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Early Flavor Learning and Its Impact on Later Feeding Behavior

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Early Flavor Learning and Its Impact on Later Feeding Behavior

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Abstract

In this review, we first outline the role and mechanisms of the chemical senses (taste, smell, and chemical irritation) in the perception of the flavor of a food or beverage. We then describe research findings, much of them from our laboratories, on the ontogeny of flavor perception and the interacting roles of innate responses and learning in the establishment of flavor preference of infants and children. Broadly, taste (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami, or savory) preferences have a strong innate component. Sweet, umami, and salty substances are innately preferred, whereas bitter and many sour substances are innately rejected. Nevertheless, these innate tendencies can be modified by pre- and postnatal experiences. Volatile components of flavor, detected by the olfactory system, are strongly influenced by early exposure and learning beginning in utero and continuing during early milk (breast milk or formula) feedings. These experiences set the stage for later food choices and are important in establishing life-long food habits. As many of the diseases plaguing developed and developing societies involve excess consumption of some foods, an understanding of factors that determine choice and ingestion, particularly an understanding of the early factors, is important in designing strategies to enhance the health of the infant, child, and adult.

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... Several studies have found that waste of food is especially high among young children and in households with children, although the literature is mixed [3][4][5]. Young children are prone to neophobia (fear of the new), and some evidence suggests a greater biological preference for foods that are sweet, salty and high in fat among young children compared to older age groups [6,7]. Accordingly, young children may reject foods served to them that do not fall into these categories or that are less familiar. ...
... These services commonly provide one or more meals and snacks, some funded by parent fees and others by governmental programs. Numerous healthy eating policies and interventions have been developed for ECE programs, in part because evidence suggests lifelong food consumption patterns and attitudes may be initiated in early childhood [7]. ...
... The differences could, however, go in either direction. For example, compared to older children, young children might have elevated waste due to stronger neophobia and preferences for sugar, fat, and salt [6,7]. Yet, protective factors include relatively little memory of the foods served under a prior regime and a lack of complementary options to obtain alternative foods beyond what is served. ...
Article
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This research evaluates the effects of a South Carolina (SC) policy, which changed the nutrition standards for foods served in early care and education (ECE) settings, on wasted food. A two-group pre-test/post-test evaluation was performed in ECE centers serving children age 3-5 from households with lower incomes in SC (n = 102 children from 34 centers, intervention) and North Carolina (NC; n = 99 children from 30 centers, comparison). Direct observation was performed to assess the quantity and kcal of food served and quantity and percent of food discarded, by food group and nutrient, enabling assessment of waste in the absence of intervention. Mixed-effects linear models were fit to estimate, by state, differences in change from baseline to post-implementation at the center level. Covariates were selected a priori, including center enrollment, racial composition, director educational attainment, years in operation, for-profit status, and Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) participation. Waste of food was high across states and time points. The policy was not associated with a change in percent of food discarded in SC compared to NC in adjusted analyses.
... También, aunque existe escasa evidencia se ha documentado que los hijos de madres que durante el embarazo y lactancia tuvieron un alto consumo de productos ultraprocesados, presentan un mayor consumo de estos en etapas posteriores de la vida (7,8). La explicación biológica de como la dieta de la madre modela las preferencias alimentarias en los niños es que hay transmisión de sabores de los alimentos ingeridos (ej.: frutas, verduras y especies) por la madre al niño vía líquido amniótico en la vida uterina y por la leche materna durante la etapa de lactancia (2,9,10). Por lo tanto, debido a que tanto el líquido amniótico como la leche materna contienen partículas volátiles derivadas de los alimentos que forman parte de la dieta de la madre, los lactantes reciben y aprenden sabores antes de iniciar a recibir alimentos sólidos (11). ...
... Por lo tanto, debido a que tanto el líquido amniótico como la leche materna contienen partículas volátiles derivadas de los alimentos que forman parte de la dieta de la madre, los lactantes reciben y aprenden sabores antes de iniciar a recibir alimentos sólidos (11). Lo anterior, puede hacer que acepten una mayor cantidad de alimentos en la etapa de alimentación complementaria debido a que han tenido una exposición repetida a estos incluso antes de nacer (9). Por el contrario, los sucedáneos de la leche materna ofrecen un sabor monótono, ya que solamente ofrecen el sabor característico del tipo y marca de fórmula con la que se alimente al lactante. ...
... La evidencia sugiere que las experiencias sensoriales que los niños tienen con la transmisión y exposición a sabores por medio del líquido amniótico y la leche materna explica el que los niños sean menos selectivos y sean más abiertos a probar diferentes alimentos (2). La importancia de esto radica en que es muy probable que los niños lleven estas preferencias a etapas posteriores de la vida, contribuyendo al establecimiento de hábitos alimentarios saludables y mejorando la calidad de la dieta en la edad adulta (2,9,11). También, es importante mencionar que independientemente de la forma de alimentación en los primeros meses de vida (leche materna o fórmula láctea), se puede promover y fomentar que el niño desarrolle preferencias alimentarias saludables mediante la exposición repetida a alimentos con diferentes sabores y texturas (2). ...
Article
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El deterioro de la calidad de la dieta está afectando la salud de los niños menores de dos años. Por tal motivo, es de vital importancia la identificación de factores relacionados con el desarrollo y establecimiento de preferencias alimentarias en etapas tempranas de la vida y brindar recomendaciones que faciliten su adopción. Esta revisión sistemática de la literatura tiene como objetivo resumir la evidencia existente sobre los factores asociados a formar y modelar las preferencias alimentarias en etapas tempranas de la vida. Para esto se realizó una búsqueda en PubMed de estudios que evaluaran la asociación entre la exposición prenatal y posnatal de sabores, introducción temprana de alimentos y habituación al sabor dulce, alimentación complementaria y diversidad dietética. Se incluyeron artículos publicados desde el 2000 hasta el 2019. Resultados de 39 artículos sugieren que la alimentación durante los primeros dos años de vida y el desarrollo de preferencias alimentarias en etapas tempranas de la vida tiene el potencial de modificar los patrones de alimentación y establecerse en etapas posteriores de la vida, por lo que, los primeros mil días de vida constituyen una ventana de oportunidad para formar preferencias alimentarias saludables y mejorar la calidad de dieta de los niños.
... Младенцы имеют врожденное предпочтение сладкого, соленого вкуса и вкуса умами и врожденное неприятие кислого и горького вкуса, что направлено на стремление потреблять пищу, богатую энергией и белками, избегая при этом потенциально токсичных продуктов [18,20,21]. Врожденные предпочтения младенцев могут привести к отказу от некоторых полезных продуктов, таких как овощи с терпким (горьковатым) вкусом [21]. ...
... Младенцы имеют врожденное предпочтение сладкого, соленого вкуса и вкуса умами и врожденное неприятие кислого и горького вкуса, что направлено на стремление потреблять пищу, богатую энергией и белками, избегая при этом потенциально токсичных продуктов [18,20,21]. Врожденные предпочтения младенцев могут привести к отказу от некоторых полезных продуктов, таких как овощи с терпким (горьковатым) вкусом [21]. Безусловно, в наибольшей степени генетические детерминанты влияют на пищевые предпочтения, однако множество других факторов также играет важную роль. ...
... Безусловно, в наибольшей степени генетические детерминанты влияют на пищевые предпочтения, однако множество других факторов также играет важную роль. Так, дети могут научиться любить вкус продуктов, подвергаясь их воздействию, которое начинается внутриутробно и продолжается во время грудного вскармливания [18,20,21]. Плод способен уже к 11-й нед. ...
Article
I.N. Zakharova1, Yu.A. Dmitrieva1, E.B. Machneva2, A.N. Tsutsaeva3 1Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education, Moscow, Russian Federation 2Russian Children’s Clinical Hospital of the Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation 3Stavropol State Medical University, Stavropol, Russian Federation Since ancient times, scientists and philosophers were interested in the sense of taste, the mechanisms of its development, anatomical structures responsible for taste, and its importance. Currently, it is clear that food preferences are the main determinant of the development of nutrition and food behavior. Food preferences begin to develop in the early childhood and retain throughout the life. Therefore, inculcating correct nutritional behavior with respect to healthy food is a promising approach to improve the quality of diet being one of the key factors affecting human health. This article addresses current data on morphology, genetics, embryology, and ontogeny of gustatory system as well as major factors affecting the development of food preferences in a child. Most of these factors are modified ones, therefore, the aim of this review is to draw the attention of pediatricians since this is pediatrician who makes evidence-based recommendations on child nutrition and provide s adequate feeding strategy. Keywords: genetics, food preferences, taste, taste receptors, children, smell, ontogeny, tongue, baby food, healthy lifestyle. For citation: Zakharova I.N., Dmitrieva Yu.A., Machneva E.B., Tsutsaeva A.N. The development of food preferences: anatomical and genetic determinants, important factors of taste development in children. Russian Journal of Woman and Child Health. 2020;3(2):119–125. DOI: 10.32364/2618-8430-2020-3-2-119-125.
... In this sense, vegetables are characterized by having low energy content, often not being sweet, and sometimes being bitter, characteristics that do not match with what is innately liked by humans [13]. In this regard, vegetable preferences need to be learned though experience with food [59]. Salty and sweet tastes are liked by children, while bitter taste is rejected [59]. ...
... In this regard, vegetable preferences need to be learned though experience with food [59]. Salty and sweet tastes are liked by children, while bitter taste is rejected [59]. The avoidance of strong-flavored vegetables mentioned by some mothers could be related to bitterness and sulfur aroma compounds, among others. ...
... Moore and colleagues (2007) studied the feeding strategies used by mothers of preschoolers in England, reporting mashing and cutting the food very small as a strategy used by mothers, likely to reduce sensory exposure to the vegetables' flavors and textures [76]. This is supported by the idea that vegetable preferences need to be learned though positive experiences with food, in which many consecutive sensory experiences may be needed [59]. The strategy that worked for some American mothers was to involve children in cooking and gardening. ...
Article
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This exploratory research focused on the cultural variables involved in children's vegetable consumption, through the analysis of mothers' perceptions, attitudes, and feeding practices regarding their children's intake, using qualitative consumer research methods. Twelve focus groups of mothers with children between 2-12 years old (Euro-Americans n = 20, Chinese n = 19, and Chilean n = 19) were conducted. All participants lived in Northern California, had higher education, and incomes that did not limit their vegetable purchase. Intercultural differences in vegetable preferences and consumption habits were found. Mothers across all groups agreed on the importance of children's vegetable consumption, the influence that mothers have over their children's vegetable intake, and how challenging it is to get children to eat a variety of vegetables. The ethnic groups differed regarding how they perceived the level of mothersʹ responsibility over children's vegetable intake, the way that mothers defined the amount of vegetables that children should eat, the constraints that mothers had on increasing their children's vegetable intake and mothers' recommendations to encourage vegetable consumption. Our study suggests that under similar socioeconomic and parental education levels, culture-specific strategies should be considered to foster healthy dietary habits in children.
... However, the dependent variable analyzed in this study was related to the diet quality. These results lend strength to the hypothesis that breastfeeding can increase sensory experiences regarding new flavors for infants [16] and favor children's acceptance of new foods [16], contributing to a more diversified eating behavior in the future [17]. ...
