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Color preferences according to gender and sexual orientation

  • formerly at University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia & Minot State Univ., North Dakota

Abstract and Figures

The present study was undertaken to verify findings surrounding sex differences in color preferences, and to extend this realm of inquiry by looking for possible differences in color preferences associated with sexual orientation. Based on a large sample of North American college students, significant gender differences were found, with the main difference being a greater preference for shades of blue by males than by females. Females, on the other hand, tended to be more evenly divided than males between preferring both green and blue. Regarding sexual orientation, we found no significant differences between heterosexuals and homosexual/bisexuals of either gender. In other words, male and female homosexuals/bisexuals exhibited essentially the same configuration of color preferences as did their heterosexual counterparts.
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Color preferences according to gender and sexual orientation
Lee Ellis *, Christopher Ficek
Minot State University, Minot, ND 58707, USA
Received 30 June 2000; received in revised form 13 November 2000; accepted 30 November 2000
The present study was undertaken to verify ®ndings surrounding sex dierences in color preferences, and
to extend this realm of inquiry by looking for possible dierences in color preferences associated with sexual
orientation. Based on a large sample of North American college students, signi®cant gender dierences were
found, with the main dierence being a greater preference for shades of blue by males than by females.
Females, on the other hand, tended to be more evenly divided than males between preferring both green
and blue. Regarding sexual orientation, we found no signi®cant dierences between heterosexuals and
homosexual/bisexuals of either gender. In other words, male and female homosexuals/bisexuals exhibited
essentially the same con®guration of color preferences as did their heterosexual counterparts. #2001
Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Studies have arrived at dierent conclusions regarding the existence of gender dierences in color
preferences. In a study of United States college students, Silver et al. (1988) found that greater
proportions of males chose blue as their favorite color than was true for females. In a subsequent
study of elderly persons in the United States, Silver and Ferrante (1995) reported four signi®cant
dierences in color preferences, with males again being more likely than females to prefer blue. Males
were also more likely to choose red, whereas females were more likely to prefer black and pink.
Three additional studies, all among elderly persons, concluded that there were no signi®cant
dierences between men and women in their preferences for various colors. Two of these studies
were conducted in the United States (Mather, Stare & Breinin, 1971; Tate & Allen 1985), and the
other was carried out in Sweden (Wijk, Berg, Sivik & Steen, 1999).
The present study was undertaken to verify the existence of gender dierences in color pref-
erence. In addition, we decided to look for evidence that color preference might also vary
according to sexual orientation.
0191-8869/01/$ - see front matter #2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S0191-8869(00)00231-2
Personality and Individual Differences 31 (2001) 1375±1379
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-701-858-3241; fax: +1-701-839-6933.
E-mail address: (L. Ellis).
1. Methods
The present study derived its data from a large investigation of gender-typical behavior patterns
in the United States and Canada conducted at 22 universities during the 1990s. A total of 1924
males and 3766 females provided answers to a question regarding their color preference. Their
ages ranged from 17 to 63, with a mean of 22.82 (S.D.=5.32) for the males and 22.54
(S.D.=5.34) for the females.
To measure sexual orientation, we asked subjects if they considered themselves to be ``hetero-
sexual, homosexual, bisexual, or undecided.'' Of those who provided answers to the question on
color preference, 53 (2.86%) of the males and 62 (1.71%) of the females declared themselves to be
either homosexual or bisexual.
To our question regarding the subjects' favorite color, subjects were given a brief space in
which to write their choice. For comparing males and females, we consolidated the responses into
11 dierent color categories, including one category for those who stated that they have no par-
ticular preference.
Regarding our analysis of males and females according to sexual orientation, several of the
color categories were chosen by fewer than ®ve homosexuals/bisexuals, thus making meaningful
statistical comparison impossible. Therefore, when we compared sexes by sexual orientation, only
three speci®c color categories were used, with the remaining choices of colors subsumed under the
category of ``other'' (including no preference).
2. Results
The color preferences expressed by males and females are shown in Table 1, with the colors
arranged roughly in the order of their appearance along the color spectrum. A chi-square test
revealed very signi®cant dierences between the proportional distributions of male and female
subjects in color preferences (
=435.202, d.f.=10, P=0.000).
The greatest dierences had to
do with preferences for blue and green. Whereas nearly half (45%) of all males chose various
shades of blue as their favorite color and less than 20% chose some shade of green, only 25% of
females chose blue, while about 28% chose green. Other noteworthy gender dierences were that
females were more likely to choose pink and purple, while males were more partial to black (this
latter ®nding is contrary to Silver and Ferrante (1995), who found females preferring black more
than males).
In the case of sexual orientation, Table 2 presents consolidated proportions of males and
females according to sexual orientation who chose each color (or shades thereof) as their favor-
ites. To assess statistical signi®cance, we again used chi square. However, because our samples of
homosexual/bisexuals of both genders were much smaller than the samples of heterosexuals of
both genders, there were fewer than ®ve observations for several of the colors as far as the
For details on the universities sampled for this study, see Ellis and Robb (2000).
