization (Schein 1990). ...
Article
The vortex of the financial crisis that struck European countries did not impact them as it has primarily affected the Mediterranean periphery. Instead, Greece was the prominent victim, both in terms of duration and size of crisis, with radical changes implemented. The present study explores the determinants of administrative and organizational amendments in the general rural administration during the economic crisis. Data were gathered through a qualitative survey with public officers and stakeholders and were gauged through a Delphi policy framework. The empirical study focuses on implementing crisis management and change management practices in the public sector. The results indicated that public administration was neither prepared to confront the crisis nor the changes that followed. On the other hand, stakeholders claim that despite all the changes that have occurred, the bureaucracy was unaffected and that there is a need for public services to be enhanced. The lessons derived suggest more profound shifts in the administrative practice, culture, implementation of organizational knowledge and tools to deal with crises and changes combined with organizational learning.
... Such change failures are often attributed to employee resistance (Coram & Burnes, 2001;Ford et al., 2008;Piderit, 2000) or employee cynicism Thundiyil et al., 2015). Such resistance and cynicism can stem from a lack of communication about the rationale for the change (its legitimization) or its potential benefits, and/or a lack of employee and middle management participation in decision-making Gill, 2002;Shannon, 2017;Smollan, 2015). As such, some have framed change as essentially a communication challenge, with effective messaging essential for reducing change resistance and enabling employee readiness for change (Karp & Helg, 2008;McClellan, 2014). ...
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Public sector effectiveness necessitates planned change; however, many initiatives fail. For planned change to be successful, employees’ mental models need to be amended to support new behaviours. One mechanism to achieve this is employee performance conversations, which can elicit behavioural change through introducing new ideas to an individual’s reality. However, many conversations fail to create shared understandings of the need for change. Ford and Ford's [The role of conversations in producing intentional change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 541–570] typology identifies different conversational forms to create the shared understandings required to enact change. This paper reflects on the learnings from a management development intervention based upon Ford and Ford’s typology where managers applied the conversational forms to initiate mental model amendment, thereby enabling planned change. Analysis of qualitative data collected during the intervention suggests that using different types of conversations in a structured manner enabled shared understandings regarding why change was required and what success looked like. Managers recognized that slowing down the conversational process led to more effective mental model amendment, facilitating behavioural change. The paper demonstrates how different conversational forms enable leaders to discuss a planned change from an individual and organizational perspective and elicit mental model amendment to realize change. MAD statement This paper explores a new approach to undertaking employee performance management to enable organizational change. The paper applies Ford and Ford’s (1995) conversational typology as a practice model for developing the conversational competencies of managers and leaders. The paper highlights the importance of taking account of employees’ and managers’ different mental models in order to enable planned change. It argues that it is not more conversations that is needed, but instead the capacity to recognize and utilize different conversational forms to realize mental model amendment to elicit behavioural change and thus achieve change. The paper outlines an intervention that applies this new approach to employee performance management training.
... Empowering employees literally implies giving them the authority to carry out the change process's requirements. Empowering employees also entails giving them the knowledge, skills, opportunity, autonomy, self-confidence, and resources they need to manage and be accountable for change (Gill 2003). According to Kotter, there are four key impediments to empowerment: (a) information and personnel systems, (b) a lack of required skills, (c) managers who discourage employees from acting, and (d) formal structures that make it difficult for employees to act (Kotter1996, 102). ...
Chapter
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Organizational Change and Change Management is a significant field of study to examine its applications to the current innovative ever-changing world. Models and processes in change management contributes for the success with new plans in the challenging environment. Thus, this chapter goes insight to an overview of Organizational change and Change Management. It includes brief introduction to Organizational change, Types of organizational changes, an overview of Change management, Implication of Change management Models; Kotter’s eight-step Change Management Model, Kurt Lewin's Three-Step Change Model, Benefits of Change Management to organizations, Negative impacts and barriers of Change Management, Key factors for successful change and a brief analysis of the Interdependent Role of Communication and Employee Involvement in Effective Change Management.
... Indeed, students need to feel like they have some control over their actions in the class without being constantly micromanaged. When students are given more autonomy and are more empowered, they are more likely to use their abilities and think creatively (Gill, 2002). More importantly, students who have been given more autonomy will more likely be successful in their future role as a manager because they learned how to be proactive instead of reactive (Ramsey & Fitzgibbons, 2016). ...
