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Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor and physiological studies on Levisticum officinale-Koch plant

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... To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the antioxidant activity of L. officinale roots, as previous studies focused only in lovage aerial parts [38]. ...
... As mentioned before, there are studies suggesting that ligustilides have cytotoxic effects [39,40] which may explain the activity verified for n-hexane extracts, since the analyses by GC-MS confirmed the presence of these compounds (mainly (Z)-and (E)-ligustilide isomers) in this extract. The essential oil from Levisticum officinale plants demonstrated antitumor activity against HepG2 and MCF7 cells (at 98% and 95%) at a concentration of 100 μg/mL, showing poor activity at 50 μg/mL, and showing no activity at lower concentrations [38]. In the present study, it was not possible to evaluate the bioactive properties of the essential oil from the roots of lovage due to the very low yields obtained. ...
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Lovage (Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch) is an aromatic plant from the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family used as a condiment in several regions of Europe and also described to have medicinal properties. While the aerial parts are used as foods, the roots are generally discarded. In the past, lovage roots were used in folk medicine for their diuretic, carminative, and spasmolytic properties. Therefore, the exploitation of this undervalued part of the plant can be a source of valuable bioactive compounds for food and/or pharmaceutical industries. Thus, in this study, extracts of different polarity were prepared and studied regarding their chemical composition and bioactive properties. To the best of our knowledge, the composition in phenolic compounds and the volatile profile of the n-hexane extract are reported for the first time. A total of 24 compounds were identified by GC-MS in the n-hexane extract, evidencing a high relative abundance of phthalides. A total of eight phenolic compounds were identified in lovage root extracts (decoction and hydroethanolic extract), with vanillic acid being the major compound. Regarding antioxidant activity, also reported for the first time, decoction and hydroethanolic extract exhibited a high antioxidant capacity in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (179 ± 11 μg/mL) and in oxidative hemolysis (OxHLIA) assays (510 ± 6 μg/mL), respectively. n-Hexane extract showed relevant anti-proliferative activity against all tumor cell lines tested (GI50, 48–69 μg/mL), despite inhibiting also the growth of a non-tumoral hepatocyte cell line, however, presenting a significantly higher GI50 value (147 μg/mL). This study revealed that lovage root, an agri-food residue, can be a source of valuable bioactive compounds also presenting biological properties that deserve being explored, which could lead to a circular economy for food and/or the pharmaceutical industry.
... Investigations show that lovage is an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances for use in pathogenic systems to prevent the growth of bacteria and extend the shelf life of processed foods [276]. Apart from this, lovage possesses anticancer activity, i.e. inhibits human head and neck squamous carcinoma cells growth [277] as well as human liver cancer cell and breast cancer cell lines [278]. Lovage also shows neuroprotective activities, i.e. alcoholic extract has both repair and restoration effects on peripheral nerves [270], as well as antiinflamatory activity [278]. ...
... Apart from this, lovage possesses anticancer activity, i.e. inhibits human head and neck squamous carcinoma cells growth [277] as well as human liver cancer cell and breast cancer cell lines [278]. Lovage also shows neuroprotective activities, i.e. alcoholic extract has both repair and restoration effects on peripheral nerves [270], as well as antiinflamatory activity [278]. ...
... It is cultivated for its seeds, leaves, roots, and their EOs, which are used in the perfumery and food industries (Santos et al. 2005). As a medicinal plant, L. officinale has been used as anticancerous, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective agents (Abd El-Hamid et al. 2009). However, as far as we are concerned, none of the studies in the literature reports the preservative efficacy of L. officinale essential oil (L off EO) to protect the stored chia seeds from fungal and aflatoxin contamination. ...
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The present study was undertaken to explore the inhibitory effect of Levisticum officinale Koch. essential oil (LoffEO) on the growth and aflatoxin B1 secretion by Aspergillus flavus (AF-LHP-SH1, aflatoxigenic strain) causing deterioration of stored chia seeds (Salvia hispanica). The chemical profile analysis of LoffEO by GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of α-terpinyl acetate (26.03 %) as a major component followed by terpineol <1- > (24.03 %) and citronellal (24.03 %). Results on antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity indicated that LoffEO at 2.0 and 1.75 μL/mL caused complete inhibition of growth and aflatoxin B1 production, respectively. Antifungal toxicity of LoffEO was strongly correlated with the inhibition of ergosterol content, leakage of cellular ions, and disintegration of membrane permeability. Reduction in cellular methylglyoxal by LoffEO indicated a novel antiaflatoxigenic mechanism of action. The LoffEO showed moderate free radical quenching activity in DPPH assay (IC50 = 26.10 μL/mL) and exhibited remarkable inhibitory efficacy against lipid peroxidation of chia seeds. In addition, LoffEO presented strong in situ antiaflatoxigenic efficacy, and exhibited non-phytotoxic nature, acceptable sensory characteristics, and favorable safety profile (LD50 = 19786.59 μL/kg), which recommends its practical utilization as a novel and safe preservative to improve the shelf life of stored chia seeds from fungal infestation and aflatoxin B1 contamination.
... The lovage flavor, like the celery one, originates from essential oil where the dominant compound is -phellandrene, while phthalides are present in small amounts and give the characteristic fragrance [105]. Although lovage is used in traditional medicine as an emmenagogue, carminative, diuretic and remedy for various skin ailments, it possesses proven anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties [116]. ...
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The liver has the crucial role in the regulation of various physiological processes and in the excretion of endogenous waste metabolites and xenobiotics. Liver structure impairment can be caused by various factors including microorganisms, autoimmune diseases, chemicals, alcohol and drugs. The plant kingdom is full of liver protective chemicals such as phenols, coumarins, lignans, essential oils, monoterpenes, carotenoids, glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, lipids, alkaloids and xanthenes. Apiaceae plants are usually used as a vegetable or as a spice, but their other functional properties are also very important. This review highlights the significance of caraway, dill, cumin, aniseed, fennel, coriander, celery, lovage, angelica, parsley and carrot, which are popular vegetables and spices, but possess hepatoprotective potential. These plants can be used for medicinal applications to patients who suffer from liver damage.
... According to Amri(2014), this species has been attributed with anticancer activity [4] . It is used to treat migraine headache and acts as antiseptic and antibacterial agent [5] . The essential oil composition of the plant has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity678 . ...
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Levisticum officinale Koch is an important medicinal plant distributed in mountainous areas of South East of Iran, Hezar Mountains, wildly. For optimizing callus induction, root, leaf or petiole explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media were supplemented with different concentrations of auxins including; 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), Picloram, α-napthalene acetic acid (NAA) and indole-butyric acid (IBA) separately. The rate of callus induction varied with regard to explant type and plant growth regulator. For root and petiole explants, the best response was observed on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D. In addition, protocorm like bodies (PLBs) were observed on upper parts of leaf-derived callus. The maximum PLBs induction response was obtained on leaf-derived callus cultured on MS medium enriched with 1.0 mg/l NAA. Morphological observations showed that root-derived calli were friable and had whitish appearance but leaf-derived calli showed globular morphology and had initially yellowish appearance which turned to whitish. The callus induction protocol developed in this study provides a fundamental investigation of regeneration and bioactive constituents from the L. officinale.
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