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Abstract

Aloe vera Linne or aloe barbadensis Miller is a succulent from the Aloe family (400 different species), a tropical plant which is easily grown in hot and dry climates and widely distributed in Asia, Africa and other tropical areas. The use of aloe vera is being promoted for a large variety of conditions. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize all dermatology-oriented in vitro and in vivo experiments and clinical trials on aloe vera preparations. Extensive literature search were carried out to identify all in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on the subject. Data were extracted from these in a predefined standardized manner. Forty studies were located. The results suggest that oral administration of aloe vera in mice is effective on wound healing, can decrease the number and size of papillomas and reduce the incidence of tumors and leishmania parasitemia by >90% in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Topical application of aloe vera is not an effective prevention for radiation-induced injuries and has no sunburn or suntan protection. It can be effective for genital herpes, psoriasis, human papilloma virus, seborrheic dermatitis, aphthous stomatitis, xerosis, lichen planus, frostbite, burn, wound healing and inflammation. It can also be used as a biological vehicle and an anti-microbial and antifungal agent and also as a candidate for photodynamic therapy of some kinds of cancer. Even though there are some promising results with the use of aloe vera for diverse dermatologic conditions, clinical effectiveness of oral and topical aloe vera is not sufficiently and meticulously explored as yet.

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... Aloe vera extract contains 75 potentially active constituents such as vitamins, enzymes, minerals, sugars, lignin, saponins, salicylic acids and amino acids. [5][6][7][8] Because of these aloe extract has multiple properties like anti-inflammatory, moisturizing, wound healing, antiseptic, etc. Multiple studies have reported the effectiveness of aloe extract in management burns, sunburns, inflammatory skin disorders, wounds and dry skin. ...
... Multiple studies have reported the effectiveness of aloe extract in management burns, sunburns, inflammatory skin disorders, wounds and dry skin. [5][6][7][8] However, in India there are no studies which have evaluated the effectiveness and safety of aloe vera based moisturizer in management of patients with dry skin disorders like eczema or dermatitis. Hence, we conducted this study novel plant-based moisturizer "Elovera" containing aloe extract, allantoin and vitamin E in management of dry skin associated with eczema and dermatitis. ...
... Aloe vera extract contains 75 potentially active constituents such as vitamins, enzymes, minerals, sugars, lignin, saponins, salicylic acids and amino acids. [5][6][7][8] Because of these active ingredients, aloe vera is associated with multiple properties like wound healing, antiinflammatory, antiseptic and antipruritic. [5][6][7][8] Antiinflammatory and wound healing properties of aloe vera extract are well established in multiple clinical studies. ...
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p class="abstract"> Background: Moisturizers are major component of basic daily skin care in patients with eczema/dermatitis. Botanical ingredients like aloe vera extract having anti-inflammatory property can be useful in reducing signs and symptoms along with improvement in dry skin in such patients. Methods: It was retrospective data analysis conducted across 145 centres in India. Patients with eczema/dermatitis who were prescribed Elovera a novel plant-based moisturizer were included in the study. Effectiveness was assessed by evaluating improvement in DASI score, physicians, and patients’ global assessment of disease. Safety was assessed by monitoring all the adverse events reported by the patients. Results: 402 patients were included in the study. There was significant improvement in mean baseline DASI score with with a reduction of 40.57% and 84.8% at week 2 and week 4, respectively. 86.31% (n=347) and 85.32% (n=343) patients reported significant improvement in their disease as per physician’s and patients’ global assessment of disease. Elovera was well tolerated and only 5 patients reported mild irritation and erythema during treatment. Conclusions: The result of our study proves that “Elovera” a novel plant-based moisturizer is associated with significant improvement in dry skin, signs, and symptoms of patients with eczema/dermatitis. Based on these results concomitant use of Elovera can be considered along with standard treatment for better outcome in patients with eczema/dermatitis. </p
... The healing and repairing actions may partly be attributed to the antimicrobial activity against pathogens such as S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) [17,71,91,212,255]. ...
... Aloe vera gel is also popular with several reviews evident emphasising anti-inflammatory, accelerated wound healing, anti-oxidant and anti-pruritic activities. There has been a contribution towards including A. vera into hydrogels and polymers [21,28,71,76,88,143,147,160,177,212,230,240,245,264]. One thorough review by Dat et al. ...
... There is no shortage of evidence that A. vera gel is a product of great potential. It is in fact a well-studied natural product with clinical trials and reviews reporting it as an effective agent with the potential to accelerate wound healing; however, research regarding the specific carrier oil is lacking and should be possibly given the equivalent attention [7,20,34,41,64,71,76,100,107,120,121,160,161,177,190,237,240,245,248,260]. ...
Article
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Wounds are a common medical infliction. With the increase in microbial resistance and a shift of interest towards complementary medicines, essential oils have been shown to be beneficial in suppressing microbial growth. However, in practice, essential oils are more often diluted into a base due to the risk of topical adverse effects, such as dermatitis. There is a lack of collated evidence-based information on toxicity and efficacy of carrier oils. The current information on the subject matter is restricted to generic, aroma-therapeutic books and pamphlets, based on anecdotal evidence rather than an experimental approach. Therefore, this review aimed at identifying the recommended carrier oils used in dermatology and thereafter collating the scientific evidence to support the use of carrier oils together with essential oils recommended for dermatological use. Aloe vera gel had multiple studies demonstrating the ability to enhance wound healing; however, several other carrier oils have been largely neglected. It was observed that the extracts for certain plant species had been used to justify the use of the carrier oils of the same plant species. This is an inaccurate cross assumption due to the difference in chemical composition and biological activities. Lastly, despite these carrier oils being recommended as a base for essential oils, very little data was found on the interactive profile of the carrier oil with the essential oil. This review provides a platform for further studies, especially if essential oils are to receive credence in the scientific field.