Article
With the shift of educational delivery and uncertainty surrounding the future of how business classes will be taught and received by students after Covid-19, motivating students is more critical than ever to meet learning outcomes in the future. Capitalizing on the growing literature founded on Rock's SCARF (status, certainty, autonomy, relatedness, fairness) model, we investigate the characteristics of a class structure, teaching style, and class environment that significantly motivate students, resulting in increased class performance. Thus, we hypothesized mediating relationships in which each SCARF element is related to student performance through increased intrinsic motivation. We surveyed 345 students from 11 business schools throughout the United States. The results supported our hypotheses. We conclude with a summary of the theoretical and practical implications of our findings.
... For example, contingency leadership (Gelei, Losonci & Matyusz, 2015;Shao, Feng & Hu, 2016), distributed leadership (Cannatelli, Smith, Giudici, Jones & Conger, 2016), transitional leadership (Oplatka & Arar, 2016;Shao, Feng & Hu, 2016), transformational leadership (Chong, 2015;Shao, Feng & Hu, 2016), servant leadership (Liden, Panaccio, Meuser, Hu & Wayne, 2014a;2014b;O'Reilly, Doerr, Caldwell & Chatman, 2014;Panaccio, Henderson, Liden, Wayne & Cao, 2015), and others. While facing rapid changes in technology and society, change-oriented leadership has caused concern in different organizational settings (Gill, 2002). The "change is manageable" bubble began to burst in the mid-1980s, and by the 1990s it became obvious that managing change was becoming less and less possible (Anderson & Ackerman Anderson, 2001). ...
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IAFOR Journal of Education: Volume 5 – Issue 3 – Winter 2017 Editor: Bernard Montoneri, National Chengchi University, Taiwan Published: December 4, 2017 ISSN: 2187-0594 https://doi.org/10.22492/ije.5.3 https://iafor.org/journal/iafor-journal-of-education/volume-5-issue-3/
... Analogously to drivers of coopetition, internal drivers of sustainability lie within the firm's boundaries, while external ones reflect environmental conditions at the industrial, national, and international levels. Ethical leadership, when senior managers initiate and support corporate changes towards sustainability (DeSimone & Popoff, 2000;Doppelt, 2003;Gill, 2002); economic perspectives, when sustainability is considered as an instrument to achieve better economic/financial performance (the instrumental view) (Carroll, 1999;Elkington, 1994;Lantos, 2001); and risk management, when via sustainability activities, firms strive to reach more stable relationships with stakeholders in the long run (Ditlev-Simonsen & Midttun, 2011;Laszlo, 2003;Vitols & Kluge, 2011), serve as examples of internal drivers of sustainability. External drivers of sustainability refer to aspects which are beyond the firm's boundaries (Baumgartner, 2009). ...
Thesis
*****Full version here: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-189472****** Scholars highlight the potential gains of collaboration between competitors for supporting sustainability but there is a lack of both theoretical and empirical studies. In this thesis I aim to enhance the understanding of 'coopetition for sustainability', which I define as 'an inter-firm phenomenon where actors from the same industry simultaneously cooperate and compete with the intent to achieve environmental, economic, and social benefits'. By investigating the process and outcomes of coopetition for sustainability I develop several analytical tools for the systematic exploration of the coopetitive interaction for reaching sustainability goals and show that coopetition for sustainability raises numerous knotted paradoxical tensions. I further reveal organizing and regulating mechanisms that actors use to address these tensions, and which can motivate greater extents of sustainability in terms of outcomes. This thesis consists of six appended papers (two conceptual, two qualitative, and two quantitative) that explore coopetition for sustainability in three contextual settings (Swedish, Polish, and Belarusian housing). Collectively, the papers span several theoretical frameworks (paradox theory, sustainable value, modern portfolio theory) and methodological approaches (system dynamics, in-depth case study, survey questionnaires). Overall, my explorations in this thesis show that whilst coopetition for sustainability is a complex, tension filled phenomenon, it has great potential to advance sustainability in both theory and practice. I contribute to theory by generating novel insights into: (i) The process of coopetition for sustainability showing how actors organize collaboration for sustainability and how they respond to paradoxical tensions they frequently experience; (ii) The outcomes of coopetition for sustainability, which I systematically conceptualize and model. I also offer several implications for practice that can help managers to navigate the process of coopetition for sustainability in order to enhance economic, social and environmental outcomes.
