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Research Methods for Business Students

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... Each research seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge within its field through study, survey, observation, experimentation, analysis, and evaluation (Saunders et al., 2009). Research, as defined by Saunders et al. (2009), is an organised and systematic way of finding out things, thereby increasing one's knowledge. ...
... Each research seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge within its field through study, survey, observation, experimentation, analysis, and evaluation (Saunders et al., 2009). Research, as defined by Saunders et al. (2009), is an organised and systematic way of finding out things, thereby increasing one's knowledge. The term "systematic" suggests that research is based on logical relationships, not just beliefs, and will involve an explanation of the methods used to gather the data, justify the results obtained, and clarify the limitations. ...
... The term "systematic" suggests that research is based on logical relationships, not just beliefs, and will involve an explanation of the methods used to gather the data, justify the results obtained, and clarify the limitations. The term ''finding out things'' suggests that a researcher will have a clear purpose or set of things to find out, such as an answer to a question or a solution to a particular problem (Saunders et al., 2009). ...
Article
Saudi Arabia, like many developing countries, is experiencing rapid urbanisation and infrastructure expansion, especially in the area of residential buildings. As an oil-producing nation with an extremely hot climate, the country is also renowned for high rates of energy consumption and carbon emissions. The construction sector is no exception, accounting for approximately 80% of total national electricity consumption, with residential cooling demand consuming almost 66% of domestic energy use. Although sustainability has now become a major focus for the Saudi government, with sustainable development being a key goal of the country’s economic and social development plan, the Saudi Vision 2030, the lack of energy efficiency in Saudi buildings has yet to be given serious consideration. However, with current demand threatening long-term energy security and forecasts indicating that domestic energy consumption will rise at a rate of 5% to 7% annually, it is crucial to improve the energy and environmental performance of the building stock. In order to support sustainable development within the Saudi residential sector, this study identifies the main causes of high energy consumption in the sector and the key barriers to enhancing building energy performance from a design and operational perspective, including environmental, economic and socio-cultural factors. It goes on to explore a number of possible solutions, assessing their effectiveness via simulation and calculating cost benefits in order to identify the optimal energy efficiency measures. These are then tested against local building regulations and benchmarked against international low-energy standards. The most effective measures are incorporated into a proposed framework for energy-efficient building design in the Saudi context, which takes local environmental, economic and socio-cultural factors into account. The framework covers both new builds and retro-fitting and constitutes one of the main contributions of this research. The study was performed in four stages, each utilising a specific methodology. Stage one involved an exploratory public survey, distributed electronically, designed to gauge public awareness of the benefits of sustainable building design and to identify design and operation factors causing energy consumption in residential buildings. Next, an existing family villa, representing a typical dwelling type in Saudi Arabia, was selected for modelling purposes and examined to identify design weaknesses. The third stage involved a consultation with experts in the field to assess current building issues and identify viable solutions in the local context. A model was then created using DesignBuilder simulation software, and its energy performance validated using data collected from the case study villa. Additional simulations targeting building design and operating parameters to enhance energy efficiency were also analysed to establish the optimal solutions within the local context. The use of surveys, a case study, and computer simulations to collect and validate the results is considered appropriate for the purposes of proposing energy strategies for residential buildings in hot climates. The findings indicate that much of the high energy consumption in the residential sector results from poor building design and construction techniques, inefficient operating practices, a lack of stakeholder engagement, and an absence of coordinated enforcement. However, the results of the simulations show that energy consumption and peak electricity demand could be reduced significantly by implementing the optimal strategies proposed in the framework. A potential reduction of 68% in total electricity consumption and 74% in peak electricity demand was shown to be possible, with an 81% reduction in cooling energy use intensity (EUI) bringing Saudi Arabia within the range of recommended European standards. Analysis of the improvement simulations also indicated that a reduction of 80% in carbon emissions was achieved in comparison with the base case study building. This amounted to almost 23 tonnes of CO₂ avoided annually and was equivalent to nearly five cars not being used per year. The cost-saving analysis employed to determine the economic viability of incorporating the proposed techniques indicated a typical payback period of 7 years, average annual savings of 1,603 USD, and total operational cost savings of up to 51% over a 30-year period. By incorporating the optimal sustainable design features, energy-efficiency measures, and renewable solar energy technologies proposed in the framework, the representative home was transformed into an energy-efficient structure. This study demonstrates that relatively simple strategies can significantly reduce residential energy demand in hot climate conditions and that the strategies in the proposed framework are effective. These findings have significant implications for building sector professionals, policy-makers and building occupants. A dramatic reduction in energy consumption would save costs, reduce CO₂ emissions, alleviate the need to increase power generation capacity, and enhance the country's profile internationally, resulting in significant environmental, economic, and social benefits. However, this cannot be achieved without support from the government, the housing industry; and the general public, so the study concludes by recommending further measures to support the development of a sustainable building sector in Saudi Arabia in line with the aims expressed in Vision 2030.
... The study population were Gen Y employees engaged in the public sector in Kazakhstan. In this study, the time horizon of this research is deemed as cross-sectional due to the budget and time limitations (Saunders et al., 2012). A survey strategy was used as this strategy is a commonly used strategy in business research and usually associated with the deductive approach (Saunders et al., 2012). ...
... In this study, the time horizon of this research is deemed as cross-sectional due to the budget and time limitations (Saunders et al., 2012). A survey strategy was used as this strategy is a commonly used strategy in business research and usually associated with the deductive approach (Saunders et al., 2012). This is a study which examined the relationships between variables (Basar, & Sigri, 2015). ...
... Quantitative studies consist mainly of data analysis through various sources: data driven observation, scientific research, and close-ended questions (Carroll and Rothe, 2010). The self-administered questionnaires were administered through internet and directly by hand and collected later (Saunders et al., 2012). The questions used in this questionnaire were adopted from past research. ...
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Kazakhstan's public sector has changed rapidly since the country gained independence and in 2016 there were 90,730 employees in this sector. The present study examined the influence of growth opportunity, supportive management and meaningful work towards turnover intention among Generation Y Employees in the Public Sector in Astana, Kazakhstan. This was a quantitative research that used a survey method. Data was collected from a sample of 211 Gen Y employees in the public sector in Astana, Kazakhstan. The findings revealed that meaningful work and supportive management had a significant impact on turnover intention. However, the results revealed that growth opportunity had an insignificant relationship towards the turnover intention. The findings supported the results from some earlier studies and bring out several new ideas such as the importance of supportive management. The findings have significantly contributed to the advancement of knowledge in the turnover intention of public sector employees. As for practical implication, the significant and positive impact of supportive management and meaningful work suggests the importance of these factors in retention of Gen Y employees. It is recommended that organizations implement policies to support meaningful work and supportive management policies and practices. The results of this study will add to the current body of knowledge. The paper's primary contribution is that it provides an understanding that supportive management and meaningful work have an impact on reducing the turnover intention of Gen Y employees in Astana, Kazakhstan.
... The structure of a questionnaire differs based on how it is directed and, specifically, the number of contacts with the respondents. A questionnaire has two types: self-administered and interviewer-administered, as shown in Figure 11 [54]. The self-administered questionnaire is a quantitative research approach. ...
... Figure 11. Types of questionnaires [54]. ...
... Questionnaire variables are the main part of the ques- Figure 11. Types of questionnaires [54]. In this research, a self-administered questionnaire was adopted due to the quantitative research approach. ...