... The following biological factors related to early life were considered: 1) birth weight in grams (g) reported on the form and categorized using the cutoff points proposed by Puffer & ideal range (z-score �-2 and �+1), overweight (z-score >+1 and � +2), obesity (z-score >+2), and severe obesity (zscore >+3) 17 ; birthweight: low (<2500g); insufficient (2500 to 2999g); adequate (3000g to 3999g), and high (� 4000g) 15 . Duration of pregnancy: <8 months and 9 to 10 months. ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to determine associations between biological and behavioral factors in early life and food consumption in Brazilian adolescents. The sample was composed of 36,956 adolescents (12-17 years of age) who participated in the "Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents". Sociodemographic, biological, and behavioral variables were collected using questionnaires self-administered by the adolescents. Early-life factors were assessed using a questionnaire administered to the parents/guardians of the adolescents. Dependent variables related to food consumption (total energy intake and percentages of macronutrient intake [carbohydrates, lipids and proteins]) were measured using the 24-hour recall method and compared to dietary reference intakes. Data analysis was performed with the aid of STATA 14.0, using multiple linear regression analysis with respective β coefficients. The level of significance was set at 5% (p ≤ 0.05). Adolescents born with low weight had lower energy intake (-94.8 kcal, 95%CI: -177.2; -12.3, p = 0.024) and 1.25% higher carbohydrate intake (95%CI: 0.15; 2.34, p = 0.025) compared to those born with adequate weight. Those who received exclusive breast breastfeeding for three to six months ingested 1.32% more lipids than those who received exclusive breast breastfeeding for less than three months (95%CI: 0.37; 2.26, p = 0.006). In conclusion, low birth weight was associated with lower energy intake and a higher percentage of carbohydrate intake, whereas breastfeeding three to six months was associated with a higher percentage of lipid intake.
... The lack of effect on fruit intake contrary to vegetable intake may be explained by the differences between the two types of foods in terms of skills and time needed for preparation, consumption patterns, and the parents' readiness to make changes [62][63][64]. Few preparations are necessary to give the child a fruit as a snack or in a smoothie, and fruits are more easily accepted by children than vegetables due to their sweet taste [65]. The children may have tasted and accepted a variety of fruits before the intervention period started, and improvements may be hard to obtain. ...
... The possibility of reaching a large and widespread population is one of the main benefits of using eHealth approaches [21]; however, we aimed for a larger sample in this study. Separate analyses for fruits and vegetables could also be viewed as a strength due to different consumption patterns and tastes [63][64][65] and are recommended for studies targeting young children [77,78]. A recently published review paper addressed the need to examine both variety and intake (ie, quantity) of fruits and vegetables due to the different findings regarding health outcomes; this review also revealed that such research was particularly lacking in young age groups [35]. ...
Article
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Background In western countries, children’s diets are often low in fruits and vegetables and high in discretionary foods. Diet in early life tends to track through childhood and youth and even into adulthood. Interventions should, therefore, be delivered in periods when habitual traits are established, as in toddlerhood when children adapt to their family’s diet. Objective In this study, we assessed the effect of the Food4toddlers eHealth intervention, which aimed to enhance toddlers’ diets by shaping their food and eating environment. Methods The Food4toddlers randomized controlled trial was conducted in Norway in 2017-2018. Parent-child dyads were recruited through social media. In total, 298 parents completed an online questionnaire at baseline (mean child age 10.9 months, SD 1.2). Postintervention questionnaires were completed immediately after the intervention (ie, follow-up 1; mean child age 17.8 months, SD 1.3) and 6 months after the intervention (ie, follow-up 2; mean child age 24.2 months, SD 1.9). The intervention was guided by social cognitive theory, which targets the linked relationship between the person, the behavior, and the environment. The intervention group (148/298, 49.7%) got access to the Food4toddlers website for 6 months from baseline. The website included information on diet and on how to create a healthy food and eating environment as well as activities, recipes, and collaboration opportunities. To assess intervention effects on child diet from baseline to follow-up 1 and from baseline to follow-up 2, we used generalized estimating equations and a time × group interaction term. Between-group differences in changes over time for frequency and variety of fruits and vegetables and frequency of discretionary foods were assessed. Results At follow-up 1, a significant time × group interaction was observed for the frequency of vegetable intake (P=.02). The difference between groups in the change from baseline to follow-up 1 was 0.46 vegetable items per day (95% CI 0.06-0.86) in favor of the intervention group. No other significant between-group differences in dietary changes from baseline to follow-up 1 or follow-up 2 were observed. However, there is a clear time trend showing that the intake of discretionary foods increases by time from less than 1 item per week at baseline to more than 4 items per week at 2 years of age (P<.001), regardless of group. Conclusions A positive intervention effect was observed for the frequency of vegetable intake at follow-up 1 but not at follow-up 2. No other between-group effects on diet were observed. eHealth interventions of longer duration, including reminders after the main content of the intervention has been delivered, may be needed to obtain long-terms effects, along with tailoring in a digital or a personal form. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) 92980420; https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN92980420
... Continuous nutritional programming in metabolism causing by nutritional stimulation during the early development already been confirmed in fish, whereas the research about early flavour experiences influence flavour and feeding preferences in adults was limited (Balasubramanian et al., 2016;Beauchamp et al., 2009). Flavour of food in early development could affect food preference in human (Beauchamp et al., 2009), and rats (Graven and Browne, 2008;London et al., 1979;Youngentob and Glendinning, 2009). ...
... Continuous nutritional programming in metabolism causing by nutritional stimulation during the early development already been confirmed in fish, whereas the research about early flavour experiences influence flavour and feeding preferences in adults was limited (Balasubramanian et al., 2016;Beauchamp et al., 2009). Flavour of food in early development could affect food preference in human (Beauchamp et al., 2009), and rats (Graven and Browne, 2008;London et al., 1979;Youngentob and Glendinning, 2009). It is confirmed that centre and periphery sensor systems for glucose could regulate feed intake through anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides (Condesieira et al., 2010;Polakof et al., 2011). ...
Article
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As a carnivorous fish, Chinese perch have a poor ability to utilize carbohydrate. To explore the effect of glucose exposure on glucose and lipid metabolism in larval Chinese perch, as well as on the domestication with high-starch artificial diet in juvenile fish. After a short-term glucose immersion, the growth performance, glucose and lipid metabolism, and DNA methylation level of glucose metabolism relative genes were measured. After a 3-month normal feeding trial, the success rate of domestication and the feed intake were examined. Success rate of feed intake and growth performance (the total length, body length and weight) in larval and juvenile fish in GLU group were all significantly higher than CON group (P<0.05). In larval fish, the expressions of insra, insrb and glycolysis relative gene (pk), glycogenolysisre relative gene (gp) in GLU group were significantly up-regulated, while gluconeogenesis relative genes (pepck and g6pca1), glycogenesis relative genes (gs) in GLU group were significantly down-regulated compared to CON group (P<0.05). The expressions of fatty acid synthesis relative genes (srebp1, acc1, and fas) in GLU group were all significantly up-regulated compared to CON group, while β-oxidation relative genes (pparα and cpt1) were significantly down-regulated (P<0.05). The DNA methylation levels of pepck and pk in GLU group were both significantly higher than CON group (P<0.05). A glucose exposure in Chinese perch during the early development stage improved utilization of glucose in larval fish by increasing insulin, glycolysis, and glycogen decomposition, inhibiting gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis, which might be associated with glucose metabolism relative genes (pk and pepck) regulated by DNA methylation. And the glucose exposure increased fatty acid synthesis, decreased β-oxidation in larval fish. Furthermore, the success rate of feed intake and growth was enhanced. This glucose programming continuously enhanced acceptance high-glucose diet and growth in juvenile Chinese perch.
... Optimal breastfeeding practices can act as a health intervention in contexts experiencing the double burden of malnutrition, as it is associated with protection against infectious disease in infancy and childhood, as well as reductions in non-communicable diseases occurring in later life . Similarly, the characteristics of complementary feeding can also influence nutritional programming in early life, in terms of the nutritional quality of foods administered to the infant and the role of taste and preference that may determine later dietary patterns (Beauchamp and Mennella, 2009). ...
... The Continued breastfeeding is recommended beyond the first six months, alongside appropriate complementary feeding practices between the ages of 6-23 months (WHO, 2018). Adequate dietary diversity increases the intake of micronutrients and energy in young children (Onyango et al., 1998;Zhao et al., 2017) and there is evidence to suggest that it has the potential to influence later taste preference and dietary choice throughout adolescence and early adulthood (Beauchamp and Mennella, 2009;Nicklaus et al., 2005 dietary diversity inequality by socioeconomic status is perhaps the starkest globally (UNICEF, 2016). Furthermore, dietary diversity amongst young children in Southeast Asia is a particular concern due to the traditionally rice-based and sometimes vegetarian diets that potentially exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies such as iron, zinc, vitamin A, iodine and calcium deficiencies (Chaparro et al., 2014). ...
Thesis
Despite a breadth of research evidencing the association between exclusive breastfeeding and child growth, little is known about infant feeding practices and diet diversity in low- and middle-income countries. In these settings, the weaning transition offers a critical window in which nutritional inputs can help establish the path to lifelong health, yet only one in six young children receives an adequate diet necessary for optimal growth and development. A distinctive nutrition transition in Southeast Asia has coincided with significant economic growth, with the emergence of a double burden of malnutrition. Chronic and persistent undernutrition in young Southeast Asian children is increasingly coupled with rising prevalence of malnutrition, as diets rapidly “westernize” in line with GDP growth and increasing socioeconomic inequalities. This thesis aimed to examine the role of early feeding practices on child nutritional status and growth in light of this nutrition transition, in three economically and culturally diverse Southeast Asian countries (Cambodia, Myanmar and Indonesia). Given the rapid economic and socio-cultural shifts in this region, the role of socioeconomic status on early life feeding practices and dietary diversity is a focus throughout the thesis. Using the most recent DHS data from all three countries, the first analysis in this thesis presents a sub-regional snapshot of the socioeconomic factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in children aged 0 to <6 months and minimum dietary diversity in children aged 6 to <24 months. The second analysis used structural path analysis to examine the role of continued breastfeeding and dietary diversity in pathways to stunting in Cambodia and how these varied according to contextually relevant, underlying socioeconomic factors. The final analysis in this thesis applied group-based trajectory modelling to longitudinal data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey, to identify BMI growth trajectories and examine early life feeding practices associated with BMI trajectory membership. Overall, evidence from Cambodia, Myanmar and Indonesia demonstrates that exclusive and continued breastfeeding and dietary diversity in young children are clearly defined by socioeconomic conditions. The research presented in this thesis further suggests that feeding practices during the first two years of life play significant mediating roles in the complex pathways between underlying socioeconomic factors and short-term nutritional status in young children, however these associations are harder to identify over longer periods of study, due to the limitations of observational studies. Keywords: Dietary diversity; breastfeeding; Southeast Asia; child nutrition; nutrition transition
... In addition, there is the important gustatory path to forge the food preferences of children [32,33]. Now known is the existence of a very early gustatory perception that begins already in the uterine environment starting from the last trimester of gestation and continues during breastfeeding [34,35]. A recent systematic review of the literature by Spahn et al. [36] has in fact emerged that the evidence regarding the influence of the maternal diet on the food choices of children, during pregnancy and breastfeeding, is, respectively, limited, but consistent and moderate. ...
... That is, an early exposure to less traditionally accepted flavors is possible thanks to proper stimulation in the prenatal period, during breastfeeding and then with weaning [32,35,41]. In any case, as pointed out by Beauchamp et al. [34], early and repeated exposure to natural and healthy flavors is essential for promoting correct food preferences that will be maintained throughout life. The importance of early exposure also clearly emerges from the study by Forestell et al. [45] which underlines that even if during breastfeeding a greater tendency to the initial acceptance of some flavors is favored (provided that the mother has experienced them), during weaning, instead, there is a more total acceptance, if supported by repeated exposures. ...