... Personal core values are often mentioned in relation to personal energy at work [103,113,[120][121][122] but have not (yet) been measured with regards to the spiritual dimension of personal energy. Moreover, core values are linked to the spiritual dimension of personal energy at work, however the items of vigor and thriving are not as well represented for the spiritual dimension as for the other dimensions. ...
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There has been a significant increase in studies on personal energy at work. Yet, research efforts are fragmented, given that scholars employ a diversity of related concepts. To bring clarity, we executed a two-fold systematic literature review. We crafted a definition of personal energy at work and a theoretical framework, outlining the dimensions, antecedents and boundary conditions. The theoretical implication of the framework is that it allows one to explain why—given similar work—some employees feel energized whereas others do not. The difference depends on the context that the employer offers, the personal characteristics of employees and the processes of strain and recovery. The paper concludes with a discussion of how future research can build on the proposed framework to advance the theoretical depth and empirical investigation of personal energy at work.
... The UK education sector wholesale shows tendencies towards "increasingly dominant discourses of audit, performativity and standards" (Courtney and Gunter, 2015), thus following a conservative approach to enacting cultural change through formal, top-down hierarchical methods and processes. Over the years, this approach to change management has been the brunt of much criticism in relation to its time-consuming, costly, inflexible and unimaginative nature (Gill, 2003). Solent, like others, has centralised much of its L&T support and academic development staff into a coherent service, populated by academics, learning technologists, academic developers and instructional designers. ...
Article
The change to online delivery in March 2020 provided an opportunity as well as a requirement to change the way we work in Higher Education (HE), from a traditional stance focussed on hierarchy and roles to one that embraced individual core skills and competencies. The Transformation Academy (TA), Solent University's response led by the Solent Learning and Teaching Institute (SLTI), had as its goal the preparation of 1100 modules for online delivery in September 2020, delivered via institutional cross-team collaboration to ensure success within a narrow timescale. Collaboration is by necessity situated and dialogic, and most effectively driven by an affective and trust-based connection between collaborative partners as well as to the project goal. In bringing together previously disparate and siloed teams, the TA project’s success relied upon new collaborative partners quickly forming those connections, despite the prevailing neoliberal emphasis in UK HE on performativity and pressure from senior management to complete the work within 12 weeks. Adopting a qualitative empirical research design and single, local, exploratory case study approach, data is derived from 11 semi-structured interviews with project members who collaborated with colleagues outside of their usual team structures, to explore the personal value they perceived obtaining from the TA project. Preliminary findings suggest that Learning and Teaching (L&T) collaborations in a pressured environment benefit from authenticity in emotion and interpersonal affective connections, which in turn are engendered by openness and clarity in communication, a flattened hierarchy, and a sense of ownership for all participants.
Article
Introduction The aim of this study was to explore managers’ experiences of participating in executive group coaching in a municipality in Sweden . Methods A qualitative methodology was used in the study. Managers that had participated in executive group coaching were invited to participate. Individual interviews were used to collect the data, and ten individuals took part in the study. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the interviews . Results Four main themes emerged from the analysis. The first theme ‘group engagement’ highlighted that the group format helped to create a high level of activity. The second theme ‘a space for reflection and creativity’ described how the coaching provided a space for thinking about strategic issues. The third theme ‘taking different perspectives’ showed, and ‘increased self-awareness and courage’ . Discussion The members of the executive group coaching were highly engaged in the process, it provided an opportunity for reflection and creativity, increased self-awareness, and the ability to think in new and different ways . Conclusion The findings highlight that executive group coaching can be useful in helping managers to develop skills that are useful in leadership practice, and can also provide an opportunity for managers to give and receive well needed peer support . Objectives To explore managers’ experiences of participating in executive group coaching .
Chapter
In order to investigate what blocks effective team ideation, brilliant researchers have offered a wealth of theories on what team attributes might block or promote ideation, as was attempted to summarise in the last chapter. So far, this text has filtered team-level ideation research through a practitioner’s lens. When applying these theories to the creative industries, there can be an automatic assumption that the goal of a creative organisation is to maximise and sustain employees’ creativity, especially if collaborative ideation offers the potential of ‘extra’ creativity that only occurs when multiple people collaborate. However, according to many people interviewed for this text and statistics about the creative industry, this is not the case.