... [131] It also inhibits the growth of infectious microbes on injury sites [132] and shows better healing of burn skin. [24] A. vera gel is a protective effect against radiation damage to the skin. [133,134] It induces the production of an antioxidant protein and metallothionein in the skin, which scavenges hydroxyl radicals and prevents suppression of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. ...
... [140][141][142][143] Its mineralized cream showed protective effects against UVB-induced stress in human skin. [24,144] A. vera gel is a good topical herbal product which is clinically effective and safe for dermatological use. [17] It contains natural anthraquinone that shows laxative actions. ...
... [175] Antimicrobial Fresh A. vera gel is used against multidrug-resistant bacteria in infected leg ulcers [176] and as skin moisturizer. [24] A. vera gel shows antimicrobial properties [177] and is used as antimicrobial agents in traditional medicinal soft soaps. [178] Plant is used in preparation of eye drops containing both Aloe and neomycin sulfate. ...
Article
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The present review explains therapeutic and pharmaceutical potential of Aloe vera a well-known plant grows in semi-arid climate of tropical and subtropical regions. This article emphasizes important uses of A. vera constituents as dietary nutraceutical, medicinal, and therapeutic potential. Plant is cultivated for agricultural and medicinal and decoration purposes for indoors as a potted plant. Plant is a good depository of chemical constituents which display a very wide array of biological activities such as anticancer, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antitumor, antioxidant, chemopreventive, hepatoprotective, and gastroprotective. Plant is used to prepare skin protective/care gels mainly for soothing, moisturizing, and wound healing. Thick watery plant sap works are added as key ingredient in many beauty products. Plant leaves are used to generate aroma, beverages, skin lotion, cosmetics, or ointments for minor burns. Plant contains vitamins, enzymes, minerals, sugars, lignin, saponins, salicylic acids, and amino acids as main ingredients. Plant is a good source of Vitamins A, C, and E, which are antioxidants. It also contains Vitamin B12, folic acid, and choline watery juicy of A. vera leaf which contains important minerals such as calcium, chromium, copper, selenium, magnesium, manganese, and potassium. Plant ingredients were found active against gingivitis, psoriasis, and used for herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease. A. vera contains important fatty acids mainly steroids such as cholesterol, campesterol, β-sitosterol, and lupeol. Aloin and emodin act as analgesics, antibacterials, and antivirals while lupeol shows antiseptic and analgesic properties. It also contains auxins and gibberellin hormones that help in wound healing and have anti-inflammatory action. Saponins that are the soapy substances display cleansing and antiseptic properties.
... 1,2 Secara kimiawi, Aloe vera mengandung beberapa zat seperti auksin, gibberrelin, antrakuinon, vitamin A, C, E. Beberapa peneliti terdahulu telah membuktikan bahwa Aloe vera berkhasiat sebagai antiinflamasi, anticacing, antipiretik, antijamur, antioksidan, antiseptik, antimikroba, serta antivirus. [1][2][3] Aloe vera adalah tanaman kaktus yang termasuk family Liliaceae. Di seluruh dunia, diperkirakan Aloe vera mencapai lebih dari 300-400 spesies. ...
... Namun, yang telah lama dikenal dan dipelajari adalah Aloe barbadensis Miller dan Aloe aborescens. 2,4 Tanaman ini dapat tumbuh subur pada iklim tropik dan daerah curah hujan rendah. 4,5 Daun Aloe terdiri atas 2 bagian yang berbeda, yaitu: bagian daging yang berlendir dan bagian kulit di tepi sebagai pembungkus. ...
... telah digunakan sebagai bahan irigasi saluran akar dan poket gusi yang pada keadaan normal sulit dibersihkan, juga sebagai obat antijamur pada kondisi sariawan atau luka pada sudut mulut. 2,9,10 Aloe vera juga telah diproduksi dalam bentuk pasta gigi atau obat kumur; jeli untuk obat luka di kulit; obat semprot topikal untuk infeksi tenggorokan atau luka ekstraksi; jus, sebagai agen detoksifikasi lambung; supplemen dan antioksidan. 1,2 Salah satu peradangan dan rasa nyeri yang sering ditemukan dalam mukosa mulut adalah stomatitis afthosa (sariawan). ...