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The significant increase in chronic non-communicable diseases has changed the global epidemiological landscape. Among these, obesity is the most relevant in the pediatric field. This has pushed the world of research towards a new paradigm: preventive and predictive medicine. Therefore, the window of extreme plasticity that characterizes the first stage of development cannot be underestimated. In this context, nutrition certainly plays a primary role, being one of the most important epigenetic modulators known to date. Weaning, therefore, has a crucial role that must be analyzed far beyond the simple achievement of nutritional needs. Furthermore, the taste experience and the family context are fundamental for future food choices and can no longer be underestimated. The use of metabolomics allows, through the recognition of early disease markers and food-specific metabolites, the planning of an individualized and precise diet. In addition, the possibility of identifying particular groups of subjects at risk and the careful monitoring of adherence to dietary therapy may represent the basis for this change.
... Thus, eating behaviours relate to the quantity of food eaten and to the types and quality of food selected. For instance, young children have innate preferences for sweet flavours and aversions to bitter compounds such as those found in vegetables, a situation believed to be evolutionarily advantageous (Beauchamp & Mennella, 2009;Ventura & Worobey, 2013;Webber et al., 2009). Sweetness in foods indicates readily available energy, so preferentially selecting sweet foods ensures physiological needs for energy are prioritised. ...
... To ensure this preferential selection, consumption of sweet foods is associated with opioid and dopamine signalling in the mesolimbic region of the brain-the reward centre-so we are motivated to continue to select such 'rewarding' foods (Berridge et al., 2009;Reichelt et al., 2015;Saper et al., 2002). Similarly, as bitterness can indicate that a food may be poisonous, behaviours such as food refusal, 'fussiness,' and food neophobia in young children are thought to be innately adaptive behaviours, safeguarding a child from new, unfamiliar and potentially harmful foods (Beauchamp & Mennella, 2009;Ventura & Worobey, 2013;Webber et al., 2009). ...
Article
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This paper aims to ‘ignite’ a new approach to the critical agenda of diet-related health problems and obesity; an approach focused on understanding hunger, on reinstating internal cues to eating, and on generating food environments that allow hunger to be honoured. This paper will examine the underpinning factors that contribute to eating without hunger and will help to build an understanding of why current strategies and approaches to diet-related health problems are failing, after which strategies to reconnect people with food and eating experiences will be presented. Examining both individual and population-level drivers of eating behaviours can begin to resolve the incessant need to eat without hunger, while supporting nutritious food choices and overcoming the demeaning ‘diet cycle’ that compromises a healthy relationship with food.
... Mammals begin developing food preferences in utero (Davis and Stamps, 2004;Beauchamp and Mennella, 2009) with several studies reporting the importance of in utero experience on later in life preferences. Wiedmeier et al. (2012) determined that by providing pregnant cows a high fiber diet (10-fold greater neutral detergent fiber concentration), their calves had a greater intake of ammoniated wheat straw later in life compared to offspring who were provided a low-fiber diet while gestating. ...
... Later in life, novel flavor experiences may be introduced to young livestock through their mothers' milk (Provenza and Balph, 1988;Mennella, 1995;Beauchamp and Mennella, 2009). Consumed volatile compounds are imparted into milk and play a large role in dairy products flavor. ...
Article
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Pastoral livestock production systems are facing considerable societal pressure to reduce environmental impact, enhance animal welfare, and promote product integrity, while maintaining or increasing system profitability. Design theory is the conscious tailoring of a system for a specific or set of purposes. Then, animals-as biological systems nested in grazing environments-can be designed in order to achieve multi-faceted goals. We argue that phytochemical rich diets through dietary taxonomical diversity can be used as a design tool for both current animal product integrity and to develop future multipurpose animals. Through conscious choice, animals offered a diverse array of plants tailor a diet, which better meets their individual requirements for nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and prophylactics. Phytochemical rich diets with diverse arrangements of plant secondary compounds also reduce environmental impacts of grazing animals by manipulating the use of C and N, thereby reducing methane production and excretion of N. Subsequently functional dietary diversity (FDD), as opposed to dietary monotony, offers better nourishment, health benefits and hedonic value (positive reward increasing "liking" of feed), as well as the opportunity for individualism; and thereby eudaimonic well-being. Moreover, phytochemical rich diets with diverse arrangements of plant secondary compounds may translate in animal products with similar richness, enhancing consumer human health and well-being. Functional dietary diversity also allows us to design future animals. Dietary exposure begins in utero, continues through mothers' milk, and carries on in early-life experiences, influencing dietary preferences later in life. More specifically, in utero exposure to specific flavors cause epigenetic changes that alter morphological and physiological mechanisms that influence future "wanting," "liking" and learning of particular foods and foodscapes. In this context, we argue that in utero and early life exposure to designed flavors of future multifunctional foodscapes allow us to graze future ruminants with enhanced multiple ecosystem services. Collectively, the strategic use of FDD allows us to "create" animals and their products for immediate and future food, health, and wealth. Finally, implementing design theory provides a link between our thoughtscape (i.e., the use of FDD as design) to future landscapes, which provides a beneficial foodscape to the animals, an subsequently to us.
... These differences may result from the microbiological methods applied. Streptococcus mitis is a commensal bacterium inhabiting the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract of humans [11,12], which seems to colonize infants in the first days of life [13] in proportions that show high individual variability [14]. ...
... Nutrients 2020,12, 2592 ...
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The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis about differences in sweet taste perception in the group of preschool children with and without caries, and to determine its relationship with cariogenic microbiota and the frequency of sweets consumption in children. The study group included of 63 children aged 2-6 years: 32 with caries and 31 without caries. The study consisted of collecting questionnaire data and assessment of dental status using the decayed, missing, filled in primary teeth index (dmft) and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II). The evaluation of sweet taste perception was carried out using a specific method that simultaneously assessed the level of taste preferences and the sensitivity threshold for a given taste. The microbiological analysis consisted of the assessment of the quantitative and qualitative compositions of the oral microbiota of the examined children. The sweet taste perception of children with caries was characterized by a lower susceptibility to sucrose (the preferred sucrose solution concentration was >4 g/L) compared to children without caries (in the range ≤ 4 g/L, p = 0.0015, chi-square test). A similar relationship was also observed for frequent snacking between meals (p = 0.0038, chi-square test). The analysis of studied variables showed the existence of a strong positive correlation between the perception of sweet taste and the occurrence and intensity of the cariogenic process (p = 0.007 for dmft; and p = 0.012 for ICDAS II), as well as the frequency of consuming sweets (p ≤ 0.001 for frequent and repeated consumption of sweets during the day, Spearman test) in children with caries. Additionally, children with an elevated sucrose taste threshold were more than 10-times more likely to develop S. mutans presence (OR = 10.21; 95% CI 3.11-33.44). The results of this study suggest the future use of taste preferences in children as a diagnostic tool for the early detection of increased susceptibility to caries through microbial dysbiosis towards specific species of microorganisms.
... birth, yet the first few months of life are a "sensitive" period during which these preferences can be modified to promote acceptance of nutrient-dense foods (6,8). Complementary feeding (CF), or introduction of solid foods and liquids other than breast milk or formula (9), is arguably the most important opportunity to override innate preferences and shape children's future dietary habits. ...
... We found no effect of early variety exposure on later diet quality among those breastfeeding at 6mo, consistent with evidence that breastfed children are more accepting of new flavors and foods regardless of when and how they are offered (8,10,21). ...
Article
Background Complementary feeding (CF) provides an opportunity to shape children's future dietary habits, setting the foundation for good nutrition and health. Objective We estimated effects of 3 CF behaviors on early childhood diet quality using inverse probability (IP) weighting of marginal structural models (MSMs). Methods Among 1,041 children from the Boston-area Project Viva cohort, we estimated effects on the mean Youth Healthy Eating Index (YHEI) score in early childhood of: 1) delayed (≥12mo, vs. early [<12mo]) introduction of sweets and fruit juice; 2) continued (vs. ceased) offering of initially refused foods; and 3) early (<12mo, vs. late [≥12mo]) introduction of flavor/texture variety. Mothers reported CF behaviors at 1y and completed food frequency questionnaires for children in early childhood (median age 3.1y). We estimated average treatment effects (ATEs) using IP weighting of MSMs to adjust for both confounding and selection bias due to censored outcomes and examined effect modification by child sex and breastfeeding (BF) vs. formula feeding (FF) at 6mo. Results Twelve percent of mothers delayed introducing sweets/fruit juice, 93% continued offering initially refused foods, and 32% introduced flavor/texture variety early. The mean±SD YHEI score was 52.8±9.2 points. In adjusted models, we estimated a higher mean YHEI score with delayed (vs. early) sweets and fruit juice among BF children (ATE 4.5 points, 95% CI: 1.0, 7.4), as well as with continued (vs. ceased) offering of refused foods among females (ATE 5.4 points, 95% CI: 0.8, 9.1). The ATE for early (vs. late) flavor/texture variety was 1.7 points (95% CI: 0.3, 3.2) overall and stronger (2.8 points, 95% CI: 0.7, 5.1) among the FF group. Conclusions Delayed introduction of sweets/juice, continued offering of refused foods, and early flavor/texture variety may all result in higher childhood diet quality. Effects may depend on child sex and infant breastfeeding status. Clinical Trial Registry information: Project Viva is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02820402.
... Whilst food intake is driven by an innate, biological need for energy, early life food preferences and selection are shaped by experiential learning (Fig. 1.). Maternal diet and food choices during pregnancy and lactation contribute to the chemical continuity of flavour experience from food-based volatiles in utero to the sensory/nutrient profiles of breastmilk then complementary foods [11,96]. The foetal programming hypothesis predicts that early life exposure to plant-based foods, during pregnancy, lactation and complementary feeding will amplify flavour learning and help to establish preferences for vegetables [12]. ...
Article
Children eat too few vegetables and this is attributed to disliked flavours and texture as well as low energy density. Vegetables confer selective health benefits over other foods and so children are encouraged to eat them. Parents and caregivers face a challenge in incorporating vegetables into their child's habitual diet. However, liking and intake may be increased through different forms of learning. Children learn about vegetables across development from exposure to some vegetable flavours in utero, through breastmilk, complementary feeding and transitioning to family diets. Infants aged between 5-7m are most amenable to accepting vegetables. However, a range of biological, social, environmental and individual factors may act independently and in tandem to reduce the appeal of eating vegetables. By applying aspects of learning theory, including social learning, liking and intake of vegetables can be increased. We propose taking an integrated and individualised approach to child feeding in order to achieve optimal learning in the early years. Simple techniques such as repeated exposure, modelling, social praise and creating social norms for eating vegetables can contribute to positive feeding experiences which in turn, contributes to increased acceptance of vegetables. However, there is a mismatch between experimental studies and the ways that children eat vegetables in real world settings. Therefore, current knowledge of the best strategies to increase vegetable liking and intake gained from experimental studies must be adapted and integrated for application to home and care settings, while responding to individual differences.
... Most infants <4 months of age readily drink formulas that contain hydrolyzed casein which are extremely bitter, however beyond 6 months, infants who have never been exposed to these formulas refuse to drink them (33). Moreover, infants fed hydrolysate formulas in the first several months of life are more willing to eat savory, sour or bitter foods than are infants fed standard milk-based formulas and as compared to children who were never fed a hydrolysate formula, 5 year old children who were fed a hydrolysate formula during infancy more readily eat foods with sour or bitter tastes or aromas (34). ...
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Humans are the only mammals who feed our young special complementary foods before weaning and we are the only primates that wean our young before they can forage independently. There appears to be a sensitive period in the first several months of life when infants readily accept a wide variety of tastes and this period overlaps with a critical window for oral tolerance. As a result, infants should be exposed to a wide variety of flavors while mother is pregnant, while mother is nursing and beginning at an early age. There also appears to be a sensitive period between 4 and 9 months when infants are most receptive to different food textures. There remains debate about when it is best to begin introducing solid foods into an infant's diet however, the available evidence suggests that provided the water and food supply are free of contamination, and the infant is provided adequate nutrition, there are no clear contraindications to feeding infants complementary foods at any age. There is emerging evidence that introduction of solid foods into an infant's diet by 4 months may increase their willingness to eat a variety of fruits and vegetables later in life, decrease their risk of having feeding problems later in life, and decrease their risk of developing food allergies, and the early introduction of solid foods into an infant's diet does not appear to increase their risk of obesity later in childhood.