Article
Following lockdowns in 2020 owing to Covid‐19, schools needed to find a way to ensure the education of their pupils. In order to do this, they engaged in digital learning, to varying extents. Innovations emanated from all school staff including, for example, teachers, leaders and teaching assistants. Some were already innovating in this area and brought forward and implemented digital strategies, while others engaged with digital learning for the first time. While research is emerging about the effects of the pandemic restrictions on pupils and staff in relation to key issues such as mental health and educational attainment, very little is known about the impact on school leaders' strategic planning processes. To address this gap, this paper draws on a UK Research and Innovation funded study adopting a strategy as learning approach to report on 50 qualitative interviews with school leaders to examine digital strategy in English secondary schools, before, during and after July 2021, when restrictions were lifted in England. It draws on strategy as learning literature to evaluate if schools have changed their strategic planning for digital learning, as a direct response to having learned and innovated during the pandemic. The paper concludes that there is evidence that digital innovations during the pandemic have changed the ways in which leaders think about their digital strategy, thus supporting a strategy as learning approach. However it also concludes that although there is ample evidence that the pandemic has changed the way many schools view digital learning, for some schools, there remain persistent barriers to digital integration and planning. These emanate both from material and cultural considerations, as well as leader vision and belief in digital learning.
Chapter
Change management theory arises from various scientific fields of socioeconomic sciences, expressed either implicitly or explicitly as an interdisciplinary subject. This theory-building contribution aims to critically examine fundamental theoretical dimensions of management by elliptically investigating different managing change theories and suggesting a refocused conceptual framework. Specifically, some notable managing change perspectives are presented, such as the learning organisation, the leading change context, and doing business in the age of chaos. We contend that the most profound problems for managing change originate from the organisation’s “Stra.Tech.Man” physiological core of innovation, which refers to the effective strategy–technology–management synthesis. Against this theoretical backdrop, a repositioned five-step Stra.Tech.Man change management process is proposed, which is structurally extended to all socioeconomic organisations.
Chapter
Strategic changes in organisations are difficult to achieve without effective leadership and communication. Strategic change also typically affects many different people with differing and often conflicting priorities. The success of a large-scale organisational change will thus depend on (1) how well the strategy of the organisation is described and explained to all these different people, (2) what the implementation of the strategy involves and (3) how different people are likely to be impacted. This chapter introduces, describes and explains a framework that aims to increase the probability of completing a large-scale organisational change successfully. The framework addresses 5 key elements of strategic organisational change: the Change itself, the Leaders of the change, Articulation of the change, the Symbolism of the change and the response of Stakeholders to the change (CLASS). The CLASS framework can be used to first communicate a strategic change and then shape or guide its implementation. The application of this framework will enable organisational leaders to clearly classify, communicate and subsequently shape the type of strategic change that they aim to implement. As a result, the CLASS framework will ultimately lead to many more large-scale organisational changes being completed successfully.
Article
Empirical evidence increasingly suggests that supervisors’ support significantly impacts employees’ commitment to change and possibly diminishes their turnover intention. This study, conducted at a government university in Oman, investigated a mediated-effects model of leadership support and faculty turnover intention. The model proposes leadership support (supervisor support) as an antecedent of faculty turnover intention and commitment to accreditation-related change as a mediator in the leadership support–faculty turnover intention relationship. Survey data were collected from faculty members (n = 221) and analysed using structural equation modelling. Findings showed that leadership support greatly contributes to low faculty turnover intention and improves faculty’s commitment to accreditation, which has a significant and direct impact on their turnover intention. Therefore, university-level leadership support, both directly and indirectly, shapes faculty’s commitment to change. These results have significant implications for practice as well as for future research related to leadership support for academic accreditation in higher education institutions.
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Applying strategic management in the Java Island polytechnic environment is expected to bring changes in the management sector, especially human resource management. Research related to determinants of change management at State Polytechnic in Java Island. The research variables were conducted by strategic leadership and organizational commitment to change management through a quantitative approach, namely, explanatory research. Only 121 state polytechnic environmental officials carried out the sampling technique in Java. Data analysis using descriptive statistical tests and partial least squares. The study results concluded that strategic leadership has a significant relationship with change management, while organizational commitment has a significant relationship. This commitment states that leaders must make changes in facing challenges globally, accompanied by organizational commitment. It added substantial evidence and framework for a great group view of strategic leadership.