Article
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Previous work showed that 25% of inner layer Aloe vera leaf extract was effective as anti-inflammatory on the oral mucous of Wistar rats. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the lowest concentration of whole leaf Aloe vera extract that could accelerate healing process of ulceration on rats. Methods: Sixty inbreeding Spraque Dawley rats was exposed to solution of Hydrogen Peroxide 10% during three days to induced inflammation on the labial mucous inferior of rats. During the next three days, on the same area of control group were topically applied solution of Natrium Chloride 0.9%; while in the treatment group were topically applied 6.25%; 12.5%; 25% of whole leaf of Aloe vera extract for 3x5 minutes with 90 minutes intervals. On the fourth day, five rats in each group were sacrificed; and the same treatment was done on others groups. On the sixth day, five rats of each group were sacrificed; and the same treatment was done on the rest group up to seven days. On the eighth days, the rest groups were sacrificed. Microscopic slides were done. Results: Microscopic slides were analyzed under light microscope and scored. Statistical analysis with Mann-Whitney test showed significant differences between control and treatment group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Application of 6.25% whole leaf Aloe vera extract was the lowest and the most effective concentration in accelerating the healing process of oral mucous ulceration on rats.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v18i1.56
... Aloe barbadensis Miller or Aloe vera Linne is a tropical succulent plant widely used from skin disorders. It can be effective for psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, aphthous stomatitis, xerosis, lichen planus, frostbite, genital herpes, human papilloma virus, burn, wound healing and inflammation [50][51][52][53][54][55]. It can also be used for its antimicrobial and antifungal properties, in addition to photodynamic therapy of some cancers [50]. ...
... It can be effective for psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, aphthous stomatitis, xerosis, lichen planus, frostbite, genital herpes, human papilloma virus, burn, wound healing and inflammation [50][51][52][53][54][55]. It can also be used for its antimicrobial and antifungal properties, in addition to photodynamic therapy of some cancers [50]. Maenthaisong et al. conducted a meta-analysis clinical study that showed the healing time for burn wound, for first to second degree, in Aloe vera treated-group was 8.79 days shorter than those in the control group [51]. ...
Article
People suffering from an ordinary acute cold consume so many handkerchiefs that the wiping actions on their own increase the abrasive damage of the nasolabial zone, finally leading to a disturbed barrier function and inflamation. It seems that the quality of the material used for nose cleansing could play an important role and that innovative handkerchiefs would fulfil a preventive role in minimizing the damaging effect of theskin barrier function of the nasolabial zone during this conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of a wet handkerchief (SKNW) on the skin barrier balance by measuring filaggrin and histamine using an experimental model of ex vivo native human skin model and the interference of this handkerchief in the skin microbiota through in vitro screening. SKNW showed an increase in the production of filaggrin and a reduction of histamine synthesis in human explants subjected to barrier disruption with 5% Sodium Lauryl Sulfate. Additionaly, SKNW showed a mild and moderate antiseptic action on the evaluated microorganisms. This study demonstrated that SKNW could be considered a feasible option for consecutive wiping of nasolabial zone avoiding the transient mechanical dermatitis, considering its skin barrier protective, non-irritating and antiseptic actions.
... AV has a direct parasiticidal effect on all forms of Leishmania, enhances activated macrophages, and leads to increasing TNF -α , which is the main mediator of acute inflammation. Hence, it could have positive effects on antigen processing and cause resistance against infection 15,16 . Moreover, some studies have demonstrated that AV had no deleterious effects to the host cell 5,13 while its extract with acetone has an antimicrobial activity 17 . ...
... In addition to the direct parasiticidal effect of AVL on Leishmania, it had immunomodulatory activity and contained two low and high molecular weight components. Low molecular weight component has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, but a high molecular weight component has immunostimulating properties, increases activated macrophages, and enhances the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) production in macrophages, which lead to increasing the secretion of IL12, IL1, IL6, and TNF -α 15,16,19,20 . This result is in line with the results of the in vivo model in the present study. ...
Article
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The antileishmanial activity of Aloe vera leaf exudates: in vitro and in vivo Background: According to the drug resistance and side effects of the standard treatments for leishmaniasis, achieving effective treatment with less side effects and more benefits is of paramount importance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera leaf exudate on Leishmania major under in vitro and in vivo models, in inbred BALB/c mice. Methods: Different concentrations of both Aloe vera leaf exudates (AVL) and the standard drug meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime ® ;Sanofi-Aventis, France) were prepared (9.375l, 18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, and 300 μg/ml) for in vitro model and then were applied to the fixed number of promastigotes. The promastigotes were counted after 24, 48, and 72 h. The viability of promastigotes was tested by MTT. A total of 20 mice with cutaneous leishmaniasis were divided into four groups for in vivo model, 1: positive group (treatment with Glucantime ®), 2: negative group (without treatment), and 3 and 4: experimental groups (treatment with AVL1% and AVL4%, respectively). The size of the ulcers were recorded at the beginning of the experiment on a weekly basis for four weeks. Results: The results of in vitro model indicated that both AVL and Glucantime ® reduced the number of promastigotes such that there was the lowest number of parasites in the concentration 300 μg/ml of AVL and Glucantime ® ; however, the difference between them was not statistically significant. In vivo model demonstrated that AVL4% and Glucantime ® decreased significantly the size of ulcers more than negative (P=0.000) and AVL1% groups (P=0.000 and P=0.004, respectively).
... It has been used for its medicinal benefits for ages in countries like China, Arabia, Egypt, India, South Africa, Greece, Japan, Madagascar, United States and Mexico [2]. In United States Aloe vera was consumed as a purgative but now it is used as an effective treatment for chronic dermatitis [3].There are approximately 300 species of Aloe known all over the world including the most commonly used Aloe vera, A. perryi, A. vulgaris, A. ferox, A. arborescens [4,5]. The scientific name of Aloe vera is Aloe barbadensis miller of family Asphodelaceae [6]. ...