... Particularly, bitter-tasting types, such as spinach, broccoli, and cauliflower, were used in a few products. The innate dislike of bitter-tasting substances in humans [45] can be overcome by repeated exposure [46]. Therefore, the complementary feeding period is regarded as a "window of opportunity" [47], when exposure to a wider range of flavors increases acceptance and reduces reluctance towards disliked and novel tastes even in the long term [48]. ...
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As consumption of commercial complementary food (CCF) during infancy and toddlerhood is common, the aim of the present study was to describe the current (2020) German market of CCF products targeted at infants and toddlers with a special focus on ingredients, macronutrients, and the practice of nutrient fortification. Information on age declarations, ingredients, energy and nutrient contents, and nutrient fortification was obtained in a market survey by contacting the producers and searching manufacturers’ websites. Each product was assigned to 1 of 13 product categories (menus, milk–cereal–meal, fruit–cereal–meal, oil, vegetables, meat, fish, fruits, cereals, snack foods, pouches, desserts, beverages). Descriptive statistics were used. We identified 1057 CF products on the German market (infants’ CCF (<12 months): n = 829; toddlers’ CCF (>12 months): n = 228)). The highest protein content (% of energy content, %E) was found in meat products. In pouches, beverages, cereal fruit meals, and fruits, more than 50% of energy came from total sugar. The highest median salt content was found in toddlers’ menus and desserts. Around one-third of infants’ CCF products and one quarter of toddlers’ products were fortified with nutrients. Vitamin B1 (thiamin) was the most frequently fortified nutrient, followed by vitamin C, iron, calcium, and vitamin D. Apple was the type of fruit listed most often in products with fruits, whereas carrot was the most frequent vegetable among CCF with vegetables. In particular, the high total sugar content of most CCFs currently available on the German market may promote unhealthy dietary habits. Parents need to be advised about the optimal selection of products.
... The sensorial perceptions of a feed (i.e., palatability) are mainly defined by a combination of three chemical sensations: smell (aroma), taste (flavor), and somatosensory (e.g., texture). These are important determinants for feed acceptance and later feeding behaviors [21]. Several studies have reported that certain BCs used as flavors and sensory additives have the ability to modify feed palatability and, thus, modulate feed intake and preferences in piglets [8,9,22]. ...
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In the present research, two studies were performed to determine the effects of specific botanical compounds (BCs) on the innate feed preference and feed intake of piglets, as follows: Exp. 1 studied the innate feed preferences of post-weaning piglets using a double-choice feeding test. A total of 828 weaned piglets were distributed into 36 pens (23 pigs/pen) and assigned to three dietary pair choice feeding options (n = 12): unsupplemented prestarter diets (reference) versus reference plus D-limonene, trans-anethole, or eucalyptol. Piglets showed a preference for diets with D-limonene (53.8%) and trans-anethole (54.5%), and an aversion to eucalyptol (41.6%) (p < 0.05). Exp. 2 studied whether the prenatal and perinatal exposure to D-limonene, trans-anethole, and eucalyptol influences the feed intake and growth of newly-weaned piglets. Twenty-eight gestating and lactating sows were distributed into two dietary treatments (n = 14): unsupplemented Control diets or Control plus a blend of BCs (BBC; containing D-limonene, trans-anethole, and eucalyptol). D-limonene, trans-anethole, and eucalyptol were transferred into the placental fluid, and D-limonene and trans-anethole into the milk (p < 0.05). Furthermore, weanling piglets (n = 200; Control) and (n = 203; BBC) received the same treatment as their mothers in prestarter diets. The early response after weaning showed that piglets’ post-weaning BW gain was higher in the Control (p < 0.05) group than in those exposed to BBC. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to preferred D-limonene and trans-anethole, or familiarity to eucalyptol did not help to overcome the innate aversion to eucalyptol and its negative effect on weanling piglets’ BW.
... Results of this study suggest that INTRODUCTION Children are highly susceptible to unhealthy foods. Pre-disposed sweet and salty taste preferences and bitter and sour taste rejections, innate preferences for high caloric foods, and early experience rewarding those predispositions make children be inclined to eat unhealthy foods high in sugar, salt, and fat (Birch and Fisher, 1998;Mela, 2001;Beauchamp and Mennella, 2009;De Cosmi et al., 2017). As previous food decision research has shown, children primarily incorporate taste attributes, while they barely consider health attributes Lim et al., 2016;Ha et al., 2019). ...
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Children are vulnerable to adverse effects of food advertising. Food commercials are known to increase hedonic, taste-oriented, and unhealthy food decisions. The current study examined how promoting resilience to food commercials impacted susceptibility to unhealthy food decision-making in children. To promote resilience to food commercials, we utilized the food advertising literacy intervention intended to enhance cognitive skepticism and critical thinking, and decrease positive attitudes toward commercials. Thirty-six children aged 8–12 years were randomly assigned to the food advertising literacy intervention or the control condition. Eighteen children received four brief intervention sessions via video over 1 week period. In each session, children watched six food commercials with interspersed embedded intervention narratives. While watching food commercials and narratives, children were encouraged to speak their thoughts out loud spontaneously (“think-aloud”), which provided children's attitudes toward commercials. Eighteen children in the control condition had four control sessions over 1 week, and watched the same food commercials without intervention narratives while thinking aloud. The first and last sessions were held in the laboratory, and the second and third sessions were held at the children's homes. Susceptibility to unhealthy food decision-making was indicated by the decision weights of taste attributes, taste perception, food choices, ad libitum snacking, and cognitive and affective attitudes toward food commercials. As hypothesized, the intervention successfully decreased susceptibility to unhealthy food decision-making evidenced by reduced decision weights of the taste in food decisions, decreased tasty perception of unhealthy foods, and increased cognitive skepticism and critical thinking toward food commercials. In addition, as children's opinions assimilated to intervention narratives, their cognitive skepticism and critical thinking toward commercials increased. The aforementioned results were not shown in the control condition. However, this brief intervention was not enough to change actual food choices or food consumption. Results of this study suggest that promoting resilience to food commercials by enhancing cognitive skepticism and critical thinking effectively reduced children's susceptibility to unhealthy food-decision making.
... For example, the low solubility, volatility, intense sensory characteristics, and reactivity of phenolic compounds and essential oils often hinders their incorporation in foods. Adverse effects on the sensory quality of PIF are a notable concern in light of evidence that exposure to flavors modulates neonatal feeding behavior and food acceptability and choice later in life (164,165). Recent progress in the use of biopolymers from natural sources for the design of innovative encapsulation systems that provide means to deliver effective yet reduced doses of antibacterial agents, protect active ingredients from undesirable reactions, and provide controlled, quantitative release into food matrices will undoubtedly promote the development of delivery strategies that overcome constraints on both the choice and application of NACs (166,167). ...
Article
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Bacteria from the genus Cronobacter are opportunistic foodborne pathogens capable of causing severe infections in neonates, the elderly and immunocompromised adults. The majority of neonatal infections have been linked epidemiologically to dehydrated powdered infant formulas (PIFs), the majority of which are manufactured using processes that do not ensure commercial sterility. Unfortunately, the osmotolerance, desiccation resistance, mild thermotolerance and wide-ranging minimum, optimum and maximum growth temperatures of Cronobacter spp. are conducive to survival and/or growth during the processing, reconstitution and storage of reconstituted PIFs. Consequently, considerable research has been directed at the development of alternative strategies for the control of Cronobacter spp. in PIFs, including approaches that employ antimicrobial compounds derived from natural sources. The latter include a range of phytochemicals ranging from crude extracts or essential oils derived from various plants (e.g., thyme, cinnamon, clove, marjoram, cumin, mint, fennel), to complex polyphenolic extracts (e.g., muscadine seed, pomegranate peel, olive oil, and cocoa powder extracts), purified simple phenolic compounds (e.g., carvacrol, citral, thymol, eugenol, diacetyl, vanillin, cinnamic acid, trans-cinnamaldehyde, ferulic acid), and medium chain fatty acids (monocaprylin, caprylic acid). Antimicrobials derived from microbial sources (e.g., nisin, other antibacterial peptides, organic acids, coenzyme Q0) and animal sources (e.g., chitosan, lactoferrin, antibacterial peptides from milk) have also been shown to exhibit antibacterial activity against the species. The selection of antimicrobials for the control of Cronobacter spp. requires an understanding of activity at different temperatures, knowledge about their mode of action, and careful consideration for toxicological and nutritional effects on neonates. Consequently, the purpose of the present review is to provide a comprehensive summary of currently available data pertaining to the antibacterial effects of natural antimicrobial compounds against Cronobacter spp. with a view to provide information needed to inform the selection of compounds suitable for control of the pathogen during the manufacture or preparation of PIFs by end users.
... Grazing animals eat a wide variety of plants, but often prefer some and avoid others. Animals select the plants they eat based on the flavour, defined as the perceptual combination of three anatomically distinct chemical senses: taste, smell, and chemosensory irritation (Beauchamp and Mennella, 2009). Food flavour is determined by its physical and chemical characteristics, and during ingestion, flavour cues are integrated with the postingestive effects of nutrients and toxins, influencing its palatability (Provenza, 1995;Mayland and Shewmaker 1999;Atwood et al., 2001). ...
Chapter
Utilization in ruminant diets of Cistus ladanifer (a shrub native from Mediterranean region) or its condensed tannin (CT) extracts has been intensively explored in the last years, with a wide range of studies that have provided valuable information on conditions of use, benefits and action mechanisms. Although it is considered as a feed with poor nutritional value, C. ladanifer can be used as component or as a source of bioactive compounds for ruminant diets in order to modulate the rumen metabolism and oxidative stability of animal products. Cistus ladanifer has been shown to be a good approach to improve the nutritional value of ruminant products, promoting the increase of healthy fatty acids content, which appear to be mainly due to ability of their CT to modulate ruminal biohydrogenation. On the other hand, incorporation of C. ladanifer in ruminant diets can also limits the lipid oxidation of meat, even in meat more susceptible to oxidation. Application of C. ladanifer CT extracts to silage has been shown to be effective in reducing the proteolysis, improving the silage nutritional value. Moreover, the treatment of dietary protein source with C. ladanifer CT extract also reduce the protein rumen degradability, allowing reduce the protein level in ruminant diets without compromise the animal performance.
... Thus, alteration in taste preferences may be another potential mechanism by which developmental programming of obesity and related metabolic disorders occur. Until now, only a small number of studies were investigating this potential mechanism and able to show an association between perinatal maternal diet and offspring propensity for similar palatable food in animals [21,22] and humans [23,24]. The hedonic aspect of feeding, including sensory taste preference, is thought to be primarily regulated by the midbrain reward-related centers [25,26]. ...