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Bus rapid transit (BRT) system is a sustainable mode choice alternative and traffic management method for traffic congestion problems in urban areas. As an extent of total demand management, BRT has broadly been implemented in many countries. BRT has proven to be progressive in alleviating traffic congestion and the difficulty of finding parking spaces in city centers. Currently, people driving their automobiles to work cause traffic congestion along Karachi’s main corridors. People cannot be persuaded to use public transit until their travel patterns are understood. Therefore, the disparity between public and private transportation must be addressed. This research aimed to develop a model to shift car travelers toward Karachi’s Green Line BRT and investigate the factors that influence car travelers’ decisions. A questionnaire-based survey was carried out on single-occupant vehicle (SOV) users in the Green Line corridor of Karachi. This study investigated the elements that influence SOV users’ willingness to adopt the BRT system and studied the possible ways of attracting car drivers to BRT. Data were examined using descriptive-analytic techniques such as the contingency table approach in conjunction with a Chi-square test of the independence/association model in SPSS. Furthermore, binary logistic regression was applied to the highly mediated associated variables. The research’s outcomes were geared at the imposition of parking fees at workplaces to deter individuals from parking their automobiles there. SOV travelers can be diverted to BRT services using this strategy. The research findings will assist policymakers and serve as a foundation for scientific investigations on the travel demand model for the BRT system.
... They demonstrate that this emphasises the difference between conducting research among people rather than objects such as trucks and computers. Saunders, et al. (2009) propose that crucial to the interpretivist philosophy is that the researcher has to adopt an empathetic stance and the challenge here is to enter the social world of our research subjects and understand their world from their point of view. ...
... The object of descriptive research is to portray an accurate profile of persons, events or situations. (Saunders, et al. 2009). ...
... Sampling techniques Purposive sampling Saunders, et al. (2009) clarify that research using an inductive approach is likely to be particularly concerned with the context in which such events were taking place. Therefore, the study of a small sample of subjects might be more appropriate than a large number as with the deductive approach. ...
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The title of this paper is challenges of corporate governance in Zimbabwe: What is the problem? A view from selected managers in Harare. The aim of the paper is to assess the extent of adoption of the Zimbabwe corporate governance frameworks. Corporate Governance in the business arena incorporates transparency, fairness, independence, accountability, among other things. Zimbabwe has witnessed collapse and closure of companies mainly due to Corporate Governance breaches. The study investigated the major corporate governance problems in Zimbabwe. The study was carried out in Harare where structured questionnaire and interviews were employed to gather data. The results do indicate that the major corporate governance problems are lack of transparency, lack of fairness, lack of integrity, lack of lack of trust and lack of honesty. From the interviews, which were conducted to seek further clarity on other issues, it was found out that the major problem was appointment of board members, characterised by nepotism, political connections and purging of those in authority who speak against incompetence, criminal abuse of office, misuse of stakeholders' funds and corruption, and lack of action by the responsible authorities. It was concluded that there is need for creation of awareness of the presence of the corporate governance code. The research paper recommends that there is need for the responsible authorities to take action against offenders and to protect those who speak against wrong doers.
... It can also be cnsidered as a tool that is used for research process. Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2009) claimed that all paradigm can be differentiated based on two fundamental philosophies i.e. ontology and epistemology. Ontology is nature of reality way of seeing reality and epistemology can be defined as nature of knowledge or view about knowledge acceptance. ...
... Ontologically, truth is socially constructed i.e. based on human's perceptions and beliefs. The perceptions and beliefs are subjective and may vary from individual to individual so cannot be generalized (Saunders et al., 2009;Hatch & Cunliffe, 2013;Ardalan, 2019), reproduced or replicate (Wahyuni, 2012). Similar arguments were developed by Ardalan (2005; saying that reality varies from individual to individual because it is subjective in nature. ...
... Researchers can add value to the research, so they take stance of emic or insider approach. Researcher's value matters a lot in data collection and interpretation process (Saunders et al., 2009;Wahyuni, 2012). As far as methodology is concerned this paradigm use qualitative approach. ...
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The basic purpose of the current paper is to provide an overview about the paradigms and to highlight the paradigm to which finance belongs. It discusses four paradigms i.e. functionalist or positivist, post-positivist, interpretive and pragmatic paradigm in detail and differences that exists between all paradigms on the basis of their ontology (nature of reality), epistemology (view about knowledge), axiology (researcher’s value addition) and research methodology (research methods). The purpose of this paper is not to create a new paradigm rather it explains the role of other paradigms along with the positivist paradigm in Finance. Furthermore, it discusses the merits and weaknesses of all paradigms. It concludes that positivist paradigm must adopt the tools of other paradigms to gain more and to enhance its ability to contribute more to the world knowledge. This study will be helpful contribution for the finance researcher to follow the other approaches of other paradigms as well along with positivism paradigm and to use multi method research designs.
... This crystallised my perception in acknowledging the importance of clearly stating my philosophical viewpoint in this study, which infers that understanding of my philosophical viewpoint (Guba and Lincoln 1994;Mason 2002). Saunders et al. (2007) describe philosophy as developing research supposition, its knowledge, understanding and nature. In the context of this study, philosophy implies the process by which knowledge is generated that shaped from personal assumptions through the process of conducting this study. ...
... those that describe the characteristics of a population or social phenomenon) or explanatory/analytical (i.e. those that intend to identify links between variables about a problem), exploratory research is usually carried out to address a problem where has little, or no previous investigation, has been undertaken (Saunders et al. 2007). ...
Thesis
There is an increasing population of older people in Nigerian hospitals. Empirical evidence indicates that culture may have a strong influence on the nursing care of patients, including older people (Martin et al. 1986). This is because it forms thecaring approach, such as the use of effective communication to understand theindividuality of the patients, leading to the delivery of holistic care. This indicates that culture underpins the entirety of human lifestyle, which requires adequate attention during the care of patients. However, there is a dearth of literature aboutcultural influences on how nurses care for older people in Nigeria. This knowledge gap prevents the understanding of how culture impacts on the health of older people and the way nurses can provide quality care for this population. This study used an ethnographic design to explore how nurses understand and manage patient culture in their care of older people in Nigeria. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 41 full-time Staff Nurses providing direct care to older people on male and female medical and surgical wards in a hospital. Data were collected over15 weeks (December 2016 to April 2017) and included 93 hours of observation and 20 semi-structured interviews, supplemented with writing a reflective diary. A thematic analysis was used to conduct the data analysis,supported by computer software (NVivo 11). The analysis revealed two main influential themes that show how do nurses understand and manage patient culture in caring for older people. The first theme is contextual factors influencing nursing care of older people. It is important to understand this context before the second due to its impact on culture and nursing care of older people. The theme mainly discussed the following: National health policy and provision of care: perceived impact on the care of older people, socioeconomic factors, nursing policy and education in cultural care, nurse perceptions about the provision of health care materials in the hospital, and nurse/doctor working relationship influence on the care. The second theme is the articulation and management of older peoples’ cultural beliefs and practices, where nurses demonstrated how they provided the care to older people. These include nurses’ perceptions of older peoples’ belief system, articulation of culture from experiences of professional practice, and managing cultural conflict in nursing care. The findings indicate that this the first qualitative piece of research that used an ethnographic approach to explore in detail how nurses understand and manage patients cultural values and beliefs to demonstrate cultural competence while providing care to older people. This study demonstrate that Nigeria nurses recognised the significant infuleunce of culture on nursing care. It showed that the use of good communication is the could help to address the challenges culture during patient care. This result of this study has the potential to improve the principles of good practice among professional nurses. The findings can help the NMCN to bring the desired reform in nursing education and practice in Nigeria that would enhance the nursing care of older people.