... A. vera gel contains polysaccharides and growth hormone gibberellins, thus helping to heal wounds: The reason for the high healing ability of A. vera is the discovery of the current number of mucopolysaccharides (MPS) between 10,000-20000 megabytes per liter 8. Its ability to form collagen and elastin continuously leads to a reduction Wrinkles (Talmadge et al., 2004;Feily, and Namazi, 2009). We add to it its ability to treat skin diseases as a result of the activity of amino acids necessary to form new cells, and due to the ability of its enzymes to enhance them and renew the deepest layers of the skin (Eshun and He, 2004;. ...
Article
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Fear has spread worldwide due to the emergence of a dangerous epidemic virus known as Corona and scientifically (COVID-19). The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared a state of emergency in 2020 as this virus is contagious and spreads rapidly among humans through breathing. His first appearance in China was specifically Wuhan City in December 2019. Doctors find one of the top reasons COVID-19 is so fast is weak immune response. In this period, there was no effective antiretroviral drug to prevent or treat COVID-19. The world faces a challenge and there is an urgent need for effective drugs. Opinions have abounded about eating natural herbs and linking their benefits to improved immunotherapy against COVID-19. Plants and natural compounds are a rich, proven source for new drug discovery. These tropical plants have antiviral properties and immune degradation activities and this confirms the likelihood that they will be used as a supplement to treatment to get a better life for the patient, and may be important in treating coronavirus. In this review article, the role of medicinal plants will be discussed in enhancing immunity to prevent Covid-19 and other diseases, and the review will specifically address the Aloe vera plant.
... Antibacterial function of the soap can be enhanced by incorporation of additives [5,6]. Natural ingredients, especially plant-derived products such as aloe vera, zobo (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and honey have long been used in traditional medicine and are a cheap source of bioactive compounds that control antibiotic resistance [7][8][9][10][11][12]. Epsom salt (magnesium sulphate) is topically being used by many people to ease aching muscles, treat skin conditions and relieve tension. ...
Article
Purpose: This study investigated physicochemical properties and antimicrobial performance of soaps formulated from natural ingredients with the intention to apply them as alternative deodorizing soaps in personal care products. Methods: Soaps were formulated with natural ingredients including lemon, aloe vera and honey. Foam stability and capac-ity tests as well as pH were determined for the soaps. Deodorizing effectiveness of the soaps was tested theoretically using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test by screening them against pathogenic organisms causing body odour: bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albican, Staphylococcus hominis, Strephotococcus mutant, Staphylococcus epidemidis) and fungi (Tinnea annum, Tinneapedis and Trycrophyton rubrum) using agar well diffusion method and poisoned food technique respectively while having Dettol soap and ketoconazole as controls. Results: The soaps had a maximum foam capacity of 150% and foam stability of 100% with pH values in the range of 9.3–9.8 and inhibited the growth of the tested organisms for up to 6days at 0.1g/ml concentration. Conclusion: The soaps are mildly alkaline, possess good foaming capacity and stability and have considerably significant antimicrobial properties that can impede the growth of the organisms.
... Basically, aloe vera reverses the progressive ischemia as well as preserving the dermal microcirculation of cells by preventing the systemic production and local effect of thromboxane. It is recommended to re-applied after every 6 h of application [28,29]. ...
Article
Frostbite injury is caused to tissue or organ on exposure of cold or frozen conditions. Previously this problem is associated with military personnel deployed at high altitudes. But nowadays frostbite falls within the scope of civilians also due to modernization and mobilization. Deep frostbite results in necrosis and might causes amputation when the situation exaggerates. The underlying mechanism of pathophysiology pertaining to frostbite and therapy for it is not explored so far. There are not many research findings that pertain to pathophysiology and treatment advancements in this area. The current review highlights the current advancements in terms of drug delivery especially covering the area of nanoplatforms. This review will pave the way for the scientific world to explore the hidden truth of frostbite about pathophysiology and open the new doors for better therapeutic options.
... Aloe vera plant has also been used to cure dermatitis, and certain data have supported its use in many conditions, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (type of chronic inflammatory skin disorder) [58]. Immune dysfunction and epidermal barrier defects in atopic dermatitis patients are caused by both environmental and genetic causes [59]. ...
Article
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Aloe vera, a popular succulent perennial medicinal plant with a wide range of phytochemicals that have shown various pharmacological activities including anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, wound healing promotion and so on. Acemannan, aloe-emodin, aloin, aloesin, and emodin are widely investigated active constituents that show various pharmacological activities. Thus, the purpose of this review is to highlight previous pharmacological studied conducted in vivo, in vitro and human assays over the past decades. As current pharmacological research is focused on anticancer and neurological action, it would be interesting and important to study the main compounds present in Aloe vera for therapeutic purposes.
... Alemdar, Set al., Feily, et al., 2009 Antifungal activity ...