Article
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Maternal intake of high fat diet (HFD) increases risk for obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. Developmental programming of taste preference is a potential mechanism by which this occurs. Whether maternal HFD during pregnancy, lactation, or both, imposes greater risks for altered taste preferences in adult offspring remains a question, and in turn, was investigated in the present study. Four groups of offspring were generated based on maternal HFD access: (1) HFD during pregnancy and lactation (HFD); (2) HFD during pregnancy (HFD-pregnancy); (3) HFD during lactation (HFD-lactation); and (4) normal diet (ND) during pregnancy and lactation (ND). Adult offspring 70 days of age underwent sensory and motivational taste preference testing with various concentrations of sucrose and Intralipid solutions using brief-access automated gustometers (Davis-rigs) and 24 h two-bottle choice tests, respectively. To control for post-gestational diet effects, offspring in all experimental groups were weaned on ND, and did not differ in body weight or glucose tolerance at the time of testing. Offspring exposed to maternal HFD showed increased sensory taste responses for 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 M sucrose solutions in HFD and 0.6 M in HFD-pregnancy groups, compared to animals exposed to ND. Similar effects were noted for lower concentrations of Intralipid in HFD (0.05, 0.10%) and HFD-pregnancy (0.05, 0.10, 0.5%) groups. The HFD-lactation group showed an opposite, diminished responsiveness for sucrose at the highest concentrations (0.9, 1.2, 1.5 M), but not for Intralipid, compared to ND animals. Extended-access two-bottle tests did not reveal major difference across the groups. Our study shows that maternal HFD during pregnancy and lactation has markedly different effects on preferences for palatable sweet and fatty solutions in adult offspring and suggests that such developmental programing may primarily affect gustatory mechanisms. Future studies are warranted for determining the impact of taste changes on development of obesity and metabolic disorders in a “real” food environment with food choices available, as well as to identify specific underlying mechanisms.
... 3 Moreover, the bitter taste of many clinical drugs indicates the possibility of drug repurposing; for example, the bitter taste of pediatric drugs can cause compliance and safety problems when given to the children. 2,4 Thus, fast and reliable detection of bitter taste substances can improve the life experience and promote drug development. Recently, biosensors for the detection of bitter molecules are usually constructed based on gustatory tissue cells and bitter receptors. ...
Article
Bitter taste substances commonly represent a signal of toxicity. Fast and reliable detection of bitter molecules improves the safety of foods and beverages. Here, we report a biosensor using an easily accessible and cost-effective odorant-binding protein (OBP) of Drosophila melanogaster as a biosensitive material for the detection of bitter molecules. Based on the theoretical evaluation of the protein–ligand interaction, binding energies between the OBP and bitter molecules were calculated via molecular docking for the prediction and verification of binding affinities. Through one-step reduction, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were deposited on the screen-printed electrodes for improving the electrochemical properties of electrodes. After the electrodes were immobilized with OBPs via layer-by-layer self-assembly, typical bitter molecules, such as denatonium, quinine, and berberine, were investigated through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The bitter molecules showed significant binding properties to the OBP with linear response concentrations ranging from 10–9 to 10–6 mg/mL. Therefore, the OBP-based biosensor offered powerful analytic techniques for the detection of bitter molecules and showed promising applications in the field of bitter taste evaluation.
... Liem et al 27 reported that children who were fed protein hydrolysate formulas their first year of life preferred higher levels of citric acid in juice and also less frequently reported preferences for sweetened juices, when compared to children fed a milk-based formula. It has been shown that infants fed on formulas with a bitter taste (hydrolyzed protein) from birth, eat more savory, bitter and sour-tasting foods after weaning than those given sweeter tasting milk-based formulas or breast milk 28 . Also, MacDonald. ...
Article
As palatability of medical formulas has been documented as unpleasant, new options are required to improve acceptance and adherence in people with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) has a glycoprotein named miraculin that transforms a sour, bitter taste such as the one found in metabolic formula, into a sweet perception. The objective of this work is to analyze the response in the taste perception of metabolic formula with the use of the miraculin tablets in patients with IEM and healthy adults. To test this hypothesis a prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental, analytical study was performed. Patients with IEM and healthy adults were recruited. All participants assessed 3 different liquids (lemon, apple cider vinegar and metabolic formula) before and after the administration of miraculin tablets and completed a questionnaire. The sensory responses were evaluated using hedonic scales, analyzed with nonparametric tests for paired data. Seven patients with IEM and 14 healthy subjects were included. After miraculin intake 57% of patients (Z ≤ -1.89 p= 0.059) and healthy adults (Z≤ -2.31 p= 0.021) had a positive change in their taste perception. The absolute frequency of patients who did not like the metabolic formula decreased from 4 to 1, and in patients who liked it or loved, it increased from 0 to 2 and from 0 to 1 respectively; the frequency of patients who perceived the metabolic formula as indifferent or hated it, did not change. Response in taste perception had a positive change of 57% in both groups. The use of miraculin tablets may improve palatability of metabolic formula.
... Food aversion and delay in the acquisition of feeding competencies have been described in patients on long-term dietary restrictions. Therefore, introduction of different tastes and textures should be recommended to families in order to improve flavor acceptance and reduce the risk of atypical eating behaviors [148]. ...
Article
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In the last decade, the role of nutritional management in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases has gained increasing popularity. Disease-specific diets have been introduced as conventional treatments by international guidelines. Patients tend to more willingly accept food-based therapies than drugs because of their relatively “harmless” nature. Apart from a diet’s therapeutic role, nutritional support is crucial in maintaining growth and improving clinical outcomes in pediatric patients. Despite the absence of classical “side effects”, however, it should be emphasized that any dietary modification might have negative consequences on children’s growth and development. Hence, expert supervision is always advised, in order to support adequate nutritional requirements. Unfortunately, the media provide an inaccurate perception of the role of diet for gastrointestinal diseases, leading to misconceptions by patients or their caregivers that tends to overestimate the beneficial role of diets and underestimate the potential adverse effects. Moreover, not only patients, but also healthcare professionals, have a number of misconceptions about the nutritional benefits of diet modification on gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of this review is to highlight the role of diet in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases, to detect misconceptions and to give a practical guide for physicians on the basis of current scientific evidence.
... Data on saliva level/concentration of lactose are lacking, although evidence of urine excretion of this metabolite is correlated to milk consumption [53] and, in its turn, also related to fermentation by gut microbiota that in obesity has a great impact on metabolic homeostasis [54]. Colorized fuzzy ratio rendering (a) of the differential response between composite class images from MUO (analyzed image) and MHO (reference image) samples. ...
Article
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This study examines the information potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF MS) and variable ionization energy (i.e., Tandem Ionization™) to study changes in saliva metabolic signatures from a small group of obese individuals. The study presents a proof of concept for an effective exploitation of the complementary nature of tandem ionization data. Samples are taken from two sub-populations of severely obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2) patients, named metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). Untargeted fingerprinting, based on pattern recognition by template matching, is applied on single data streams and on fused data, obtained by combining raw signals from the two ionization energies (12 and 70 eV). Results indicate that at lower energy (i.e., 12 eV), the total signal intensity is one order of magnitude lower compared to the reference signal at 70 eV, but the ranges of variations for 2D peak responses is larger, extending the dynamic range. Fused data combine benefits from 70 eV and 12 eV resulting in more comprehensive coverage by sample fingerprints. Multivariate statistics, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) show quite good patient clustering, with total explained variance by the first two principal components (PCs) that increases from 54% at 70 eV to 59% at 12 eV and up to 71% for fused data. With PLS-DA, discriminant components are highlighted and putatively identified by comparing retention data and 70 eV spectral signatures. Within the most informative analytes, lactose is present in higher relative amount in saliva from MHO patients, whereas N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, urea, glucuronic acid γ-lactone, 2-deoxyribose, N-acetylneuraminic acid methyl ester, and 5-aminovaleric acid are more abundant in MUO patients. Visual feature fingerprinting is combined with pattern recognition algorithms to highlight metabolite variations between composite per-class images obtained by combining raw data from individuals belonging to different classes, i.e., MUO vs. MHO.Graphical abstract.
... Institutions worldwide have designed dietary guidelines in their national food and nutrition policies [15,16]. These guidelines are designed to curb the increase in NCDs by reducing sodium intake and increasing potassium intake in the population, as it has been identified as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce NCDs [4]. ...
Article
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Background: Numerous studies have shown how diet, such as sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake, is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study aimed to assess the relationship between sodium intake, potassium intake; and sodium/potassium ratio with blood pressure (BP) and abdominal obesity amongst Ellisras rural children. Method: In this cross-sectional study, data on dietary intake of sodium and potassium were collected using a 24-h recall questionnaire from a total of 765 participants, aged 5-13 years. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were also collected. Generalised linear models and Pearson correlation were conducted to assess the association of sodium intake, potassium intake; and their ratio with BP, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Results: In both age groups, less than 14.9% of males and 19.8% of females consumed above the recommended adequate intake (AI) of sodium. In addition, both age groups had more than 90% of males and females who consumed below the recommended AI of potassium. Moreover, the sodium/potassium ratio was above the WHO recommended level in more than 30% of males and females. The study found a significant, weak positive correlation of sodium intake with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and with WHtR. A significant, weak positive correlation was also found between sodium/potassium ratio and WHtR. In addition, a significant association was found between potassium intake and systolic BP. Conclusion: Although our study found a notable low average intake of sodium and potassium as compared to the recommended values. There was positive correlation found between sodium intake and BP. Furthermore, a positive correlation of sodium intake and sodium/potassium ratio with WHtR was also found.
... [135]. Die Geschmacksprägung beginnt bereits im Mutterleib [131] und setzt sich im Säuglings-und im Kleinkindalter fort [20,24,124]. Da Geschmacksstoffe in die Muttermilch übergehen, machen gestillte Kinder bereits früh verschiedene Geschmackserfahrungen und scheinen neue Lebensmittel leichter zu akzeptieren, als dies bei nichtgestillten Kindern der Fall ist [116]. ...
... The ease of food acceptance and preference formation seems to decrease as a child matures, and more exposure over a longer time seems necessary to influence older children's dietary habits. Moreover, preferences that are formed early in life (i.e., during a child's first four years) tend to have a persistent long-term influence on food choices [14,47]. The current study involved children aged 7-12 years old, and the HPSF intervention might not have been powerful enough to influence the preferences already formed before this age. ...
Article
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Mere exposure is an often-described strategy to increase children’s food familiarity, preferences, and intake. Research investigating this method in less controlled settings is scarce. This study investigates the effects of repeated fruit and vegetable (FV) exposure through the Healthy Primary School of the Future (HPSF) on children’s FV familiarity, preferences, and intake. The study had a longitudinal quasi-experimental design comparing two full HPSFs (focus: nutrition and physical activity) with two partial HPSFs (focus: physical activity) in the Netherlands. Annual measurements (child-reported questionnaires) were conducted during 2015–2019 in 833 7–12-year-old children. The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02800616). After correction for baseline, full HPSFs had, on average, a lower number of unfamiliar vegetable items after one (effect size (ES) = −0.28) and three years (ES = −0.35) and a higher number of disliked vegetable items after one year (ES = 0.24) than partial HPSFs. Unfavorable intervention effects were observed for fruit intake after one (odds ratio (OR) = 0.609) and four years (OR = 0.451). Repeated FV exposure had limited effects on children’s FV familiarity, preferences, and intake, likely due to insufficient taste exposure. Considering the widespread implementation of school-based mere exposure efforts, it is highly relevant to further investigate under which circumstances mere exposure effectively contributes to improvements in (determinants of) FV intake.
... Furthermore, a shorter total duration of breastfeeding was associated with picky eating. Breastfeeding offers the baby the flavours of foods and beverages consumed by the mother, which can influence its food preferences and acceptance (48) . This highlights that breastfeeding might be a protective factor against picky eating (21,49) . ...