... Numerous strategies are available such as; case studies, interviews, archival research, surveys, and experiments, just to name a few (Biggam 2015). When selecting a research strategy, what matters the most is the appropriateness of the chosen strategy in effectively guiding the entire project towards the achievement of the research goals (Saunders et al. 2007). The main goal of this dissertation is to contribute to the employee recruitment scenario, by assessing if the athletics IAAF scoring system can be indeed be used as an indirect indicator of trait EI during recruitment. ...
... The research question and objectives of this dissertation has guided the literature search strategy which literature eventually informed the researcher on the best methodological approach and methods available to reach the research goals (Saunders et al. 2007 Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) as the ideal candidates. Both scales demonstrate validity and reliability in measuring task and ego motivational inclinations in sport (Roberts et al. 1998;Tomczak et al. 2020;Clancy et al. 2017). ...
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This dissertation aims to gain a better understanding on whether emotional intelligence (EI) can be effectively assessed via indirect indicators during employee recruitment processes. The IAAF scoring system, which is an objective assessment tool measuring athletic performance, was chosen as the predictor variable for this study, with the research question being: Amongst athletics athletes, can the IAAF scoring system prove to be an indirect indicator of emotional intelligence during employee recruitment? The literature suggests that the psychological skills of high-performance athletes overlap with EI components and hence it was deduced that the IAAF scoring system has key objective features to be a potential indicator of EI. To answer the research question, a case study design with the use of a cross-sectional online-survey methodology was adopted whereby the entire Maltese Athletics adult community was invited to participate. The purpose of the chosen strategy was to correlate the predictor variable IAAF score with the dependent variable EI (H1), while at the same time assessing the potential moderating role of gender (H2) and motivational climate (H3), within an amateur athletics context. The data collection period spread over three weeks between November 2020 and December 2020 attained a 21% response rate with 94 valid surveys. The low response rate, coupled with a non-response bias has affected the validity of the results, depriving us from explicitly establishing the link between the IAAF variable and EI, with H1 and H3 being partially rejected and H2 remaining unanswered due to the insufficient sample size. Spearman's bivariate correlation test confirmed that IAAF score is not a predictor of EI (ρ = 0.090, p = > 0.05), but the underlying task-oriented motivational climate is the actual significant predictor of EI (ρ = 0.202, p = < 0.05). Task orientation was in turn found to be positively associated with IAAF (ρ = 0.226, p = < 0.05), thus through the mediating role of task-oriented motivation, it was hypothesised that if the sampled population was more normally distributed in terms of educational level, task-oriented mentality and EI, a true relationship could have been established between IAAF performance and EI. It was concluded that, for recruitment purposes the IAAF scoring system is not an effective predictor of EI if an indication of a high level of task-oriented motivation is already available (example through applicant's academic achievements). High IAAF scoring results are not associated with EI amongst athletes with high educational backgrounds. On the other hand, if the applicant's curriculum vitae does not provide any clear indication of the applicant's motivational orientation, IAAF performance can be used as an indirect indicator for both task-oriented motivation and EI. Hence, it was argued that indirect indicators of EI can restore equity in the recruitment selection processes, as it gives opportunity to individuals with lower academic background to demonstrate that they can still be ideal candidates for jobs with higher emotional labour demands. Implications on the role of the IAAF scoring system and other similar self-assessment benchmark systems in fostering task-oriented mentalities and EI competencies are also discussed.
... This list was obtained from the records of the private universities. Saunders et al. (2019) stated that the appropriate sample size depends on many factors such as the type of statistical analysis used in the study, the margin of error, the confidence level, and the population size. In order to generalize the findings to a population, the sample size had to be large enough. ...
... Therefore, according to Saunders et al. (2019), considering a margin error equals 5% which is the percentage used in social research, a confidence level of 95%, the sample size would be at least 384 students. ...
... Alternatively, the appropriateness of the sample size is also confirmed by other sources of theory. More specifically, according to Saunders et al. [46] the selected sample size is sufficient taking into account both the population of the country and the significance level of the research. ...
... Previous experience of a flood event, despite clearly affecting risk perception of flood and extreme weather phenomena [41,62], was found to have an overall limited influence, supporting previous literature findings in the region [46]. On the contrary, the factor that was shown to be of major importance is individual flood risk perception, which was found to be correlated with all aspects examined in this study, including perceived reliability and effectiveness of warnings, as well as the perception of threat and call to action felt by participants upon receiving flood or extreme weather warnings. ...
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A crucial component for the success of any early warning system for flood and extreme weather phenomena is understanding people’s perceptions and views of the warning processes and approaches. This paper aims to explore public perceptions on flood and extreme weather warnings as well as factors that influence these perceptions in Greece, a characteristic example of a country that has suffered several climate-related disasters in the recent past. To this end, a survey of 427 residents of the country was conducted between April 2021 and June 2021. The collected data were analyzed by using both descriptive and inductive statistics. The results showed that certain factors affect participants’ views on early warnings, including demographics, perceived knowledge on floods, flood risk perception, and perceived self-efficacy. The above factors present statistically significant correlations with the perceived reliability and effectiveness of warnings, as well the degree to which participants perceived the expected phenomena as a threat to their well-being or a signal to take preventive actions. These correlations are described in detail in the present study, together with certain exceptions that exist. The findings are a strong indication that public perception has the potential to impact early warning systems’ actual effectiveness, leading to certain practical implications for their improvement, particularly in multi-hazard, climate change-sensitive areas like the Mediterranean region.
... Ethics is the suitability of performance relative to the right of its subjects. According to Saunders et al 2009, the design of the study must protect respondents from inconveniences, harm and prejudice. In view of this, the information obtained from respondents was reserved private and was strictly used for the intended purposes only. ...
Thesis
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The tea workers are generally isolated from the mainstream society for their historical and ethnic background. The aim of the study to find out their living conditions, poverty level and how they could be aggregated with the national aspiration of a well-judged society, and an inclusive nation where everybody has equal opportunities of education, health and other basic needs of a human being. The study investigates an exploration into the living conditions of female workers in a tea garden in the Panchagarh district based on represented 100 questionnaires. For data analysis and the related hypothesis testing, the Statistical software SPSS has been used. In case of the hypothesis testing 5% level of significance has been used. The data was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Regression analysis has been used to examine how the dependent variable is affected by the independent variables. Summary of Hypothesis testing results shows that there is significant effect of source of drinking water on living standard of female worker where there is no significant effect of monthly average income, education, house, sanitation, electricity and recreation facility on living standard of female worker. Logit regression model shows that the value of McFadden R-square is 0.74. The likelihood ratio (LR) statistic given the value of the 8 degree of freedom is 0.0000. The income is significance at 5% level of significance. The slope coefficient have the positive sign which is 4.12. Means other variable held constant if income is increase on average the estimated logit is increase by 4.12 units, living standard of female worker in tea garden is significance at 5% and 10% level of significance. Nature of Expenditure, Source of Drinking Water are insignificant both 5% and 10% level of Significance. At 5% level of significance Average Monthly Income, Education Level and Access of Electricity are significant. At 10% level of significance, Types of House and Sanitation are significant. Living conditions of female workers is deplorable. Their living standard affected by income, education, sanitation, structure of house, access of electricity, expenditure, recreation facility and others several factors. In the summary analysis these factors are not well. Most of the respondent’s income is low, education quality below secondary. They lived in Katcha house and used unhygienic toilet. About more than 60% houses are out of electricity. In hypothesis, these factors are influence the living standard but these factors are not satisfactory for well living standard. Most of the factors are associated with the living standard. If their income will increase and get the other opportunities properly then their living standard will be well. Key Words: living conditions of female worker, Hypothesis test, Logit regression Model (LR),
... 50). Descriptive survey was considered appropriate for this study due to the potential making inferences on a population [13], as the SHS students, who selected were just parts of a larger number of SHS students in the districts. Creswell [14] asserts that the descriptive survey involves collecting data in order to test hypotheses or to answer questions concerning the status of the subject of the study. ...