Article
For organizational leaders, implementing change in a workplace means influencing employees to do something new or behave differently. For employees, implementing a change at work requires detaching from familiar routines and social systems, learning and practicing the change, and imagining a future in which the change is valued by the organization. As they apply their agency to implement change, employees may experience loss, uncertainty, and frustration that manifests as despair, which can jeopardize the change process and its outcomes. We assemble a meta-theoretical framework using human agency theory, the Valley of Despair model of organizational change, and Full-Range Leadership Theory to explore ways that leaders' behaviors relate to employees' agentic orientations and behaviors during the implementation phase of the organizational change process. Taking both organizational change leaders' and employees' perspectives into account, the theory derived from our meta-framework argues that leaders' behaviors can shape employees' agency and their behaviors during the implementation stage of change in two important ways: 1) certain leader behaviors are likely to prime agentic orientations that facilitate changing, and 2) certain leader behaviors may help to mitigate employees' despair, enabling the firm to derive value from employees' change implementation behaviors.
Chapter
Usability and user acceptance play an important role in the development of new systems. In the present study, a new generation of laser control software from TRUMPF Laser GmbH was evaluated regarding its usability and acceptance in a formative remote usability test. Because change processes, such as software relaunches, can lead to a change in the subjectively perceived competence of users, the study focusses on evaluating differences between two competence groups (“low competence” and “high competence” in operating the current laser control software; N = 35). Basic interactions on the prototype of the new generation of laser control software were tested in seven tasks. The results of the study show that the two competence groups do not differ significantly in their performance or acceptance. However, it could also be shown that users with different prior knowledge should be supported differently when transitioning to the new software.
Article
Purpose – This article aims to study the employees’ behavior during organizational change and the effects of business theatre on the Kübler-Ross Model to boost the employees’ spirit so that the efficiency of an organization would increase. Design/methodology/approach – The authors revisit the insights from previous work on the role of organizational change and its effects on employees’ behavior. Classic KüblerRoss Model has been used in this study to analyze employees’ behavior during the change process. Findings – This article shows how business theatre can act as a healer and help employees overcome emotional turmoil. Eventually, the implementation of business theatre may shorten the time taken by the employees when they go through shock-denial-anger-bargaining-depression-acceptance-commitment phases of grief. Originality/value – The paper provides new insights into the role of business theatre in organizational change management. It focuses on the interrelationship between both, with the help of the conceptual framework of the Kübler-Ross Model, which explains employees’ behavior during the organizational change.
Chapter
Organisations are an integral part of modern societies. They are subsystems of a larger system. Organisations are, usually, divided into civil society, corporations, and public sector ones. Organisations are complex, semi-open, social systems with sets of interrelated units engaged in joint problem-solving to accomplish a goal or objective and to create value and acceptable outcomes for stakeholders. An organisation is composed of system elements (differentiated functions or groups), that are, in turn, composed of individuals. These system elements may be divided into operations and production, strategy and management, governance, organisational systems, service provision, and assessment and reporting. An organisation must balance the needs and interactions of multiple stakeholders, including social and environmental, primary and secondary concerns, and internal and external needs. Stakeholder interactions can be interpersonal, intergroup, or inter-organisational and range from the competitive, to the cooperative, to collaborative. Organisations have been instrumental in driving sustainability. In the last decade, there has been an increasing interest in organisational sustainability, where several “organisational sustainability” definitions have been proposed. The most complete one encompasses the four dimensions of sustainability, the organisation system elements, its stakeholders, change processes and their rate of change, and how inputs are transformed into outputs throughout the supply chain.
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Change is so fundamental to all things in the world that it is the most important obstacle to overcome in a game of survival of the fittest. Change management in the world entails most importantly both humans and equipment. Change Management is vital for the survival and development of any organization. Libraries and information services face many challenges from rapid changes in the information environment. This paper explains the model of change levers in library management. Academic libraries are facing various aspects of challenges both externally and internally. Observes that change in quality, marketing, technology, and costs are much visible and change in strategy, structure, human resource management and leadership are less visible. Conclude that change in management of libraries is inevitable.