Article
Cross-sectional study that compared feeding difficulties in children aged 2 to 5 years fed a cow’s milk elimination diet due to food allergy with a control group on an unrestricted diet. All data were obtained online. Specific questionnaires evaluated three types of feeding difficulties: avoidant eating, picky eating, and feeding problems. The median scores of feeding difficulties in the elimination diet (n = 146) and control (n = 109) groups were, respectively: picky eating (31 vs. 27; p = 0.148), avoidant eating (3 vs. 3; p = 0.508) and feeding problems (38 vs. 34, p = 0.032). Picky eating was more frequent in the elimination diet (35.4%) than in the controls (23.3%; p = 0.042), but no difference was observed for avoidant eating (23.9% vs. 20.4%, p = 0.508 ) and feeding problems (32.1% vs. 28.4%, p = 0.541 ). Picky eating was associated with lower values of weight-for-age z-scores in both groups. Multivariate analyses identified associations of the three feeding difficulties with previous food refusal and/or inappetence in the elimination diet group. Current constipation and anticipatory gagging were associated with feeding difficulties in both groups. In conclusion, children on an elimination diet presented higher frequency of picky eating and higher scores of feeding problems. Picky eating was associated with lower values of weight-for-age z-scores. Food refusal and/or inappetence as clinical manifestations of food allergy were associated with feeding difficulties at the moment of the survey. Current constipation and anticipatory gagging were associated with picky eating, avoidant eating and feeding problems.
... Toddlers' high fruit and vegetable consumption has been found to be associated with a lower BMI and lower risk of obesity [4], and is a protective factor for a variety of chronic diseases (including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, etc.) [5][6][7]. What's more, dietary habits in childhood are likely to track into adulthood [8]. In early childhood, high fruit and vegetable consumption can promote health and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood [9]. ...
Article
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Background Health benefits of fruit and vegetable have been well recognized. However, insufficient consumption of fruit and vegetable is prevalent among toddlers, and has become a global public health issue. Maternal feeding practices are potential factors influencing toddlers’ dietary intake, including fruit and vegetable intake. This study was conducted to explore the influence of maternal feeding practices on toddlers’ fruit and vegetable consumption in Ireland. Methods A follow-up to the DIT-Coombe Hospital birth cohort was conducted. Mothers in the original cohort were invited to participate in the present follow-up study by phone. A questionnaire assessing maternal feeding behavior and the child’s 3-day food diary was sent to mothers who agreed to take part in the present study by post, together with a self-addressed stamped envelope. Results There were 193 mother-children pairs included in the analysis, and the mean age of children was 2.4 (SD 0.7) years old. Toddlers’ mean daily intakes of vegetable and fruit were 67.57 (SD 45.95) g and 213.35 (SD 170.78) g, respectively. Logistic regression analyses showed that maternal practice of breastfeeding for more than 4 weeks was positively associated with fruit ( OR = 2.93, 95% CI : 1.29–6.64) and vegetable ( OR = 1.95, 95% CI : 1.00–3.81) intake or the contribution of fruit ( OR = 2.62, 95% CI : 1.19–5.80) and vegetable ( OR = 2.02, 95% CI : 1.02–3.99) to the total diet. Letting the child eat with other family members was associated with high vegetable intake (OR = 5.45, 95%CI: 1.69–17.61) and high contribution of vegetable to total diet (OR = 3.78, 95% CI: 1.04–13.82). Not being too worried about the child’s refusal to eat was positively associated with toddlers’ vegetable intake (OR = 2.10, 95%CI: 1.09–4.05). Conclusions To increase children’s fruit and vegetable intake, and develop good eating habits, parents should eat with their toddlers, be patient and not put much pressure on their children in the context of meal feeding.
... 18 Infants experience what they are given; moreover, these experiences are reported to influence later food choices and are important in establishing life-long food habits. 19,20 In our study group, the most common preferred foods to begin with for complementary feeding were yogurt (33%) and pureed fruit (21%) contrary to recommendations but in accordance with the national data. The most common foods given to children at age 6-23 months were cheese, yogurt, and other milk products (74% and 73%, respectively) and other fruits and vegetables (74% and 77%, respectively) in TDHS-2018. ...
Article
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Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of parents about breastfeeding, complementary food, and infant nutrition who have healthy infants born at term and under 2 years of age. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted among the parents of infants who came for well-child visits to pediatric clinics of 4 hospitals. Healthy infants under 2 years of age and who had been born at term were interviewed. The questionnaire included 35 questions to evaluate parents' knowledge, attitude, and practices about breastfeeding and infant nutri- tion in addition to sociodemographic data. Data were obtained via questionnaire and were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 20.0 package program. Results: The study group consisted of 679 infants and their parents. The median durations of exclusive breastfeeding and total breastfeeding time were found to be 4 months and 10 months. Although 75% of the participants stated that infants must be exclusively breastfed for 6 months, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months was 44%. The 393 (58%) participants used formula for infant nutrition and 47 (12%) of those started with complementary feeding. 90% of the participants stated that formula advertisements did not affect their decision on starting formula but the rate of thinking that other people may be affected by the advertisements was 80%. Conclusion: The knowledge of parents on human milk is not insufficient but they need to be supported especially to continue exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months and appro- priate complementary food during the weaning period.
... Particularly, bitter tasting types, as spinach, broccoli, and cauli ower, were used in few products. The innate dislike of bitter tasting substances in humans (31) can be overcome by repeated exposure (32). Therefore, the complementary feeding period is regarded as a 'window of opportunity' (33), when exposure to a wider range of avors increases acceptance and reduces reluctance towards disliked and novel tastes even in the long term (34). ...
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Background: As consumption of commercial complementary food (CCF) during infancy and toddlerhood is common, the aim of the present study was to describe the current (2020) German market of CCF products with a special focus on ingredients, macronutrients, and the practice of nutrient fortification. Methods: Information on age declarations, ingredients, energy and nutrient contents, and nutrient fortification of 1057 CCF products was obtained by contacting the producers and searching manufacturers' websites. Each product was assigned to one of thirteen product categories (menus, milk-cereal-meal, fruit-cereal-meal, oil, vegetables, meat, fish, fruits, cereals, snack foods, pouches, desserts, beverages) and stratified into infants’ CCF (< 12 months, n=829) and toddlers’ CCF (> 12 months, n=228). Descriptive statistics were used in order to give an overview of the available products. Results: Highest protein content (% of energy content, %E) was found in meat products. More than 50 %E of total sugar was found in pouches, beverages, cereal fruit meals, and fruits. Highest median salt content was found in toddlers’ menus and desserts. Around one third of infants’ CCF products and one quarter of toddlers’ products were fortified with nutrients. Vitamin B1 (thiamin) was the most frequently fortified nutrient, followed by vitamin C, iron, calcium, and vitamin D. Apple was the type of fruit listed most often in products with fruits, whereas carrot was the most frequent vegetable among CCF with vegetables. Conclusion: The available product categories as well as the high sugar content of most CCFs currently available on the German market may promote unhealthy dietary habits. Parents need to be educated about the optimal selection of products.
... Indeed, while smell is often considered a minor sense compared to vision, audio, and touch [69], emerging research suggests that we use it more than we actually think. For example, previous work has shown that humans have scent tracking abilities similar to dogs [64], that scents regulate behavior (from eating behavior [4,87] to social communication and bonding [56]), trigger pleasant or unpleasant experiences [27], and of particular interest for our study, modulate memories [39,61], emotions [27] and body image [12]. Such effects of smell have been explained by neural correlates involving an overlapping of anatomical substrates. ...
Article
Previous research has shown the influence of smell on emotions, memories, and body image. However, most of this work has taken place in laboratory settings and little is known about the influence of smell in real-world environments. In this paper, we present novel insights gained from a field study investigating the emotional effect of smell on memories and body image. Taking inspiration from the cultural design probes approach, we designed QuintEssence, a probe package that includes three scents and materials to complete three tasks over a period of four weeks. Here, we describe the design of QuintEssence and the main findings based on the outcomes of the three tasks and a final individual interview. The findings show similar results between participants based on the scent. For example, with cinnamon, participants experienced feelings of warmth, coziness, happiness, and relaxation; they recalled blurred memories of past moments about themselves and reported a general feeling of being calm and peaceful towards their bodies. Our findings open up new design spaces for multisensory experiences and inspire future qualitative explorations beyond laboratory boundaries.
Article
Lifestyle interventions are effective from the earliest years of childhood. To best promote health, lifestyle factors should be implemented for children and their families from birth. This includes introducing families to the benefits of a whole-food plant-based (WFPB) or plant-predominant diet, daily physical activity, positive family and peer social connections, avoidance of risky substances for caregivers, optimal sleep habits, and stress management and mindfulness for all family members. Through attention to these six pillars of lifestyle medicine, children and their families can succeed in initiating and maintaining optimal lifelong physical and mental health.
Chapter
After 6 months of age, it becomes increasingly difficult for breastfed infants to meet their nutritional needs (energy, iron, zinc, protein, and some fat-soluble vitamins) from breast milk alone. Therefore, complementary foods should have adequate energy density and contain good sources of iron, zinc, and protein. The introduction of complementary foods (CF) is an important process in infancy that most likely plays a major role in the child’s future development and health. The introduction of CF helps infants to adopt their family’s feeding model finally and gradually. The variation in the age at which an infant reaches new developmental stages is a major reason why population-based guidelines recommend a time period for the introduction of CF as well as for the transition to the family diet. We show that dietary reference values for energy and nutrients can be met using the example of a modular concept, namely the German Dietary Scheme for the First Year of Life.
Chapter
Infancy is the time to form the basis of long-life healthy eating patterns. Eating behavior including food preferences, acceptance and intake, evolves dramatically during the first years of life as a consequence of physiological, functional, and cognitive processes. Progressing from a milk-based diet to complementary foods and to family foods, infants and toddlers learn how to eat through sensory experiences, achievement of oral-motor abilities and observation. Alongside nutritional aspects of breastfeeding and timely complementary feeding, type and style of caregiver-child feeding interaction is fundamental to promote child’s healthy potential. Hence, to set up healthy eating behaviors in their child, parents, and caregivers must be encouraged, educated and guided in adopting adequate feeding practices such as being responsive to infant/toddler’s needs, skills and characteristics to promote self-regulation as well as exposing repeatedly him/her to a variety of novel foods in a positive manner to improve his/her acceptance of nutritious foods. Interventions promoting responsive-parenting-behaviors may be useful in averting detrimental feeding practices and child’s obesity as well. Lastly, feeding guidelines need be improved based on current evidence, while further research is required to establish more conclusive evidence regarding the long-lasting health effects of the different nutritional exposures early-in-life.
Chapter
A complex interaction of skills and behaviors, across developmental domains, underlie an infant’s ability to transition from a liquid diet to more complex texture and flavors with family foods. Eating requires coordination of skills (motor, cognitive, and sensory) that progress among healthy infants and young children within a window of time, yet variations in typical age ranges of skill acquisition are commonly reported. This narrative review provides a summary of developmental processes related to newborn feeding, through the introduction of complementary feeding, to the transition of child self-feeding. Factors influencing developmental domains are identified and strategies to assist parents and healthcare professionals in teaching children the skills for eating a variety of healthy and developmentally appropriate foods are provided.
Article
Background Glutamic acid, an amino acid that exhibits umami taste, is utilized in Japanese food and is abundant in human milk. We examined the influence of maternal habitual eating behavior on glutamic acid concentration in human milk. Research Aim To determine the association between maternal dietary behaviors at the end of pregnancy and the 1st month postpartum and glutamic acid concentration in colostrum and mature milk. Method This was a prospective, correlational, one-group longitudinal study. Women aged 20–30 years during the third trimester of pregnancy ( N = 30) consented to participate and completed the data collection. Dietary history questionnaires were used to measure food intake. Glutamic acid levels in whey from colostrum and mature milk and in plasma during late pregnancy and the first month postpartum were measured. Data were considered significant at p < .05. Basic statistics, correlation coefficients analysis, unpaired t test, and one-way analysis of variance were performed. Results Glutamic acid concentrations in human milk and plasma were found to be significantly associated with the consumption of several different foods. There was no association between glutamic acid concentrations in human milk and plasma or between glutamic acid concentrations in colostrum and mature milk. The glutamic acid content of mature milk differed by physical activity level (mild and moderate) during the first month postpartum ( t [46] = 2.87, p < .01). Conclusion There was no clear association between habitual dietary behavior and glutamic acid concentration in human milk. However, maternal factors other than diet may be important and require additional research.