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The perception and knowledge people have about family planning health services are likely to affect the kinds of decisions they are likely to make about the service. The main purpose of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of Senior High School students about emergency contraceptive use in the Garu and Tempane Districts. A descriptive (cross-sectional) survey design adopted. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 248 students, who served as respondents. The sample was selected using the multistage sampling procedure. The data analyses were done using frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation and the independent sample t-test. The results showed that students had knowledge about emergency contraceptives. The results also, provided evidence that the students had negative perception about emergency contraceptive use. Furthermore, it was evident that male and female students had similar perception about emergency contraceptive use. It was recommended that the Ghana Health Service (GHS) should intensify their sex education as part of their health education programmes for students in the Senior High Schools.
... The research using existing literature to find out specified the leadership skills of Project Managers under the literature leadership theory or styles and factors to analyze proposition in number in public sector agriculture projects (Alias &Zawawi, 2014;Saunders et al., 2015;Woiceshyn, 2018). ...
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Project management ensures the success of a varied range of projects across all industries as well as the agriculture business. In Bangladesh, the agriculture sector plays a vibrant part in fast-tracking economic growth. Bangladesh government has developed Seventh Five Year Plan with Sustainable Development Goals and National Agriculture Policy where the agriculture sector has been given the highest priority in order to make Bangladesh self-sufficient in food. In order to ensure long-term food security for people and for Bangladesh's dream of becoming a middle-income country by 2021, therefore it is important to have a profitable, sustainable, and environment-friendly agricultural system. Thus, the government emphasizes and achieves its goals through development projects, and as a leading agency; the Department of Agriculture Extension has extension services through the projects and programs. As a developing country, nowadays, Bangladesh has a particular emphasis on project-based development in its agriculture sector where the skills of Project Managers are a means of assessing projects. Therefore, project management literature has covered the critical success factors. However, surprisingly; the literature finds that it usually does limit mention of the Project Manager's leadership capability as an achievement aspect for projects. As there is limited substantial research work found on the issue, the research will be investigating the Project Manger's leadership competencies in public-sector agriculture projects in Bangladesh. Being investigative and quantitative in nature, the research is designed with a deductive approach along with a survey study strategy, questionnaire used to collect the data. In exploratory in nature, the research will be needed structured questionnaires with close-ended questions and descriptive statistical data analysis from the probability randomized sample population to find the current status of the Project Manager's skills in public-sector agriculture projects in Bangladesh. The end result can be supportive for effectively handing the public-sector agriculture projects of Bangladesh as well as other developing countries around the globe.
... Thematic analysis using explanation building strategy was applied in this study. This involved an attempt to build an explanation while collecting data and analyzing them (Saunders et al., 2009). This phenomenological technique explicitly avoids cross-comparisons but instead orients the researcher toward the depth and detail that can be appreciated through an exhaustive, systematic, and reflective study of experiences lived Management and Economics Research Journal E-ISSN: 2469-4339 4 (Thorne, 2000). ...
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TANKS is a tangible coding game that introduced coding to South African 10-14-year-old learners. It is aimed to initiate and stimulate learning using facilitators. Facilitators use untraditional teaching methods because they are influential on training success. Also, facilitators undertook face-to-face contact sessions, since TANKS requires the use of a smartphone and tokens. A phenomenological qualitative study design approach of six facilitators of a face-to-face interview using an adapted semi-structured questionnaire was used. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed using an explanation-building strategy applied. Results identified themes where each theme was further explained in the study. Limitations included small interviewee numbers because of a nationwide COVID-19 restrictive lockdown. The feed-forward learning flow model concluded that supportive school leadership by principals or teachers creates an academic coding culture. This culture will necessitate learners' competitive behavior by adopting a performance-based appraisal practice, to improve the coding interest and TANKS performance by learners.
... Thus, using this method we further minimized the selection bias in the source identification process by enabling a recursive and iterative process of reviewing and refining search keywords (Saunders et al., 2009). Furthermore, each of the coauthors independently reviewed the articles and double-checked their screening outcomes and came to a consensus, further decreasing the selection bias. ...
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This paper aims to investigate the impact of blockchain application on trust levels in supply chains. Through the systematic review of the relevant literature, three dimensions of trust, i.e., the trustor-trustee perspective, forms of trust, and time orientation, are investigated. Our findings show that, first, there are three pairs of trustors and trustees involved in blockchain implementation: (a) the user and the blockchain, (b) two supply chain partners, and (c) the consumer/public and a supply chain unit. Second, the two forms of trust, namely cognition-based and institution-based trust, are likely to be enhanced by blockchain execution, while affect-based trust may not be directly impacted by the technology. Third, the presence of blockchain technology would facilitate swift trust-building between unknown supply chain partners under specific circumstances. Moreover, we also find contradicting assertions among scholars on the implications of blockchain for trust in supply chains. While some studies pointed out that blockchain will enable a trustless trusted scheme, others expected the reinforcement of interorganizational trust. To test these assertions, we develop the blockchain-entrusted supply chain models to present the three-step process of how trust is developed through the blockchain and diffused to supply chain partners and external stakeholders. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10479-022-04868-0.
... However, this distorts the validity of the pattern to specify the overall population [65]. The findings are biased if the procedure no longer signifies the entire data [66]. The postulation of non-response bias occurs when respondents vary emphatically from non-respondents [65]. ...
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This study investigated the strengths of internal and external environmental challenges to the Green Innovation Strategy (GIS). This study tried, also, to observe GBIS’ predictive power of on Green Organizational Identity (GOI), Green Innovation (GI) and Green Creativity (GC). The researchers gathered the cross-sectional data from the top managers of Saudi Arabia’s manufacturing industries. We employed a Structural Equation Model (SEM) to obtain the outcomes to form the data. This study’s findings demonstrate that external pressures, such as Policy Pressure (PP) and Market Pressure (MP) and internal driving forces such as Innovation Resources (IR) and Innovation Capability (IC), have a positive and significant effect on GIS. This study’s findings demonstrate, also, that GIS has a positive and significant effect on GOI, GI and GC. Finally, this study’s findings show that GOI is a considerable predictor of GI and GC. This study’s findings provide the path for policymakers to formulate Environmental Regulations (ER) and laws regarding pressure and incentive regulations. Finally, and more particularly in the context of Gulf countries, this study’s findings contribute to the literature on green management, innovation and Environmental Management (EM).