Article
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Aloe vera is part and parcel of the Liliaceae family. This is one of 250 Aloe Barbadensis species, scientifically known as Aloe Vera. Acemannane, one of the most bioactive polysaccharides of Aloe Vera, has effects of immunity modulation, anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, bone repair, neuroprotection and promotion of intestinal health. The mucilaginous gel in the pulp of aloe vera formed by the parenchymal cells has been used for a variety of curative applications since ancient times. Aloe vera is a nutraceutical product used mostly for decades. It is available in a range of health drinks and wellness beverages, in capsules/tablets and in gels & creams externally. This article includes the bioactive components, extraction and processing of aloe vera and the prospects of tissue engineering. This article highlights important uses as a nutraceutical, medicinal, and therapeutic food potential of A. vera constituents. Aloe vera nutraceutical gel scaffolds, such as acemannan, promote biomedical biomedical and polymeric tissue management. The presence of over 200 phytochemicals was revealed by Aloe vera gel. Aloe vera gel from its leaves is extracted and the stabilisation and preparation of the final products requires adequate processing techniques.
... Aloe Vera shows anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The active constituent acemannan is responsible for the immunomodulatory properties of Aloe Vera, whereas another active components anthracene and anthraquinone attribute to its anti-proliferative properties [101]. . ➢ Aloe Vera is also used in prevention and treatment of skin irritation caused by radiotherapy. ...
... Aloe barbadensis) is one of the best-known natural products for skin health. Topical Aloe vera gel may aid burn and wound healing as well as act as an anti-inflammatory agent [13]. Allantoin, derived from several plant sources, regulates inflammation and induces both fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis [14]. ...
... Aloe barbadensis) is one of the best know natural products for skin health. Topical Aloe vera gel may aid burn and wound healing as well as act as an anti-inflammatory agent [13]. Allantoin, derived from several plant sources, regulates inflammation and induces both fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis [14]. ...
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A face serum composed of a combination of biologically active compounds was evaluated for safety and efficacy in vitro, in a repeat insult patch test and in a human clinical efficacy trial. The serum inhibited tyrosinase activity modestly, decreased collagenase activity and exhibited notable free radical scavenging activity in vitro. It is gentle to the skin, as the serum did not irritate the skin or produce symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis in the 55 healthy adults that participated in the repeat insult patch test. In the efficacy trial, daily application of the face serum for 30 days significantly increased skin hydration, with all 35 volunteers experiencing improvement. Substantial improvements in skin elasticity, roughness (fine lines and wrinkles), and brightness also occurred during the trial. Dermatological examination also revealed a trend for reduced comedone count with use of the serum. Self-assessment responses revealed that all volunteers experienced improvements in multiple skin quality parameters and that participant perceptions are consistent with the results of the instrumental analyses. These findings indicated that the measured improvements in skin quality are not only statistically significant but are also clinically relevant as they were great enough for users of the face serum to feel and recognize.
... Among the different approaches to treat scars, we can mention the complementary therapies, including essential oils (Tea tree oil, lavender etc.) for antibacterial action; Aloe or centella asiatica extract, as anti-inflammatory; allantoin and anthocyanins as antioxidants; Allium Coepa (onion extract) for the kerato-modulating action that reshapes keloids by compression; mineral complexes (petrolatum and silicone) with dermoprotective effect, etc (5,(21)(22)(23)(24). Also topical administration of CBD ointment, without any THC, is a safe and effective non-invasive alternative for improve severe skin chronic diseases and/or outcome scars, especially on inflammatory background (25). ...
Article
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Objective: The aim of study is to evaluate the aesthetic outcome of specific formulated cosmeceutical product to mask and reduce the appearance surgical scars or unappealing skin tags in chronic diseases, such as cancer Methods: In a spontaneous, anecdotal, retrospective study, 26 patients with skin disorders appealed to Second Opinion Medical Network (Modena, Italy), required masking and improving the skin appearance. To evaluate the aesthetic improvement of skin imperfections, a gelcream containing 10% of acetyl hexapeptide-8 (registered trademark Argireline®) was selected, that can be applied directly upon the lesion, followed by a light massage in the treated area for a few minutes Results: The skin quality parameters (hydration, elasticity, sebum), photographs and investigators clinical assessment have been performed before and after the treatment and demonstrated that this cream significantly improved the skin values and the self-image expectation of each patient. No allergic reactions were documented during the period treatment Conclusions: The topical administration of this cosmeceutical cream is a safe and effective alternative to the invasive procedures, to improve the quality of life in patients with some skin disorders such as cancer, surgical scars, hidradenitis, aging wrinkles
... A study by Shahzad et al. showed that Thermal burns patients dressed with Aloe Vera gel showed advantage compared to those dressed with SSD regarding early wound epithelialization, earlier pain relief and cost-effectiveness (57). Another article revealed that aloe vera could be a treatment of choice for burn injuries (58). Hajhashemi proved evidences that topical application of aloe vera would improve of the healing wounds in rats (59). ...