Book
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Preface and Acknowledgements This is the first text book that is prepared as a joint work between four Arab countries including Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria (in alphabetical order) which seeks to present and integrate relevant information related to the field of infant and young child feeding. It is prepared for individuals who wish to specialize in the field of lactation management for promoting, supporting and protecting breastfeeding and continued support of infant feeding in the first five years of life. It is intended for use by countries in different regions of the world with a focus of developing countries and countries where breastfeeding is mandatory for saving lives and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. This book was prepared in three phases, the first phase was done between the main authors, in the second phase a team from Egypt and a team from Lebanon reviewed and edited the chapters, in the third phase the book was again reviewed and finalized by the main authors. It is divided into 22 chapters that cover the academic, clinical, nutritional and critical management procedures necessary for nutritionists, physicians, health providers to support mothers at different levels of care and in different chronological periods of child development from conception to five years of age and is centered around the needs of both the mother, the baby and the family and community at large for promoting, supporting and protecting breastfeeding. It is tailored to the needs of specialists globally, but especially for those from the developing countries. This book would not have been made possible without the bulk of authentic and growing literature updates and research work, from all over the world, that was accessed online. We are sincerely grateful to the Nutrition Unit in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO) for its support in the editing and finalization RI�the book to reach its current state. We sincerely appreciate the team in Lebanon led by Dr. Maha Hoteit and included: Lactation Specialist Rim El Hajj Sleiman; Ms. Carla Ibrahim, Holy Spirit University of Kaslik (USEK); Ms. Hala Mohsen, Lebanese University, and Ms. Nour Yazbeck, Lebanese University, who dedicated much time and effort in this work. We are also grateful to the team who assisted Dr. Azza Abul-Fadl from Egypt who included Professor Salah Ali Ismail Ali, Sohag University; Dr. Ahmed Alsaed Younes, Head of EPA and ESBMF; the team from Benha Univeristy including Professor AlRawhaa Abuamer and Dr. Ranya Abdelatty from Benha Faculty of Medicine, and the team from Alexandria University; Professor Nadia Farghaly, Faculty of Medicine, Dr. Ahlam Mahmoud and Dr. Eman Kaluibi, Faculty of Nursing and the team from MCFC including Dr. Shorouk Haithamy and Dr. Samaah Zohair and Organizational psychologist Ms. Iman Sarhan from Newcastle University. This has been an intense and invigorating experience especially with the feedback received from Syria by Dr. Mahmoud Bozo who participated in the activity despite the difficult circumstances in Syria. We are grateful to Dr. Moataz Saleh, Nutrition Specialist and Dr. Naglaa Arafa, Nutrition officer from UNICEF, Cairo office for their technical support. Indeed this work would not have been made possible without the coordinating efforts of Dr Ms. Nashwa Nasr from WHO-EMRO. We received support from the administrators, designers and information technologists and many other experts who supported this work and to whom we are also very grateful. Last but not least we owe this work to the spiritual support of mothers struggling to breastfeed their babies who have inspired us throughout this work and we hope our efforts will reach out to them and to all those who are encouraging, guiding and supporting them in their exceptionally unique motherhood experience. We commend and applaud the many scientists, research workers and authors of books in this field and are grateful to those who delivered libraries to our homes by the internet. We sincerely hope that this material as a publication or an e-book will be a match of their work and meet the needs of a large spectrum of readers, learners and scientists who wish to expand their knowledge in this field. We look forward to expanding this work and making it available in different languages and welcome those who can assist us to accomplish this
Article
Olfaction is of major importance during early stages of life in altricial species. This sense allows newborns to develop different behaviors that will allow them to survive. Odors tend to be associated to contextual stimuli (such as warmth); this, in turn, enables the pups to recognize when to withdraw or approach. At the same time, olfaction modulates the acceptance of aversive flavors. The increase of approach responses toward a bitter substance during early life is enhanced by stimulation with familiar, pre-exposed odors. Newborn rats exhibit heightened grasp responses toward an artificial nipple dispensing quinine, and drink more of this bitter solution, in the presence of a pre-exposed odor (lemon or the mother’s odor). The present research assessed the replicability of previous results by pre-exposing the subjects to the scent through maternal milk and using solutions with different aversive tastes. Half of the subjects (3 day-old Wistar rats) were pre-exposed to lemon odor through the maternal milk (the mother had previously ingested the lemon essence via an intragastric injection); 4 hours later, all the rats were evaluated in the presence of the lemon odor with an artificial nipple containing quinine, citric acid, saline solution, or water. The results showed enhanced seeking and intake of the bitter (quinine) and sour solution (citric acid). However, this did not occur when the nipple contained water or saline solution. The evidence suggests that: During the early stages of development, familiar odors regulate the acceptance of non-palatable, otherwise rejected, flavors; and that the route of transmission of the pre-exposed odor can be through air, or through food (amniotic fluid in previous studies and, in this case, breast milk), that is, via the retronasal and orthonasal routes.
Article
Objectives: To assess the association between age of juice introduction and child anthropometry after the American Academy of Pediatrics changed their guidelines in 2017 to recommend delaying juice introduction until at least 12 months of age (previously 6 months), citing concerns of weight gain. Study design: Upstate KIDS is a prospective birth cohort with follow-up through 9 years. Juice introduction was assessed on parental questionnaires at 4-18 months and categorized as <6, 6-<12, and ≥12 months. Child height and weight were recorded at 2-3 and 7-9 years. Weight-, height-, and BMI-for-age and sex Z scores were calculated using the CDC reference. Overweight/obese and obese status were categorized as BMI-for-age Z score ≥85th and ≥95th percentiles. Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and parental BMI, we assessed the associations of age of juice introduction with child anthropometry. Results: Prevalence of childhood obesity was 16.4% at 2-3 (n=1713) and 22.8% at 7-9 years (n=1283). Juice introduction at <6 versus ≥12 months was associated with higher weight-for-age Z score at 2-3 years (mean difference=0.21; 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.37). At 7-9 years, juice introduction at <6 versus ≥12 months was related to higher BMI-for-age (0.38; 0.12-0.64) and weight-for-age Z scores (0.27; 0.06-0.49). Risk of developing overweight/obesity and obesity was 1.54 (0.99-2.38) and 2.17 (1.11-4.23) times higher among children with juice introduced at <6 months. No associations were found with juice introduced at 6-<12 vs ≥12 months. Conclusions: Risk of developing overweight/obesity or obesity is higher among children introduced to juice before 6 months of age compared with ≥12 months.
Article
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The objective was to evaluate the influence of individual and contextual determinants on infant’s consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), and ultra-processed foods (UPF). The data was obtained from the Survey of Prevalence of Breastfeeding in Brazilian Municipalities, 2008. A representative sample of 14,326 infants 6-11.9 months old, from seventy-five municipalities of São Paulo state was evaluated. The influence of determinants on FV and UPF consumption was analyzed using Poisson multilevel regression. Mother’s educational level and maternal age had positive dose-response effect for the consumption of FV (p trend < 0.001) and negative for UPF (p trend < 0.001). Infants of multiparous women and those who received outpatient care in public medical system showed lower prevalence of FV (p < 0.001 for both) and higher prevalence of UPF (respectively, p < 0.001 and p = 0.001). Moreover, the contextual variable related to population size indicated that the prevalence of consumption of FV decreased (p < 0.001) and UPF increased (p = 0.081) with decreased population size. Therefore, infants born to women with low education levels, who received outpatient care in the public health network, and who reside in small municipalities should be prioritized for educational programs related to feeding practices.
Thesis
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Die Gewährleistung einer zeitgemäßen Gesundheitsversorgung und die diskriminierungsfreie Teilhabe der Bevölkerung daran gehören zu den zentralen politischen Zielen in Deutschland. Dabei sind sich Vertreter von Leistungserbringern, Kostenträgern, Politik und Wissenschaft weitgehend einig, dass in diesem Zusammenhang eine funktionierende Patientensteuerung notwendig ist, um die Leistungsfähigkeit des Gesundheitssystems langfristig zu erhalten, auch wenn insbesondere Patienten Vorbehalte gegen die stärkere Anwendung von versorgungssteuernden Managed-Care-Instrumenten haben. Daher stellt sich die Frage, welche Faktoren im deutschen Kontext die Umsetzung solcher Strukturen befördern können und welche Faktoren diese derzeit noch verhindern. Die vorliegende Dissertationsschrift zeigt Möglichkeiten solcher Patientensteuerung im Rahmen der Integrierten Versorgung auf, wobei Ansätze im Einflussbereich von Ärzten und Krankenkassen, aber insbesondere auch in dem von Patienten beleuchtet werden.
Article
Experimental research suggests that passive flavor transfer from maternal diet to the infant via amniotic fluid and breastmilk may improve infant vegetable intake. This secondary analysis examined associations between maternal (prenatal and postnatal) and infant vegetable intake in 696 mothers with eligible dietary data from the U.S. longitudinal Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Adjusted mixed models examined associations between 4 levels of maternal vegetable intake (mean splits of high/low on prenatal and postnatal food frequency questionnaires) and repeated measures of infant vegetable intake frequency (times/day, from monthly surveys). Mothers were on average 29.5 years old, mostly non-Hispanic White (86.2%) and educated (84.0% ≥some college). In base models, mothers with consistently high vegetable intake (vs. consistently low) reported more frequent infant vegetable intake. In multivariable models, infant vegetable intake was significantly more frequent amongst mothers with consistently high prenatal/high postnatal intake (0.9 times/day) versus consistently low intake (0.8 times/day). In this sample, maternal vegetable consumption was associated with frequency of infant vegetable consumption; consistently high vegetable intake across prenatal and postnatal periods was most strongly associated with infant intake. While infant vegetable intake is multifactorial, maternal prenatal and postnatal vegetable intake appeared to have a small but significant influence.
Conference Paper
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Article
Background: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that if parents choose to introduce juice, they wait until ≥12 months, citing concerns of obesity and dental caries. Objectives: We sought to identify correlates of early juice introduction (<6 months) and determine whether early introduction establishes a pattern of sugary beverage intake in childhood. Methods: Upstate KIDS is a prospective birth cohort study with follow-up through 7 years (n = 4989). The age of juice introduction was assessed from responses on periodic questionnaires from 4-18 months and categorized as <6, 6 to <12, and ≥12 months. Sociodemographic information was reported using vital records or maternal questionnaires. At 24, 30, and 36 months and 7 years, mothers reported their child's regular juice, soda, water, and milk intakes. The analysis was restricted to singletons and 1 randomly selected twin from each pair with information on juice introduction (n = 4067). We assessed associations of sociodemographic correlates with juice introduction using Cox proportional hazard models. The relations of juice introduction with beverage intake were evaluated using Poisson or logistic regression for adjusted risk ratios (aRR) or ORs, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates and total beverage intake. Results: Of the mothers, 25% and 74% introduced juice prior to 6 and 12 months, respectively. Younger maternal age; black or Hispanic race/ethnicity; lower educational attainment; Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participation (yes); smoking during pregnancy; a higher pre-pregnancy BMI; a lower household income; and living in a townhouse/condominium or mobile home were associated with earlier juice introduction. Earlier juice introduction was related to a higher childhood juice intake, any soda intake, and lower water intake, holding total beverage intake constant [aRR, 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3-1.7; P-trend < 0.0001); adjusted OR 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0-2.4; P-trend = 0.01); aRR 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8-0.9; P-trend < 0.0001), respectively]. Conclusions: Markers of lower socioeconomic status are strongly associated with earlier juice introduction, which, in turn, relates to sugary beverage intake in childhood, potentially replacing water.