... Conferring to Burrell and Morgan (2017), positivists "seek to explain and predict what happens in the social world by searching for regularities and causal relationships between its constituent elements." The reasoning approach is linked to positivism and assists in forming the underlying phenomenon among variables of interest to draw a comprehensive inference (Saunders et al., 2011). Therefore, this research prefers to opt for the deductive approach as compared to the inductive method. ...
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This study addresses the questions of “How” and “When” CEO duality affects firm performance from a developing country’s perspective. To address the research question, CEO duality serves as an explanatory variable, board effectiveness as a mediator, CEO personal characteristics as moderator, firm-specific characteristics as control, and performance indicators as a dependent variable. Our dataset comprises 163 Pakistani firms listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange for 2009 to 2018. Results demonstrate that CEO’s duality negatively affects a firm’s financial performance; however, board effectiveness mediates the link between CEO duality and firm performance. The results support the agency theory framework. Furthermore, findings proposed that the CEO’s attributes (age, gender, and financial education) significantly moderate the link between a CEO’s duality and firm performance. The findings may be generalized among the developing countries and net 11 ( N-11) specifically. The current study claims to be the first one that explores the mediating role of the board effectiveness and moderating role of the CEO personal attributes together on a duality-performance link employing Pakistan’s corporate data. The findings suggest that policymakers and regulators ensure separation of power between Chairman and CEO to assure transparency through induction of more independence in the board room.
... Para la recolección de la información se construyó una entrevista semiestructurada y de carácter fenomenológico, orientada a conocer de manera específica los factores que favorecen y obstaculizan el emprendimiento tecnológico. Se eligió este tipo de entrevista ya que su principal característica dentro de los métodos fenomenológicos es que el investigador deje conscientemente de lado sus presuposiciones sobre el fenómeno bajo investigación, lo que significa que el investigador debe reflexionar sobre las presuposiciones que tiene y buscar profundizar su comprensión del fenómeno (Judd, Smith & Kidder, 1991;Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2009;Yin, 2003). ...
Chapter
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Con la intención de explorar la relación entre la educación media superior en México y el desarrollo sustentable, se llevó a cabo un estudio con enfoque cuantitativo, se analizaron datos de fuentes secundarias, específicamente de bases oficiales proporcionadas por el INEGI, INEE, CONAGUA, SEP y CONAPO. Por medio de la regresión lineal se evalúo y determinó que existe una relación significativa entre la matricula e instituciones de educación media superior y el desarrollo sustentable. Los resultados generados permiten observar la importancia de dar continuidad a la reforma educativa en este nivel en México, que establece entre sus prioridades desarrollar en el alumnado la competencia en materia de sustentabilidad.
... In addition, knowledge was measurable and cause-effect relationships could be developed for further empirical testing. A deductive approach was more appropriate as there were theories to support the hypothesis (Saunders et al., 2016). In this cross-sectional study, primary data was gathered from the target population by using a survey strategy. ...
Article
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Generation Z consumers are heading into work force and will be the primary driving force in the consumption growth of luxury products and services. However, despite a dearth of studies on the determinants of conspicuous consumption among Gen Z in Malaysia, still the effect of conspicuous consumption on materialism, public self-consciousness, and self-esteem remains unclear. This quantitative research surveyed 208 Gen Z using self-administered questionnaires in Malaysia. The philosophy of Positivism was adopted. Primary data was collected and results were scrutinized through the SPSS software that generated Descriptive and inferential statistics. Research findings revealed that materialism and self-esteem had significant impact on conspicuous consumption compared with public self-consciousness. Thus, public self-consciousness was not a significant predictor of conspicuous consumption. The research findings knowledgeably benefited retailers, marketers and advertisers who now understand better why prioritising materialism and self-esteem rather than public self-consciousness.
... The credibility of the study was assured and specifically, the researcher engaged in-depth semistructured interviews to collect data over a reasonable period of time and by so doing, the latter gained more insight into the contextual life of the participants within their settings [34]. Thus, an array of measures was also observed still in regard to the accuracy and credibility of findings; among others: -A case study protocol and interview schedule were based and guided on themes derived from extant literature on the valorization of education in Congo-Brazzaville [35]; -Personal perspectives were not brought into the process of data collection and analysis; -Prior to finalizing findings, the tentative interpretation of data was referred to focus group respondents, to clarify uncertainties and verify accuracy and plausibility of findings [36]; -Data from the various focus groups were interpreted in comparison with the information contained in the existing empirical literature, as above disseminated [32]. Sequel to the essentials of research ethics, the researcher assured participants that their responses were not to be used to any other end than the goal of the study [25]. ...
... Price of ItemsMore expensive items because of lower AIL Less ExpensiveRESEARCH METHODOLOGYThis research approach 'research onion' principal developed by(Saunders, 2019) where there are several layers that show how many processes we need to conduct to build and determine the research method which starts with philosophy and theory ...
Article
PT XXYZ is an oil and gas industry company that is a downstream company, namely a company that processes crude oil into various products that are ready to be transferred to the market. Oil and gas companies, especially PT XXYZ, are certainly faced with various challenges that need to be faced related to future business continuity, in the form of the challenge of substituting fossil sources with environmentally friendly energy followed by rapid technological developments. PT XXYZ is also faced with the challenge of always being able to respond to changes in demand in the market and able to maximize the production until distributing it to customers. PT XXYZ has a problem in CDU production which is not achieving the monthly production target. The company has loss 103.5 million barrels of products that can be produced which is equal to losing 8 million USD. The production monthly target is determined based on STS documents. Several factors that can affect production are quality of materials, quantity, unplanned shutdown/slowdown, operational limitation, and low intake. Based on the root cause analysis using the Ishikawa Diagram method, it is concluded that the main problem that may be solved by PT XXYZ is related to the supply activities and material readiness. Inventory management at PT XXYZ not implementing a policy to be able to control stock and avoid losses in inventory. PT XXYZ experienced stockout on various materials and the safety stock level tends to be stagnant and all materials have the same safety stock value. By carrying out inventory management using the Q-model, the company has a standard and policy for each crude oil material, so as to reduce the risk of stockout and hopefully will maximize the needs of CDU production. PT XXYZ gains more profits by saving 56.4 million USD in inventory cost and able to achieve the production target with 95% of service level.
... CS identification was further supported by subject feedback provided during video-stimulated recall. Informal, semi-structured interviews, also known as non-standardised or qualitative interviews (Saunders et al., 2009) are hybrid types of interview incorporating features of both structured and unstructured exchanges. They allow a list of predetermined themes and questions (the structured interview) to be addressed while employing flexibility to facilitate in-depth exploration of any topic raised. ...
... The connection between the researcher and the process of knowledge development is outlined by research philosophies (Bell et al., 2019). The philosophy of research contains significant assumptions that describe the researcher's way of viewing the world, and these assumptions can be adopted to underpin the methodological approach (Saunders et al., 2019). These assumptions include assumptions about human knowledge (epistemological assumptions), research realities (ontological assumptions), and the extent to which the researcher's values influence the research process (axiological assumptions). ...