Article
Purpose Given the important role of change capability for organizational development and competitive advantage, the purpose of this study is to clarify the influences of transformational leadership (TL) on organizational change capability (OCC) via mediating roles of two specific aspects of trust in leadership namely disclosure-based trust and reliance-based trust. Design/methodology/approach Structural equation modeling is applied to test the degree of influences of TL and employee trust on OCC via empirical data collected from 376 participants in 115 small and medium firms in China. Findings The results show the positive and significant impacts of TL and aspects of employee trust in leadership on OCC. It indicated that disclosure-based trust in leadership has a greater influence on change capability in comparison with the effect of reliance-based trust in leadership. Especially, the findings have shown the evidence supporting the mediating mechanism of aspects of employee trust in leadership between TL and OCC. Research limitations/implications This study provides the practical initiatives that highlight the importance of applying TL style to build and improve the trust of employees in their leadership for fostering OCC. Originality/value The paper has significantly advanced and deepened insight of how transformational leaders nurture employee’s specific shades of trust in leadership for fostering OCC. The valuable findings of this study contribute to enriching the theoretical basis of organizational behavior and change management, and can be used to analyze and explain the relationships between TL, employee’s trust in leadership and organizational capability for change.
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Change is so fundamental to all things in the world that it is the most important obstacle to overcome in a game of survival of the fittest. Change management in the world entails most importantly both humans and equipment. Change Management is vital for the survival and development of any organization. Libraries and information services face many challenges from rapid changes in the information environment. This paper explains the model of change levers in library management. Academic libraries are facing various aspects of challenges both externally and internally. Observe that changes in quality, marketing, technology and costs are much visible and changes in strategy, structure, human resource management and leadership are less visible. Conclude that change in management of libraries is inevitable.
Article
Full-text available
Change is so fundamental to all things in the world that it is the most important obstacle to overcome in a game of survival of the fittest. Change management in the world entails most importantly both humans and equipment. Change Management is vital for the survival and development of any organization. Libraries and information services face many challenges from rapid changes in the information environment. This paper explains the model of change levers in library management. Academic libraries are facing various aspects of challenges both externally and internally. Observe that changes in quality, marketing, technology, and costs are much visible and changes in strategy, structure, human resource management, and leadership are less visible. Conclude that change in management of libraries is inevitable.
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Misyon bir işletmenin var oluş nedeni olarak tanımlanırken, vizyon; bir işletmenin gelecekte ulaşmak istediği yerin bir görüntüsü olarak tanımlanmaktadır. İşletmeler misyon ve vizyon ifadelerini oluştururken amaç ve hedeflerini, stratejilerini, değerlerini, ağırlıklı olarak önem verdikleri konuları ve yanı sıra girişimcilik özelliklerini de yansıtmaktadır. Girişimcilik özellikleri, girişimcinin davranışsal özelliklerinden etkilenmekle beraber, literatürde dokuz boyuttan oluştuğu bilinmektedir. Bunlar; risk alma, liderlik, yenilikçilik, yaratıcılık, güçlülük, proaktiflik, araştırma ve geliştirme, başarı ve rekabetçilik gibi kavramlardır. İşletmeler misyon ve vizyon ifadelerinde bu kavramları kullanarak işletmenin yönü, işletmenin değerleri, girişimcilik özellikleri hakkında bilgi vermektedirler. İşletmelerin, stratejik yönetim ifadelerinde gerçekçi davranmaması, bu ifadelerin girişimcilik özelliklerini yansıtacak biçimde oluşturmamaları, ayrıca işletme gerçeklerinden uzak, taklit ifadeler kullanmaları problem olarak görülmektedir. Bu çalışmada işletmelerin misyon ve vizyon ifadelerini gerçekçi, işletme gerçekleriyle örtüşecek biçimde ve ciddi olarak oluşturdukları varsayılmıştır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, ağustos-2020 misyon ve vizyon ifadeleri baz alınarak, Türkiye Bankalar Birliği (TBB)’nde paylaşılmış olan (kalkınma ve sınai bankaları hariç) banka ve finans işletmelerinin web sitelerinde paylaşılmış olan misyon ve vizyon ifadelerinden yola çıkarak finans işletmelerinin girişimcilik özelliklerini tespit ederek yorumlamaya çalışmaktır. Bu amaçla, ifadeler girişimcilik özellikleri