Article
Objective: Examine the association between the timing of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and 100% juice introduction with subsequent diet quality at age 3 years. Design: Secondary analysis of a publicly available, national longitudinal dataset. Participants: A total of 2,218 children from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Main outcome measure: Dietary intakes were assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall completed by caregivers of children aged 3 years. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index Score-2015 (HEI-2015). Analysis: Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the timing of introduction to 100% juice and SSBs with HEI-2015. Adjustments were made for child- and maternal-related factors. Results: Delayed introduction of SSBs during the first 2 years of life was associated with an increased HEI-2015 score. In adjusted analyses, for every 1-month delay in the introduction, there was a 0.09-point increase (95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.13) in the HEI-2015 score at 3 years. Conclusions and implications: Earlier introduction to SSBs may be associated with subsequent lower diet quality in WIC participants. This association may be driven by total fruit, whole grains, and added sugars HEI component scores. Further research is needed to support changes to existing WIC nutrition practices regarding SSBs and 100% juice.
Article
Taste receptors play important roles in perception of L-amino acids and feeding behavior. However, convincing evidence providing causal links between taste receptors and feeding habits is lacking. We generated two mutant lines with t1r1 deletion in zebrafish by CRISPR/Cas9 technology. t1r1 deletion eliminated sensitivity to alanine in zebrafish. Additionally, it did not affect feeding behavior of zebrafish supplied with habitual food such as Artemia salina, while significantly enhanced their acceptance of rejective food such as duckweed and plant-protein source diets. Furthermore, replacement of fish meal with plant protein in diets significantly suppressed transcript levels of orexigenic gene npy and increased mRNA expression levels of anorexigenic gene pomca in wild-type zebrafish but had no effect in t1r1−/− zebrafish. In addition, when fed with fish meal diet, transcript levels of npy and pomca were significantly different in t1r1−/− zebrafish compared with wild-type zebrafish. Overall, these findings suggested that T1R1 was indispensable for amino acid perception and significantly affected the feeding preference and habit in zebrafish.
Article
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Background: Maternal essential fatty acid status declines during pregnancy, and as a result, neonatal concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) may not be optimal. Objective: Our objective was to improve maternal and neonatal fatty acid status by supplementing pregnant women with a combination of a-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), the ultimate dietary precursors of DHA and AA, respectively. Design: From week 14 of gestation until delivery, pregnant women consumed daily 25 g margarine supplying either 2.8 g ALA + 9.0 g LA (n = 29) or 10.9 g LA (n = 29). Venous blood was collected for plasma phospholipid fatty acid analyses at weeks 14, 26, and 36 of pregnancy, at delivery, and at 32 wk postpartum. Umbilical cord blood and vascular tissue samples were collected to study neonatal fatty acid status also. Pregnancy outcome variables were assessed. Results: ALA+LA supplementation did not prevent decreases in maternal DHA and AA concentrations during pregnancy and, compared with LA supplementation, did not increase maternal and neonatal DHA concentrations but significantly increased eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3) concentrations. In addition, ALA+LA supplementation lowered neonatal AA status. No significant differences in pregnancy outcome variables were found. Conclusions: Maternal ALA+LA supplementation did not promote neonatal DHA+AA status. The lower concentrations of Osbond acid (22:5n-6) in maternal plasma phospholipids and umbilical arterial wall phospholipids with ALA+LA supplementation than with LA supplementation suggest only that functional DHA status improves with ALA+LA supplementation.
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The dramatic increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight and its resultant comorbidities are associated with significant health and financial burdens, warranting strong and comprehensive prevention efforts. This statement proposes strategies for early identification of excessive weight gain by using body mass index, for dietary and physical activity interventions during health supervision encounters, and for advocacy and research.
Article
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Olfactory responsiveness was assessed in 24 neonates born to mothers who had or had not consumed anise flavour during pregnancy. Both groups of infants were followed-up for behavioural markers of attraction and aversion when exposed to anise odour and a control odour immediately after birth and on day 4. Infants born to anise-consuming mothers evinced a stable preference for anise odour over this period, whereas those born to anise non-consuming mothers displayed aversion or neutral responses. This study provides the first clear evidence that through their diet human mothers influence the hedonic polarity of their neonates' initial olfactory responses. The findings have potential implications for the early mother-to-infant transmission of chemosensory information relative to food and addictive products.
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Insulin receptors (IRs) and insulin signaling proteins are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). To study the physiological role of insulin signaling in the brain, we created mice with a neuron-specific disruption of the IR gene (NIRKO mice). Inactivation of the IR had no impact on brain development or neuronal survival. However, female NIRKO mice showed increased food intake, and both male and female mice developed diet-sensitive obesity with increases in body fat and plasma leptin levels, mild insulin resistance, elevated plasma insulin levels, and hypertriglyceridemia. NIRKO mice also exhibited impaired spermatogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation because of hypothalamic dysregulation of luteinizing hormone. Thus, IR signaling in the CNS plays an important role in regulation of energy disposal, fuel metabolism, and reproduction.
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This study determined whether experience with onion- or garlic-flavored milk affected intake of foods with those flavors. Orphaned lambs were exposed from 2 to 3 days of age for 50 days to either onion- or garlic-flavored milk at a 0.1% concentration. Lambs were then offered a choice of (1) onion- and garlic-flavored food; (2) onion-flavored and unflavored food; (3) garlic-flavored and unflavored food. Intake of foods offered in single choice tests with each flavor at concentrations of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16% was also measured. Although all lambs ingested more onion-flavored food than garlic-flavored food, they ate relatively more (P < 0.05) food with the flavor to which they were exposed in milk than did lambs exposed to the alternate flavor in milk. Lambs exposed to onion-flavored milk also ingested more (P < 0.05) onion-flavored food, when it was offered with unflavored food, than did lambs exposed to garlic-flavored milk. Experiences with flavors in milk did not affect (P > 0.05) intake of garlic-flavored food when offered with unflavored food. Regardless of which flavor they were exposed to in milk, intake of onion- and garlic-flavored food offered alone was similar (P > 0.05) at all flavor concentrations.
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Publication Inra prise en compte dans l'analyse bibliométrique des publications scientifiques mondiales sur les Fruits, les Légumes et la Pomme de terre. Période 2000-2012. http://prodinra.inra.fr/record/256699
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Fatty acids are aliphatic monocarboxylic acids. They are classified as saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids depending upon the number of double bonds in the carbon chain. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds, monounsaturated fatty acids have 1 double bond and polyunsaturated fatty acids have 2 or more, but usually no more than 6, double bonds. Most fatty acids can be synthesized endogenously but the major source is from dietary fat which accounts for approximately half the energy content of breast milk and infant formulas. Triglycerides, which have three, usually different, fatty acid molecules esterified to a molecule of glycerol, are the major components of dietary fat; the remainder includes phospholipids, monoglycerides, diglycerides and sterols. These are hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen, the released fatty acids are reassembled within the enterocyte and the reassembled triglycerides, phospholipids, monoglycerides and sterol esters are absorbed primarily into the thoracic duct from which they eventually reach the bloodstream where they circulate as components of the various lipoproteins. Some free fatty acids also are absorbed and circulate bound to albumen. All fatty acids have common names but, by general convention, they are identified by a “shorthand” system indicating their number of carbon atoms, their number of double bonds and the site of the first double bond from the terminal methyl group of the molecule.
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We studied the long-chain conversion of [U-C-13](alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (ALA) and responses of erythrocyte phospholipid composition to variation in the dietary ratios of 18:3n-3 (ALA) and 18:2n-6 (LA) for 12 weeks in 38 moderately hyperlipidemic men. Diets were enriched with either flaxseed oil (FXO; 17 g/day ALA, n = 2 1) or sunflower oil (SO; 17 g/day LA, n = 17). The FXO diet induced increases in phospholipid ALA ( > 3-fold), 20:5n-3 [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), > 2-fold], and 22:5n-3 [docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), 50%] but no change in 22:6n-3 [docosahexanoic acid (DHA)], LA, or 20:4n-6 [arachidonic acid (AA)]. The increases in EPA and DPA but not DHA were similar to those in subjects given the SO diet enriched with 3 g of EPA plus DHA from fish oil (n = 19). The SO diet induced a small increase in LA but no change in AA. Long-chain conversion of [U-13C]AILA and [U-13C]LA, calculated from peak plasma C-13 concentrations after simple modeling for tracer dilution in subsets from the FXO (n = 6) and SO (n = 5) diets, was similar but low for the two tracers (i.e., AA, 0.2%; EPA, 0.3%; and DPA, 0.02%) and varied directly with precursor concentrations and inversely with concentrations of fatty acids of the alternative series.jlr [C-13]DHA formation was very low ( < 0.01 %) with no dietary influences.-Hussein, N., E. Ah-Sing, P. Wilkinson, C. Leach, B. A. Griffin I, and D.J. Millward. Long-chain conversion of [C-13]linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in response to marked changes in their dietary intake in men.
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Objective. Because of the rising rates of childhood obesity, we set out to determine what is known about its causes and what could be done to prevent additional increases. Methodology. A meeting was convened of experts in areas that bear on prevention of obesity development during intrauterine life, infancy, and very early childhood. They presented recent data and their interpretations of the stage of our current knowledge in related areas. They also proposed possible useful interventions and future directions for research. Findings. The speakers’ talks indicated that (1) breastfeeding as currently practiced seems to be significantly (albeit weakly) protective against obesity and should be encouraged as the preferred method of feeding infants for as long a duration as practical during the first year of life; (2) infant-feeding practices are changing in a way that may predispose to obesity (eg, soda and french fries are being fed to infants as young as 7 months of age), possibly altering taste preferences for foods and beverages that are energy dense and nutrient poor; (3) although little is known about parenting styles (eg, authoritative versus permissive), parenting style is likely to be a fruitful area of current research into childhood obesity etiology; and (4) the pattern of weight changes in the first few years of life may contribute to later risk of obesity. Conclusions. Children’s obesity will continue to be a growing problem unless we improve understanding of the key factors likely to be operative during intrauterine life, infancy, and very early childhood, identify those in whom intervention would have the greatest effect, design and evaluate preventive interventions, and promote those that are successful.
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Aim: Breastfeeding seems to be favorable for cognitive development. Could levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) explain this? Methods: Pregnant mothers were recruited consecutively at maternity care centres. PUFA were analysed in colostrum and breast milk at 1 and 3 mo. The product-precursor ratios of n-6+n-3 PUFA were examined as measures of activity in respective steps in the fatty acid metabolic chain. Also, the quotient between DHA and AA was analysed. The children were tested with the full WISC-III at 6.5 y. Results: First, the influence of length of breastfeeding was analysed by multiple regression together with relevant cofactors (except for PUFA). In the best models, 46% of the variation in total IQ was explained. Length of breastfeeding contributed significantly to total IQ (beta = 0.228, p=0.021), verbal IQ (beta = 0.204, p=0.040) and performance IQ (beta = 0.210, p=0.056). There were no significant single correlations between PUFA and measures of cognitive development. However, in multiple regression analysis of colostrum, significant beta-coefficients were found for steps 4+5 in the fatty acid metabolic chain (beta = 0.559, p=0.002). If length of breastfeeding and gestation week were added to steps 4+5, this three-factor model could explain 67% of the variation of total IQ. Introducing length of breastfeeding and gestation week together with the quotient DHA/AA (beta = 0.510, p<0.001) yielded a three-factor model, which explained 76% of the variation in total IQ. Conclusion: Our findings could be interpreted as supporting the importance of high levels of PUFA for cognitive development. However, the sample is small and the results must be interpreted with caution.