The computer program utilized in this study (SPSS, Version 9) only carried its calculations of the degree of sta-
tistical signi®cance to three decimal points. Therefore, any probability with a 0.0001 or lower appears simply as 0.000.
1376 L. Ellis, C. Ficek / Personality and Individual Dierences 31 (2001) 1375±1379
homosexual/bisexual subjects were concerned. We compensated for this sampling shortfall by
collapsing all of the least frequently chosen color categories (plus ``no preference'') into an
``other'' category. This left the following four color categories for comparison: green, blue, black,
and other.
The resulting chi square for comparing heterosexual males and homosexual/bisexual males was
=1.959, d.f.=3, P=0.581. For the females, the chi square dierence between heterosexuals
and homosexual/bisexuals was w
=1.234, d.f.=3, P=0.745. Thus, in neither the case of males
nor females did sexual orientation have a signi®cant link to color preference. For comparison
purposes, we also performed a chi square in which all males were compared to all females. This
again yielded extremely signi®cant dierences (w
=310.955, d.f.=3, P=0.000)
, although not
quite as strong as when all eleven color categories were dierentiated.
Table 2
Distribution of consolidated color preferences by gender and sexual orientation
Color preference Males Females
Heterosexual Homo/bisexual Heterosexual Homo/bisexual
Frequency % Frequency % Frequency % Frequency %
Green 340 18.9 14 26.4 999 28.0 17 27.4
Blue 817 45.4 21 39.6 896 25.1 13 21.1
Black 220 12.2 6 11.3 228 8.1 7 11.3
Other 424 23.5 12 22.6 1389 38.9 25 40.3
Total 180 100.0 53 99.9 3512 100.1 62 100.0
Table 1
Distribution of consolidated color preferences by gender
Color preference Males Females
Frequency % Frequency %
No preference 19 1.0 95 2.5
Pink 9 0.5 199 5.3
Red 233 12.1 447 11.9
Orange 16 0.8 66 1.8
Yellow 19 1.0 100 2.7
Green 367 19.1 1051 27.9
Blue 866 45.0 938 24.9
Purple 98 5.1 459 12.2
Brown 13 0.7 19 0.5
Gray 22 1.1 7 0.02
Black 233 12.1 306 8.1
White 29 1.5 79 2.1
Total 1924 100.0 3666 99.9
L. Ellis, C. Ficek / Personality and Individual Dierences 31 (2001) 1375±1379 1377
3. Conclusion
The present study con®rms Silver and Ferrante's (1995) observation that males are signi®cantly
more likely than females to prefer variations on the color of blue. Given the very high degree of
statistical signi®cance for our ®ndings, we are surprised that three studies have failed to ®nd any
signi®cant gender dierences in color preference (Mather et al., 1971; Tate & Allen, 1985; Wijk et
al., 1999). This could possibly be due to the fact that all of these studies were of elderly popula-
tions, and perhaps gender dierences dissipate with age. We were unable to investigate this pos-
sibility since our sample was limited to college students.
Why would color preference vary by gender? Without ruling out any possibility at this point,
we are inclined to suspect the involvement of neurohormonal factors. Studies of rats have found
average sex dierences in the number of neurons comprising various parts of the visual cortex
(Reid & Juraska, 1992, 1995). Also, gender dierences have been found in rat preferences for the
amount of sweetness in drinking water (Lichtensteiger & Schlumpf, 1985; Shapiro & Gold-
man, 1973; Valenstein, Kakolewski & Cox, 1967). One experiment demonstrated that the sex
dierences in rat preferences for sweetness was eliminated by depriving males of male-typical
testosterone levels in utero (Lichtensteiger & Schlumpf, 1985). Perhaps, prenatal exposure to
testosterone and other sex hormones operates in a similar way to ``bias'' preferences for certain
colors in humans.
Focusing on some of the actual mechanisms that may be involved in humans, research by
Hoyenga and Wallace (1979) and McGuinness and Lewis (1976) found sex dierences in
retinal biochemistry and in how the brain processes color information. According to both
studies, females seemed to be more sensitive to pinks, reds, and yellows. In addition, the
Hoyenga and Wallace study identi®ed certain conditions under which males appeared to be
more sensitive to colors in the blue-green light spectrum. Nevertheless, caution must be exercised
in any attempts to explain preferences for various colors on the basis of sensitivity to those colors.
None of the above conjecture is meant to imply that cultural factors might not also
operate, although we are not aware of any cultural training or expectations regarding which
gender is supposed to prefer one color over another. There is, of course, a tendency in several
Western cultures to dress baby boys in blue and baby girls in pink, and one could argue that
dressing baby boys in blue might increase their preferences for blue later in life. If this were true,
we would expect to ®nd women exhibiting a corresponding bias toward shades of red. There
was a substantial tendency for greater number of women to choose pink as their favorite color
when compared to men, but women were actually less likely to prefer darker shades of red
(Table 1).