bakımından nitel olarak değerlendirilmiştir, bu doğrultuda TBB’nin web sitesinde paylaşımda bulunan banka ve finans işletmelerinin girişimcilik özellikleri, stratejik yönetim ifadelerinde yer alan anlamlı faktörler olarak gözlemlenmiştir. Bu çalışmanın, stratejik yönetim ve girişimcilik özelliklerinin ayrılamaz bileşenler olduğunun belirginleşmesi bakımından önemli olduğu düşünülmektedir. Ayrıca çalışmanın ilgili sektör yöneticilerine, girişimcilik ve stratejik yönetim alanında çalışan akademisyenlere yararlı olması beklenmektedir. İşletmelerin, stratejik yönetim ifadelerinde gerçekçi davranmaması, bu ifadelerin girişimcilik özelliklerini yansıtacak biçimde oluşturmamaları, ayrıca işletme gerçeklerinden uzak, taklit ifadeler kullanmaları problem olarak görünmektedir. Bu çalışmada işletmelerin misyon ve vizyon ifadelerini gerçekçi, işletme gerçekleriyle örtüşecek biçimde ve ciddi olarak oluşturdukları varsayılmıştır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, ağustos-2020 misyon ve vizyon ifadeleri baz alınarak, Türkiye Bankalar Birliği (TBB)’nde paylaşılmış olan (kalkınma ve sınai bankaları hariç) banka ve finans işletmelerinin web sitelerinde paylaşılmış olan misyon ve vizyon ifadelerinden yola çıkarak finans işletmelerinin girişimcilik özelliklerini tespit ederek yorumlamaya çalışmaktır. Bu amaçla, ifadeler girişimcilik özellikleri bakımından nitel olarak değerlendirilmiştir, Bu doğrultuda TBB’nin web sitesinde paylaşan banka ve finans işletmelerinin girişimcilik özellikleri, stratejik yönetim ifadelerinde yer alan anlamlı faktörler olarak gözlemlenmiştir. Bu çalışmanın, stratejik yönetim ve girişimcilik özelliklerinin ayrılamaz bileşenler olduğunun belirginleşmesi bakımından önemli olduğu düşünülmektedir. Ayrıca çalışmanın ilgili sektör yöneticilerine, girişimcilik ve stratejik yönetim alanında çalışan akademisyenlere yararlı olması beklenmektedir.
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Key performance indicators (KPIs/KPRs) made in a company with a field of activity in automotive allow for the gathering of knowledge and explore the best way to achieve the organisation’s objectives. Many researchers have offered different ideas for determining KPIs either manually, semiautomatically or automatically applied on different fields. This paper focuses on providing a study of an approach to explore key performance indicators (KPI/KPR). This work presents explanations about the process organization, the selection path of KPI/KPR and a practical example of measuring KPI/KPR in production department with the meaning of providing an interesting image of how people work and analyze complex situations and design or react to their strategies.
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Öz Eşi görülmemiş dinamik bir dünyada yaşamaktayız. Teknoloji, iletişim kurma, seyahat etme, çalışma ve yaşama şeklimizi sürekli değişmeye devam etmektedir. Değişim tespiti, çevremizdeki dünyadaki değişim anlayışımızdır. Değişikliği algılama yeteneği, günlük ve çalışma hayatımızın çoğunda çok önemlidir. Bu bağlamda makale, endüstriyel girişimcilerin değişim algılarını, değişim stratejilerini ve değişim yönetim tarzlarını belirlemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Veriler yarı yapılandırılmış ve derinlemesine yönelik mülakat yöntemi kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizi için MAXQDA 2020 nitel veri analizi programı kullanılmıştır. Analiz çıktılarına göre endüstriyel girişimciler, değişimi sürekli gelişim ve değişimi ekip işi şeklinde algıladıklarını ifade etmişlerdir. Endüstriyel girişimcilerin değişimi gerçekleştirirken talebi ve teknolojisini dikkate alarak stratejilerini belirledikleri tespit edilmiştir. Katılımcılar, değişimin başarı, kar ve verimlilik getirdiğini ayrıca çalışanların değişim sırasında korku ve adaptasyon sorunu yaşadıklarını belirtmişlerdir. Son olarak girişimcilerin değişim yapılırken dengeli, kontrollü olunması konusunda öneri de bulundukları görülmüştür.
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Governments initiate major public sector reforms for various reasons. Although change leadership appears crucial, its role in implementing reforms in public organizations receives scant attention. Insights from public administration and change management literature help to bridge the gap between these macrolevel and microlevel perspectives. Our multilevel study of two youth care organizations addressing public sector reform explores how leadership behavior—and in interaction between top and middle managers—contributes to the concept of what we call change embeddedness among front‐line employees. The use of leadership behaviors during the reform that are leader centric (shaping) appear to be associated with greater ambiguity and worse change embeddedness. However, leadership focused on engaging employees and boundary spanning with external organizations seems to support the embeddedness of the reform, especially when these behaviors are connected to a clear sense of purpose around the change.
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