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Background: Burn injuries are one of the most common sources of trauma globally that comprise a significant drain on long-term personal and healthcare cost Large surface area burn wounds are difficult to manage and may result in significant physiologic and psychological sequelae. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Aloe Vera gel with 2%Nitrofurazone ointment in the healing of superficial partial thickness burns wounds. Methods: The present study was a split body controlled, randomized clinical trial. The sample was recruited from patients with superficial partial thickness burns wound who were prescribed to treat with 2% Nitrofurazone ointment. Thirty patients with at least two burn, each burn on an alternate side of the body, entered the study — samples allocated to two area which received Aloe Vera gel or 2% Nitrofurazone ointment on their burns. Bates-Jensen Wound. assessment tool (BWAT) was used to evaluate the healing of burns. the epithelialization parameter and sum score Bates-Jensen tools evaluated before, one, two and three weeks after the beginning of treatment. Results: The mean ± SD of epithelialization parameter in Aloe Vera area were 5.0±00.00, 4.0±46.57, 3.0±50.57, 2.0±56.62. The mean ± SD of epithelialization parameter in 2% Nitrofurazone ointment area were 5.0±00.00, 4.0±66.54, 3.0±76.50, 3.0±03.61.and The mean ± SD of BWAT scores in Aloe Vera area were 30.32 ± 3.28, 27.33 ± 3.38, 21.33 ± 3.13, 16.12 ± 2.16 respectively (F(2, 65.07) =440.00, p=0.001). The mean ± SD of BWAT scores in 2% Nitrofurazone ointment area were 30.51 ± 3.79, 28.45 ± 3.49, 23.36 ± 2.89, 19.23 ± 2.11 ( F(1, 52.00) =228.00, p=0.001). Conclusions: There is a significant difference in epithelialization parameter and (BWAT) scores between intervention and control area. Based on this study it looks like that aloe vera gel could promoted epithelialization and wound closure more effectively than 2% Nitrofurazone ointment
... It has six antiseptic agents (lupeol, salicylic acid, urea nitrogen, cinnamonicacid, phenols, and sulfur), which have the potential to kill bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In addition, it stimulates the growth of new tissues and it has a calming effect on the nervous system as it cleans and detoxifies the body and normalizes body metabolism (Kambizi and Afolayan 2008;Feily and Namazi 2009;Titus 2012). Also, it is a remarkable fact that the Aloe vera increases the collagen content of the granulation tissue as well as its degree of crosslinking as a result in restoration of tissue integrity (Chithra et al. 1998). ...
Article
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Aloe vera seems to have an essential role over millennia in several cultures, as well as in Greek. Νowadays it is a fact that Greece, because of the economic crisis, focused on the cultivation of alternative plants including Aloe. This cultivation attracts the farmers' interest both for its good adaptability to the local climate and for its beneficial properties. According to the literature, they can harvest 7,000 kg of leaves containing about 70-80% gel per acre. Also, it is noteworthy that the main purpose of the cultivation of this species, is the leaves' processing in order to obtain its beneficial properties for skin, health, weight loss etc. In addition, as far as the domestic commercialization and market demand of Aloe vera are concerned, it is observed that they are still in an embryonic stage, and are in need of enrichment with direct supply chains with the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries that will supply with Aloe's gel their production lines. The present review focuses on the current state of the Aloe's cultivation, utilization and commercialization in Greece, so it can be used as a baseline information for further research.
... 19,20 It can be effective for burn, xerosis, seborrheic dermatitis, genital herpes, psoriasis, human papilloma virus, aphthous stomatitis, lichen planus, frostbite, wound healing and inflammation. 21,22 Aloe vera was also studied in the management of treatment-related cutaneous toxicities. In a double blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, it was not effective as prophylaxis of radiotherapy-related skin toxicity. ...
Article
Introduction Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor which provides survival benefit when combined with chemotherapy in RAS wild type metastatic colorectal cancer. Cutaneous toxicities associated with cetuximab have a significant impact on patient quality of life, treatment continuation and healthcare resource utilization. Case report A 60-year-old male patient presented with fatigue, weight loss and abdominal pain. Two closely located malignant polypoid lesions were detected in the sigmoid colon, and pathological examination revealed colonic adenocarcinoma. Management and outcome: Thorax, abdominal and pelvic computed tomography showed metastases. FOLFOX chemotherapy and cetuximab were started. The patient developed acneiform rash firstly in his face, although prophylactic vitamin K1 0.1% containing cream was given. He was given mild potency topical corticosteroid and doxycycline. The lesions progressed to his front and back body. He did not want to use topical vitamin K1 cream, topical steroid and doxycycline tablets. Instead, he wanted to use aloe vera extract which he produced from the leaves of the plant. Patient’s lesions were regressed significantly. Discussion The most common and earliest skin toxicity is acneiform rash which affects 60 to 80% of the patients. In this case, cetuximab-related severe acneiform rash was effectively treated by topical aloe vera. Topical aloe vera may be used in the management of cetuximab-related cutaneous toxicities without any side effect.
... According to this source, the mechanism of action attributed to the active aloe vera ingredient is due to its ability to stimulate two types of cells: For the treatment of dandruff , researchers recommend an aloe vera preparation as a 0.5% gel within a hydrophilic cream. 4 Create PDF in your applications with the Pdfcrowd HTML to PDF API PDFCROWD With potent antimicrobial properties, product manufacturers are justified in considering aloe vera hair benefits when choosing their ingredients Many skin and hair products boast the use of aloe vera as one of their ingredients. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aloe vera barbadensis has been treasured as a sacred botanical since ancient times, revered across many cultures for its numerous health and healing properties for the hair and the body as a whole. The juice from the plant has been called the “Blood of the Gods.” Aloe vera has also been referred to as “the plant of immortality.” It has earned the name, kumari in Sanskrit which translates as the word, princess, implying the plant’s anthropomorphized feminine and regal existence upon the physical plane. Native Americans thought of the pointy plant spears as each being a “wand of heaven,” using the aloe vera juice to beautify as well as protect their skin and hair from the sun and adverse weather.