Cross-cultural research could shed light on these issues by determining how varied gender dif-
ferences are in color preferences. Also, insight could come from comparing males and females of
other species as to any color preferences they might harbor.
We thank Katharine Hoyenga and anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions on drafts of
this manuscript.
1378 L. Ellis, C. Ficek / Personality and Individual Dierences 31 (2001) 1375±1379
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The effects of stimulus color and gender upon the perception of an afterimage were examined. The Ss were 32 male and 32 female college undergraduate volunteers. Eight Ss of each gender viewed a pinpoint flash of light through one of four filters: blue-green (Wratten 44A), red (Wratten 92), yellow (Wratten 9), or a neutral (Wratten 96) filter. Each S was given three trials, and on each trial, the duration of the afterimage was recorded, along with changes of direction, and changes in perceived color. Males reported significantly (p less than .05) more autokinetic movement of the afterimage. The color of the stimulus affected afterimage duration differentially for the two genders (p less than .05), and there was also a significant interaction (p less than .02) of gender with filter color for the total number of color changes reported. Thus, it is likely that both outflow monitoring and error signal variables in the autokinetic effect may be affected by gender, and the two sexes may also have different retinal and/or central processing of visual information.
Sex differences were investigated in two experiments on visual persistence: the Ganzfeld and the afterimage. Males were found to hold visual sensation longer than females, particularly in the Ganzfeld where there was little overlap of scores. Variability of experience in the Ganzfeld was also greater for males and they commonly reported 'blank-out' effects while females did not. There was further evidence from both experiments that females are more responsive to the long-wave region of the frequency spectrum.
We have previously shown that the thickness of the binocular area of the primary visual cortex is sexually dimorphic in rats. In the present study, sex differences in the number of neurons in this cortical area were examined in nine littermate pairs of 90-day-old Long-Evans hooded rats. Cytoarchitectonic characteristics were used to define the binocular visual cortex, and its volume was estimated through three-dimensional reconstruction of serial coronal sections for each hemisphere. Neuronal and glial density as well as neuronal soma size were estimated from semithin sections through a stereological technique, the disector, in the same animals that were used to estimate volume. The volume of the binocular area was 19% greater in males than in females. While there were no sex differences in soma size or in neuronal density, the differences in the volume of the binocular area resulted in significant sex differences (male greater than female) in the number of neurons overall and in every layer, except layer IV. Glial density was not different between the sexes, but the total number of glial cells was higher in males than in females. These results demonstrate that the binocular visual cortex of the rat is sexually dimorphic in its volume and much of the difference is due to sex differences in the number of neurons and glial cells.
In order to study effects of nicotine on fetal gonadal axis and sexually dimorphic behavior, time-pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were implanted on gestational day (GD) 12 with an osmotic minipump containing either nicotine tartrate, tartaric acid or saline. Others were sham-operated on GD 12 or left untreated. Male fetuses of all control groups displayed the characteristic rise in plasma testosterone at GD 18 (as compared to GD 17 and 19); this was abolished by nicotine. Adult offspring of untreated or tartaric acid-treated dams exhibited a marked sexual dimorphism in their preference for saccharin-containing drinking water at 0.06-0.25%. No such sex difference was seen in offspring of nicotine-treated rats. In controls, the sexes differed with respect to the proportion of rats with high saccharin preference. In the group of males prenatally exposed to nicotine, the proportion of animals with high preference increased to the female level. These data indicate that prenatal exposure to nicotine can interfere with the development of the male gonadal axis and with the organization of sexually dimorphic behavior.
Male and female patients in the Geriatric Unit of the Harrisburg State Hospital were tested for color preference on the psychological primaries, red, green, yellow, and blue. The order of preference for the men was blue first, red second, green third, and yellow last; for the women the order was blue first, green second, red a close third, and yellow last.
Taste preferences of mature male and female rats for caloric and noncaloric sweet solutions have been found to differ. Although females do not drink more water than males, they consume significantly greater quantities of a slightly sweet 3 percent glucose and a very sweet 0.25 percent saccharin solution. When given a choice, males switch their initial preference for a saccharin solution to a preference for a glucose solution after several days, while females maintain a preference for the saccharin solution. Females also prefer significantly higher concentrations of saccharin than males do.
The purpose of the study was to assess differences in color preferences between the sexes. A sample of 193 retirees were asked to report their favorite colors. The pattern of frequencies for preferred color differed as a function of sex. Blue was chosen as the most preferred color by both sexes. Women preferred black and purple more than men did. Moreover, the men preferred red over pink, whereas the women preferred red and pink equally. The rank order of color preferences for this elderly group were very similar to the findings of Silver, et al. who sampled young adults in 1988.