Estimated sodium intake by the Brazilian population, 2002-2003

Programa de Pós-Graduação de Nutrição em Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Revista de saude publica (Impact Factor: 0.73). 03/2009; 43(2):219-25. DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102009005000002
Source: PubMed


To estimate the magnitude and distribution of sodium intake in Brazil and to identify major dietary sources contributing to this intake.
Estimates were based on data from a Brazilian household budget survey carried between July 2002 and June 2003. A total of 969,989 food purchase records from a probabilistic sample of 48,470 households located in 3,984 census tracts across the country were analyzed. Purchase records were converted into nutrients using food composition charts. Mean sodium availability per person per day and mean adjusted availability considering a 2,000 kcal daily energy intake were calculated, as well as the contribution of selected food groups to total household sodium availability. Estimates are presented according to geographical region, urban or rural status of the household, and income stratum.
Mean daily sodium availability in Brazilian households was 4.5 g per person (or 4.7 g considering a daily calorie intake of 2,000 kcal), thus exceeding by more than two times the recommended levels of intake for this nutrient. Although most of the sodium available for intake across all income strata was derived from kitchen salt or salt-based condiments (76.2%), the fraction derived from processed foods with added salt showed a strong linear increase as household purchasing power increased, representing 9.7% of total sodium intake in the lower quintile of the per capita income distribution and 25.0% in the upper quintile.
Results indicate that sodium intake in Brazil widely exceeds the maximum recommended intake level for this nutrient in all of the country's macro regions and across all income strata.

Download full-text


Available from: Renata Bertazzi Levy, May 27, 2014
  • Source
    • "Sodium intake was assessed with respect to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), which estimates the percentage of a population potentially at risk for adverse effects [23]. This measurement accounts for both the intrinsic sodium content in food and the sodium added to it. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Methods Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method, and compared to nutritional goals to estimate prevalence of inadequate intake. Results Pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women did not differ in their average consumption of 18 food groups, except for rice, with greatest intake among lactating women. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in pregnant women was higher than in reproductive-age women for folate (78% versus 40%) and vitamin B6 (59% versus 33%). In lactating women, prevalence was higher than in reproductive-age women for vitamin A (95% versus 72%), vitamin C (56% versus 37%), vitamin B6 (75% vs. 33%), folate (72% versus 40%) and zinc (64% versus 20%). The percentage of sodium intake above the upper limit was greater than 70% in the three groups. Conclusions Inadequate intake is frequent in women and increases during pregnancy and lactation, because women do not change their food intake. Guidelines should stimulate healthy food intake for women across the lifespan.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: First Page of the Article
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jan 1992
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The workplace is a manageable community-based setting for ensuring proper nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate dietary quality and associated factors among adult workers at a cosmetics factory in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil. This factory was actively participating in the Brazilian Workers' Meal Program, which was created to ensure workers' nutritional health. In this cross-sectional study, data on 202 adult workers were assessed using questionnaires (sociodemographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle characteristics) administered during August and September 2006. Dietary intake, measured by 24-hour dietary recall, was used to calculate the modified Healthy Eating Index (HEI). A repeated administration of the 24-hour dietary recall was applied in a random subsample to calculate the modified HEI adjusted for the within-person variation in intake. Mean adjusted modified HEI scores were analyzed using multiple linear regression adjusted for energy. The mean adjusted modified HEI score was 72.3+/-8.0. The lowest adjusted modified HEI components scores were "milk and dairy products" (4.4+/-3.2) and "sodium" (3.7+/-3.1). Two percent of workers had "poor diet" (adjusted modified HEI score <51 points) and the majority (87%) had "diet that needs modification" (adjusted modified HEI score between 51 and 80), despite their participation in the meal program. Adjusted modified HEI scores were considerably higher for men (74.7+/-7.0) than for women (66.9+/-8.2) and for normal body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) (73.3+/-7.8) than for overweight/obese (70.9+/-8.1). Based on these results, the vast majority of workers were found to have diets that needed improvement. Individuals with higher-quality diets were more likely to have lower body mass index and to be male.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Journal of the American Dietetic Association
Show more