... 11 Such protective effects also reportedly include anti-inflammatory effects 23 and ameliorative effects against skin damages and traumas. 24 The current findings are similar to a previous work, 25 in which it was reported that the epidermis of hydroquinonetreated rabbits showed inflammatory cells, infiltration mainlylymphocytes and eosinophils. It was also reported to have potential carcinogenic effects. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Skin bleaching is the act of using steroid- and chemical-containing products to lighten the skin. Hydroquinone and kojic acid are often used in skin bleaching creams. Hydroquinone was suspected to be harmful. This study investigated the effects of kojic acid and hydroquinone on the skin of adult female Wistar rats and the potential use of aloe vera for amelioration. Materials and methods: Eighty [n=80] adult female Wistar rats with an average weight of 120 g were randomly divided into eight groups, marked A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H. Group A animals served as the control group; group B was treated with 2% hydroquinone, group C was treated with 2% kojic acid, group D was treated with 4% hydroquinone, group E was treated with 4% kojic acid, group F was treated with 2% hydroquinone and 2% kojic acid, group G was treated with 4% hydroquinone and 4% kojic acid, and group H was treated with 4% hydroquinone, 4% kojic acid, and aloe vera. The preparations were applied to the tail skin and treatment lasted 28 days. Skin samples were excised and processed using H&E, Masson's trichrome, and p65 immunohistochemical assays on tissue sections. Results: Hydroquinone caused structural disruptions of the stratum corneum of the epidermis and the overlying keratin. p65 was also prominently expressed in the treated groups. Hydroquinone reduced skin thickness and caused epidermis disruption. Discussion: The prominent expression of p65 in the sections indicated deleterious effects of hydroquinone. Kojic acid was not found to have deleterious effects. Aloe vera prevented extensive disruption of stratum corneum by hydroquinone. The use of hydroquinone in skin lightening creams might raise health concerns. Aloe vera could be protective against hydroquinone.
... 27 In addition to the wound healing effects of aloe vera, it also has anti-inflammatory effects, laxative effects, antiviral and antitumor effects, moisturizing and anti-aging effects, and antiseptic effects, as well as reducing the harmful effects of ultraviolet and gamma rays on the skin. 28 Studies conducted with humans and animals are insufficient according to the principles of 'evidence-based medicine'. The beneficial effects of Aloe vera have been reported in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, genital herpes, burns, type 2 diabetes, HIV infection, cancer prevention, wound healing, pressure ulcers, mucositis, radiation dermatitis, acne vulgaris, lichen planus, freezy, aphthous stomatitis and constipation. ...
Article
Full-text available
The oral mucosa and the surrounding tissues are the entrance to the body, where oral mucosa-specific lesions can be seen, and where symptoms or signs of many systemic diseases can be observed. The etiology of the lesions occurring in the oral mucosa may be trauma, infection , immunological causes or idiopathic. Drug application onto the mucosa covering the oral cavity has long been a field of pharmacology. Lesions that occur as a symptom of systemic diseases are usually seen as ul-cerations. The purpose of the treatment is to apply symptomatic treatments that mainly improve the patient's comfort while solving the underlying problem. These are achieved primarily by correcting oral hygiene, regulating the diet, and prescribing medicines in the appropriate manner mentioned in the article. In this review, we aimed to review the drugs used in oral mucosal diseases by the dentists who frequently deal with them.
...  Applying Aloe Vera gel: Topical application of Aloe Vera is not an effective prevention for radiationinduced injuries and has no sunburn or suntan protection [49]. The Aloe Vera cream was continuing applied at the test sites twice daily for the next three weeks. ...
Book
The sunscreen industry is achieving remarkable worldwide prominence by responding to the growing need for skin protection with fast-paced innovation. Increased consumer awareness of the harmful effects of sunlight has fueled the demand for improved photo protection. The need for broad-spectrum protection from both UVA and UVB rays has inspired scientists worldwide to research new cosmetic formulations and delivery systems. More effective sunscreen actives, emollients and novel cosmetic and functional ingredients have been regularly added to the formulator’s repertoire. Creativity in innovation has been hindered only by regulatory agencies and patent restrictions worldwide. Familiarity with the current restrictive regulations and patent law infringements has become integral to any research effort attempting to provide improved protection to individuals affected by the sun’s damaging effects. The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photo damaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sun screening agents, which have shown bene􀏐icial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Unlike the situation in Europe where sunscreen ingredients are considered under cosmetics guidelines, the FDA is required to de􀏐ine sunscreens as drugs since they are advertised to prevent sunburn and, more recently, the risk of skin cancer. In the USA, the FDA has been regulating this industry since August 25, 1978, with the publication of the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. Sunscreens are considered drugs and cosmetics and therefore must be governed by the FDA-OTC monograph. With the variety of sunscreen agents used in cosmetic and UV protection products, Australia, Canada, and the European Union (EU) have also developed regulatory protocols on safe sunscreen product use. Unlike the USA though, Australia has approved 34 active sunscreen ingredients and the EU has approved 28 of these ingredients. Current FDA regulations allow labeling of sunscreen products to a maximum of 30þ, despite the many products currently available with numbers as high as 100. From a cosmetic formulation point of view, increasing the SPF number in a product is governed by simple chemical principles
... It is approved as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) in the US by the Food and Drug Agency (FDA) 16,18) and World Health Organization (WHO) 18,19) . It exerts beneficial effects on human health, including: anti-inflammatory 17,18,[20][21][22][23][24][25] , antimicrobial 18,[22][23][24]26) , antifungal 17,18) , antioxidant and antitumor 23,27) , anticancer 17,23,26,28) , and immunomodulatory properties 17,23,24) . It seems that A. vera could be the right substitute for Bitrex TM as a challenge agent. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fit testing procedure is required for filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) to ascertain an acceptable fit between the skin and facepiece sealing surface. The present study seeks to compare the efficacy of Aloe vera (A. vera) and commercial BitrexTM as challenge agents of qualitative fit testing of particulate respirators. An herbal solution consisting of A. vera at seven different concentrations was developed. Threshold Screening Tests (TSTs) of A. vera solutions were compared to BitrexTM. To do so, solutions were administered randomly on a total of 62 participants. A placebo was also tested to ensure the taste response being valid. Statistical analysis was performed using R 3.2.5.0 software. There were no statistically significant differences between the A. vera (41.7, 58.3, 75, and 91.7 mg/ml) and BitrexTM threshold tests. Therefore, the minimum concentration of A. vera to develop the threshold solution was considered to be 41.7 mg/ml. When commercial products are expensive and unavailable, a cost-effective technique would be to replace A. vera solution with a commercial product as a challenge agent of qualitative fit testing of respirators.