Thesis
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Most industries, including transportation, health, and agriculture, rely on energy to function properly. The success of these sectors is the primary driver of a state's economic stability. Furthermore, the importance of energy in achieving the specified objectives of sustainable development goals (SDGs) such as zero poverty and hunger, high literacy rates, and so on cannot be overestimated (United Nations Statistics Division, 2020). Water, bioenergy (biomass), wave turbines, and solar energy may provide infinite energy, however, fossil fuels such as oil, coal, and natural gas are exhaustible owing to their depleting sources. Furthermore, renewable energy is farther ecologically pleasant and healthier than nonrenewable energy sources, which can assist to mitigate climate change. A proper energy efficiency culture ought to be created towards assessing the nation's energy demands while also providing the groundwork for energy independence. Nigeria is now struggling to match its energy demand with supply; the growing population creates major limits on the working efficiency of power-producing infrastructure, which is constantly overloaded, resulting in recurrent instances of forced outages. Only 55% of Nigerian households have access to power. The purpose of this research is to determine how renewable energy usage (Solar, Hydro, and Wind) in Nigeria may contribute to the country's long-term economic growth.
... A structured questionnaire was used to measure the targeted variables (Saunders et al., 2009), and the questionnaires were distributed to 280 respondents The framework was tested using the Structural Equation Modeling with Partial Least Square (i.e. PLS-SEM) since the primary objective of this research is to explore the relationship between the targeted variables (Hair et al., 2012;Astrachan et al., 2014;Hair et al., 2017) using SmartPLS 3.0. ...
... The study believes that the physical senses can capture reality (realist ontology); and that knowledge is concrete and transferable (positivist epistemology). The study also believes in the deterministic nature of man's interactions with the environment, hence; rely on a quantitative approach to acquire primary data (nomothetic methodology) (Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2019;Creswell & Creswell, 2017;. The study was conducted in a natural setting; so, the researcher did not control the research elements. ...
Conference Paper
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Women in West Africa are these days found in all spheres or sectors of the normally male dominated business environment. But this has not come easy by any fete whatsoever. This is a conceptual paper that seeks to find out why the hurdles women in West Africa find it so difficult to start up a business. The aim of this study is to conceptually investigate female entrepreneurs in West Africa. This paper also tried to identify the different types of challenges that entrepreneurial women in West Africa faces, like the culture, custom, religion, social profiles etc. The methodology adopted is strictly theoretical in nature and the researcher finally concluded that women being resilient in nature can and has bridged and broken every barrier confronting them to carve a niche for themselves in this male dominated world. Keywords: Challenges, Culture, Custom, West Africa, Women Entrepreneur, Religion, Social Profile.
... Out of which 340 research questionnaires were received back, and after dropping down 27 incomplete questionnaires, we processed 313 completed filled responses with the response rate of 78%. The data was collected through purposive sampling, which helped us select an arbitrary sample that best justifies its population (Saunders et al., 2009). ...
Article
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The present study aims to examine the effect of ethical climate on burnout through role stress theory. The study proposes that unethical practices cost organizations in several ways, among these, employee burnout is stressing. In this regard, the authors tested the proposed theoretical model in the presence of a mediating variable, i.e., role stress theory. The authors used the face-to-face mode of data collection through a purposive sampling technique from employees working in the service sector in Pakistan. The study analyzed 313 responses through Smart PLS (v 3.2.8). The findings of this study supported the proposed theoretical framework that ethical climate is negatively related to role ambiguity and role conflict, which, in turn, are positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Previous researches have majorly examined the effect of ethical climate on prosocial outcomes; however, only scant literature determined the effect of ethical climate on burnout. Moreover, the authors tested this relationship through the role stress theory.
... The target population was approximately 2000 students. The suitable sample size at a 95% confidence interval was 322 students, in line with the guidelines provided by Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill (2019). The sample size was considered sufficient to allow for the generation of the required statistical analysis to answer the research questions. ...
Book
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... The longitudinal method is suitable for collecting data for a long period by snowball sampling techniques and scrutinizing the source population repeatedly. The cross-sectional method is recommended to collect data in a short period of time through questionnaires, etc (Saunders et al., 2009). Since the current research was planned for a short period, the cross-sectional survey method was employed to collect the data. ...
Article
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Due to the rapid developments in the field of higher education and increased competitiveness, there is a need to assess and evaluate the performance of the personnel including the academic staff like faculty, teaching assistants and research staff. This research identifies the challenges faced by academic leaders in managing the job performance of faculty members at Prince Sattam Abdulaziz University (PSAU) in three stages of performance management system (planning-reviewing-evaluation) and the degree of differences in the challenges in the variables of academic leaders' gender, academic rank and job title. The study adopted a descriptive survey method and a questionnaire tool on a study sample of 67 department heads and Deans in various faculties at PSAU, Saudi Arabia. The results showed that the most significant challenges in managing job performance are in the evaluation stage, followed by the review stage and finally the planning stage. There were no statistically significant differences among the responses of the study sample due to the variable of gender and academic rank, while there were statistically significant differences among the respondents according to job title. This research also recommends to link job performance with incentives and rewards to boost employees' motivation, to evaluate faculty members' performance in additional tasks of quality and development, scientific research, and community service.
... Convenience sampling was used in this study, and the survey subjects were salespersons from different companies in Nanning, Guangxi, because it is difficult for social science research to obtain an accurate sampling frame from a company or organisation and to find suitable respondents to answer research questions (Saunders et al., 2011). China currently has the world's largest population and the second-largest economy and Nanning, Guangxi, is the core city of the "One Belt One Road" facing Southeast Asia. ...
Article
This study was intended to determine the factors that affect employees' green behavior. Accordingly, the authors developed a framework that depicts the relations between psychological contract fulfilment, job crafting, social relationships (guanxi), and employees' green behavior. Convenience sampling was adopted, through which we obtained cross-sectional data on 688 salespersons from enterprises in Nanning, Guangxi. SPSS, AMOS, and SmartPLS were used in the data analysis. The results of this research have important reference value for business managers to improve enterprises' sustainable development. They revealed that psychological contract fulfilment affected job crafting and employees' green behavior positively, as well as job crafting's mediating effect. Guanxi did not moderate the effect of transactional psychological contracts on employees' green behavior, but did moderate the positive effect of relational psychological contracts on employees' green behavior negatively.
... The sampling techniques aimed to get a heterogeneous sample, by contacting individuals involved in different areas of the South African clearing and settlement industry, and/or have a job role in the securities trading value chain. This approach enabled the researchers to describe and explain key themes that will emerge in the collection of data (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill 2016). The researcher contacted participants through the following channels: ...
... Researchers and academicians will find this study interesting because of its insights and potential research direction for comprehending knowledge management in the construction industry and further examining the subject. Therefore, according to Saunders (2011), a literature review begins with the definition of good keywords that will be used to find and obtain the literature from databases and present the results of the literature analysis. According to Tranfield et al. (2003), this literature review aims to discover gaps in the literature and limitations in the current body of knowledge. ...
Article
This study aims to determine the current issues associated with the transfer of knowledge in the construction industry published between 1987 and December 2021 to provide insights and ideas for future research. A total of 1240 publications were analysed to offer metadata analysis, and these papers were extracted from the Scopus database. The insights gained from analysing papers from Scopus databases are presented along with classifications of the literature based on content analyses, including conceptual understanding, barriers and facilitators, a collaborative effort with knowledge management and other optimisation models, and evaluation of knowledge management practices and performance. The study's findings show a declining trend in research on drivers or obstacles analysis of knowledge management. In contrast, there is a growing trend in applying mathematical optimisation models to enhance decision-making in pursuing knowledge management performance. Furthermore, the study's findings reveal a steady increase in assessing knowledge management techniques and performance over time. Contributions by disciplines are identified, and the most significant authors, leading journals, leading nations, leading contributing institutions, and leading contributing institutions. The study's results and future research possibilities open up a new channel for further inquiry and contribution to this subject.
... The questionnaire in this study was developed from existing constructs or variables and was adapted to suit the context (Iqbal et al., 2012;Martins et al., 2018). A Likert scalewith answers ranging from "strongly disagree", representing scale number 1, to "strongly agree", representing scale number 5 -was used to evaluate the student feeling (Saunders et al., 2006) on entrepreneurial intention. The data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. ...
Article
South Africa is confronted with the problem of youth unemployment. Despite this challenge, young people have few options to stay relevant in the economy. While many young people consider starting a business, they face obstacles such as a lack of information, capital, networking, and mentorship. This makes it very difficult for young people, particularly university graduates, to pursue entrepreneurship as an alternative career. This study examined the antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions amongst higher education students in South Africa. A quantitative and descriptive research design was adopted using a positivist research philosophy. A self-administered online questionnaire was used to gather data. A total of 400 students were chosen as respondents using simple random sampling. The findings of this study show that entrepreneurial intention has a positive and significant relationship with subjective norms (β=0.619, t-value=8.197, p=0.050), perceived behavior control (β=0.171, t-value=1.969, p=0.050), personal attitude (β=0.137, t-value=1.967, p=0.050). In contrast, there was a negative and insignificant relationship between entrepreneurial intention and self-efficacy (β=-0.015, t-value=0.209, p=0.835). This research has contributed to the literature on entrepreneurship in higher education and the developing world. This study is also expected to aid scholars, practitioners, and policymakers in understanding the dynamics of entrepreneurial intentions amongst students in higher education institutions.
... This study had a qualitative approach and worked with non-numeric data with meanings and the relationship between them through structured or semi-structured methods [53]. The exploratory nature was chosen, through which the literature provided a basis for the concise definition of the problem statement, making discoveries and forming relationships between them [54]. ...
Article
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This paper aimed to analyze how innovations in the business model contribute to creating sustainable value in construction companies. The results revealed that analyzed companies implement practices that enhance their reputation and contribute to the environment while securing economic benefits. These practices include material reuse and replacing traditional processes with renewable ones (installing photovoltaic panels and rainwater harvesting). Companies also have tried to integrate with the community through sponsorships, primarily in sports and cultural events, and assistance to homes for the elderly and needy educational institutions. Companies need to implement processes that contribute to the rational use of water and waste reduction during construction projects despite the results. Furthermore, this study has the importance of identifying actions that are oriented towards generating benefits for society and the environment and analyzing them from the perspective of the creation of sustainable value from innovations in the business model.
Thesis
ABSTRACT Experiential marketing and value creation have become paramount for businesses, worldwide, to remain competitive and sustainable. Due to the global economic crisis which put all public and private sector businesses under financial stress, experiential marketing has become necessary as a mechanism in facilitating value creation for the mobile network operators (MNOs) in Ghana to survive and to outdo their counterparts in the industry. The effective and efficient implementation of the experiential marketing programmes and campaigns, aside from helping these businesses in deriving value, could further assist the government of Ghana in its quest to develop the telecommunications industry. The government has stated that the mobile network industry of the country should be based upon the principles of open markets and fair competition, which requires strong policies and strategies in experiential marketing to create value as well as to survive. It must be noted that a unique product or service experience creates a memorable customer experience where emotion has a significant impact on business performance in terms of customer satisfaction, retention, and loyalty, as well as growth in sales and revenue and return on capital employed (ROCE). It is of the utmost importance, therefore, that network operators have the necessary resources and techniques in experiential marketing to facilitate sustainable value creation in the industry, as a lack of proper resources and implementation strategies can hinder the successful creation of value. Given this situation, this study sought to create value through experiential marketing for MNOs in Ghana. The study sought to empirically test a hypothetical model reflecting 11 independent variables on experiential marketing (i.e. mediating variables), particularly with proper attention to the experiential value gained by consumers after consumption. Also, the study addressed the contribution of all mobile components, namely processes, physical evidence, and people, in experiential marketing and creating value for businesses. The remaining hypothesis aimed at identifying the impact of the mediating variable (i.e. experiential marketing) on the dependent variable (i.e. business value) to assess how value is created through experiential marketing for MNOs in Ghana. The outcome of the primary research helped in recommending strategies that could be employed by businesses for improving competitiveness and sustainability. The debate about value creation through experiential marketing to MNOs in Ghana is not available. Consequently, this study attempted to develop a hypothetical model to provide a scientific, theoretical, and empirical contribution to MNOs, other businesses, and the entire telecommunications industry of Ghana in order to aid them in creating value through experiential marketing. To achieve the objectives of this study, a quantitative approach using a face-to-face self-administered questionnaire was adopted to test the hypotheses. The participants were randomly selected based on the 10 regions to which they belong in the country. With a visit to the regional offices of the mobile operators, the questionnaires were conveniently administered. A total of 384 participants were selected through a stratification sampling and, in addition, a total of 31 participants were conveniently added, producing a total of 415 respondents who completed the survey. Based on the analysis of various secondary sources, a hypothetical model regarding creating value through experiential marketing for MNOs in Ghana was constructed. The proposed hypothetical model indicated that the mediating variable of experiential marketing, with sub-variables related to experiential mix (i.e. sense, feel, think, act, and relate) and experiential value (i.e. emotional, functional, and social), is possibly influenced by the independent variables. This influence is also known as the mobile mix, namely 1) physical evidence with sub-variables related to the physical environment, building and spatial layout, and corporate branding; 2) process with sub-variables related to technology development, research and development, and machines and operation; and 3) people with sub-elements related to input and output logistics, marketing and customers services, human resource management, and procurement managing. The business value (i.e. the dependent variables) was identified as consisting of sales value, growth value, and return on capital employed value (ROEV). IBM’s SPSS AMOS (Version 25) was utilised for data analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the data of respondents leading to easy interpretation by the researcher. Inferential statistical analysis was utilised to test for relationships between identified variables by using a validity test, a reliability test, correlation, and a structural equation model (SEM). The empirical results revealed that the mobile mix (i.e. the independent variables) has a significant positive influence and relationship with experiential marketing (i.e. the mediating variables). On the other hand, experiential marketing was identified as having a significant positive influence on business value (i.e. the dependent variables). The majority of the respondents agreed concerning the variable items measuring experiential marketing and its influence on creating value to MNOs in Ghana. It is envisaged that the empirical evidence provided in this study could assist MNOs in Ghana in understanding the factors influencing experiential marketing and its role in creating value and, thereby, assist these businesses in strategy development and decision-making. This study provides relevant and practical recommendations that could make MNOs in Ghana generate sustainable long-term value. Thus, the objectives of this study were achieved, and the research problem was answered. This study could also act as a foundation for other studies, thereby contributing to the body of knowledge in this regard.
Thesis
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This study examined student support services as a factor that impacts on students' progress and completion of studies at the University of Namibia's Centre for Open, Distance and eLearning. The Centre for Open, Distance and eLearning (CODeL) at the University of Namibia (UNAM) was established through a merger between the Centre for External Studies (CES) and the Centre for eLearning and Interactive Multimedia (CeLIM) in 2016 to provide and strengthen distance education in Namibia. However, one of the major challenges experienced by CODeL has been on support services which impacts on progress and completion of studies of students. The study adopted a mixed method approach to analyse student support services as a factor that impacts on distance students' progress and completion of studies at the University of Namibia's Centre for Open, Distance and eLearning. The research questions for the study were: To what extent do student support services impact on distance student's progress and completion of studies? How effective are student support services to distance students at CODeL of the University of Namibia? This study also followed a case study research design to present a real-life situation and to provide a better insight pertaining to student support services as a factor that impacts on students' progress and completion of studies at the University of Namibia. The data was collected from a sample size of 15 staff members at CODeL and 60 students. The findings of the study revealed that student viewed vacation school as extremely effective followed by administrative support. The study concluded that in-dead student support services impacts on students' progress and completion leading to delays in students' progress and completion of their studies. Students view on the types of student support services were that lecturer not turning up for classes during vacation school, short days for the vacation school and administrative support such as staff members not answering student's inquiries on time. The study recommends more attention should be given to student support services such as vacation school, administrative support and as they are the ones viewed by students as extremely effective.
Article
Clothing fit is the most important consideration during the consumer's garment appraisal process but is the primary reason for the extensive number of online returns generated in the fashion industry. This suggests that when shopping online, consumers are not provided with sufficient information about the fit of a garment. This issue is even more imperative now as COVID‐19 has accentuated the shift to shopping for clothing online. Thus, how fashion retailers communicate clothing online is a critical challenge requiring immediate attention. Underpinned by the Stimulus–Organism–Response (S‐O‐R) framework, this research undertakes a between‐subjects factorial web‐experiment to investigate how different types of fit information affect the consumers' online garment evaluations and purchasing decisions. The results from 400 UK female responses show that whilst the presence of diverse body shapes (vs. one body shape) enhances the consumers' garment fit evaluations, it does not increase purchase intentions. Alternatively, verbal fit information in the form of clothing fit reviews (vs. absence) increased product fit diagnosticity but had no significant effect on concerns with fit online or purchase intentions. The results provide novel insights into how fashion retailers can enhance the communication of clothing fit on their product pages.
Thesis
There are many successful, expanding business organisations in Kuwait (Kipco, 2019). Business success does not only depend on the intelligence and hard work of the founder, but the whole workforce - from the lowest to the highest position in an organisation. Interest in and research on human capital and organisational performance has notably increased among managements and academics. Moreover, attention is now paid to the importance of organisational culture as a catalyst/inhibitor to strengthen or dampen the performance of organisations (Rafiei & Pourreza, 2013). In Kuwait, the petroleum industry is the largest industry in the country, accounting for nearly half of the country's GDP (Central Intelligence Agency 2017a). Kuwait has proven crude oil reserves of 104 billion barrels (15 km3). Kuwait is estimated to hold 9% of the world's reserves. Kuwait's oil reserves are the fourth largest in the world and Burgan Field is the second largest oil field. Kuwait is the world's eleventh largest oil producer and seventh largest exporter. Kuwait's oil production accounts for 9% of worldwide oil production (KOC, 2019). Based on this, the performance of oil and gas sector organisations is very important to the country’s economic development and, therefore, an improvement in the quality of life for the people of Kuwait. Moreover, in the Global Competitiveness Report (2018), which was concerned with the extent of staff training, Kuwait’s ranking is not promising. It ranks 86 out of 137 countries. Comparing this rank to neighbouring countries will show how far Kuwait is in this matter which definitely impacts the performance of organisations because the skills and knowledge of employees will need to be improved and, consequently, improving organisational performance. Additionally, this also calls for an examination of the impact of human capital dimensions that include knowledge, skills, and attitude on the performance of organisations. Much of the existing research on human capital has focused on the developed world – specifically within Anglophonic and iv Scandinavian nations (Bontis, 2007). There is also great interest in human capital development in the Arab region. This study is one of several initiatives to offer a number of insights to policy makers and managers in Kuwait’s private sector in gas and oil services and is intended to yield effective information on and recommendations regarding human capital and its influence on organisational performance. In addition, the Kuwaiti economy also benefits from the large market size which involves all Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. In the current study, the population under examination consisted of Kuwaiti employees working at private oil and gas companies in Kuwait. Since the number of workers in the Kuwaiti private oil and gas sector is 20,000, the researcher set the size of the sample at 377 in order to fulfil minimal sample size criteria. The data were further analysed by the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) via SMARTPLS 3.0. The study selected the sample by using probability random sampling. The results shows that knowledge, skills, and attitude, have a significant impact on the organisational performance among Kuwaiti employees within private gas and oil sector. Moreover, power distance has a moderation effect between attitude and organisational performance, while it did not have any moderation effect between knowledge, skills and the organisational performance. The variance explained through the theoretical model is 31%, which indicates that there are different factors that affect the organisational performance in the Kuwaiti private oil and gas industry. More discussion about the results in chapter 4; and chapter 5 discuss more about the findings and recommendations. Moreover, future recommendations are stated. Further, results give more insights for the practitioners and policy makers to improve the organisational performance.
Article
Innovative capacity represents the ability of long-term production and commercialization of the flow of innovative technologies and is an essential factor influencing competitiveness in modern economies. When it comes to innovation, research and development, gross domestic product (GDP) is often used as an indicator of investment opportunities at the national level to gain insight into the country's ability to improve innovation and competitiveness. Accordingly, this paper aims to determine whether the export of high-tech products, as one of the results of innovation in the economy, measured by GDP growth, has a positive effect on overall economic growth. For the analysis process to have a comparative character, four countries were included in the empirical research: Serbia, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. The international Eurostat database was used as the main source of data, and the period covered by this survey is from 2008 to 2018. A simple linear regression model was applied in the analysis to determine the relationship between the share of hightech products in the country's total exports and GDP per capita. The research results in this paper show that it was not possible to confirm the positive relationship between exports of high-tech products and GDP growth in the case of Serbia, Hungary and Romania, while in the case of Bulgaria, the impact of growth in exports of high-tech products on GDP growth can be confirmed. According to the obtained results, it is most adequate that the issue of innovation, exports and economic growth is not observed exclusively through the development and application of innovations in high-tech industries. We need to look at the broader context in terms of how much innovation can improve exports and the overall business of medium and technologically inferior (less demanding) industries, what innovations these industries need, and how to develop and implement them.
Research Proposal
Its about prediction modelling for organizational performance in case of organizational citizenship pressure mediated by Emotion Focused Coping and moderated by Conscientiousness
Article
Luxury firms, including high‐end watch manufacturers, use crowdfunding as an alternative source of entrepreneurial finance. Respondents indicated that intention to crowdfund luxury brand start‐ups have both external and internal antecedents with the slight majority focusing on the extrinsic factors. The “luxury” proposition exhibits integrated motivation, which is conceptualized and personalized to the tastes of each investor.
Article
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هدفت هذه الدراسة إلى التعرف على مستوى إدراك العملاء لأخلاقيات البيع بالتجزئة عبر الإنترنت، وكذلك تحديد مستوى نوايا الشراء ونوايا إعادة زيارة الموقع الإلكتروني، بالإضافة إلى تحديد أثر إدراك العملاء لأخلاقيات البيع بالتجزئة عبر الإنترنت على نوايا الشراء ونوايا إعادة زيارة الموقع الالكتروني
Thesis
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