... The focal product, sunscreen, has been used successfully to manipulate promotion and prevention orientation in previous research (Lee & Aaker, 2004). Both product descriptions made claims that were compatible with two common ingredients of sunscreen (Smijs & Pavel, 2011;Feily & Namazi, 2009). ...
Article
Despite the extensive research on online reviews and their impact on consumer decision‐making, there is disagreement on the role that a review's valence plays with regard to helpfulness (Purnawirawan et al., 2015). Some research shows that negative reviews are more helpful than positive reviews, while other evidence indicates that positive reviews are more helpful than negative reviews (Babic Rosario et al., 2016). Moreover, research that addresses why consumers vote certain reviews as helpful but dismiss others as not helpful is scarce (Kuan et al., 2015). Understanding these processes is essential because firms adapt their review systems to rely more heavily on helpful reviews (Rubin, 2015). As a result, they also take measures to increase the number of readers who express review helpfulness through voting (Tyson, 2016). In the context of this study, expressed helpfulness is defined as the reader's decision to vote a review as helpful. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Zelesse V R has been marketed in Europe since 2013, according to healthcare products regulations. The herbal components (burdock, chamomile, and aloe vera) of Zelesse V R are natural ingredients known for their anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and anti-oxidant properties and are widely used in dermatological disorders [9][10][11][12][13][14][15] given their soothing, antipruritic, and antiseptic properties. Therefore, this solution may exert favorable effects in the management of vulvovaginitis, although, to date, there is no clinical evidence reported in this regard. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To evaluate the acceptability, tolerability, and effects on vulvovaginitis symptoms and signs of a non-soap, herbal-based intimate solution (Zelesse®). Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational, multicenter study including adult women with symptoms and signs of vulvovaginitis with various etiologies, including candidiasis, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, and atrophic and irritative vaginitis. The presence and intensity of signs (edema, erythema, vaginal discharge) and symptoms (pruritus) of vulvovaginitis were evaluated before and after 5-15 days of daily use of Zelesse® alone or as a coadjuvant in antimicrobial therapy. Variables following a normal distribution and categorical variables were analyzed using the Student t-test and chi-square or Fisher's exact test, respectively. Results: A total 137 women were enrolled in the study; 87 (63.5%) women received concomitant antimicrobials and 50 (36.5%) used Zelesse® only. Global symptom scores and frequency of patients with vulvovaginitis signs and symptoms, and their mean intensity, decreased after treatment in both patient groups. Vaginal pH and (in the Zelesse®-only group) vaginal flora remained unaltered. The product was safe, well tolerated, and highly accepted by patients. Conclusions: Zelesse®, the non-soap herbal-based solution in this study, may represent a safe and effective option for symptomatic relief of vulvovaginitis.
... Treatment with topical moderate-potency or high-potency corticosteroids does not provide a clinically useful decrease in the acute sunburn reaction when applied 6 or 23 hours after UV exposure [16].  Applying Aloe Vera gel: Topical application of Aloe Vera is not an effective prevention for radiation-induced injuries and has no sunburn or suntan protection [17]. The Aloe Vera cream was continuing applied at the test sites twice daily for the next three weeks. ...
Preprint
The sunscreen industry is achieving remarkable worldwide prominence by responding to the growing need for skin protection with fast-paced innovation. Increased consumer awareness of the harmful effects of sunlight has fueled the demand for improved photo protection. The need for broad-spectrum protection from both UVA and UVB rays has inspired scientists worldwide to research new cosmetic formulations and delivery systems. More effective sunscreen actives, emollients and novel cosmetic and functional ingredients have been regularly added to the formulator’s repertoire. Creativity in innovation has been hindered only by regulatory agencies and patent restrictions worldwide. Familiarity with the current restrictive regulations and patent law infringements has become integral to any research effort attempting to provide improved protection to individuals affected by the sun’s damaging effects. The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photo damaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sun screening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Unlike the situation in Europe where sunscreen ingredients are considered under cosmetics guidelines, the FDA is required to define sunscreens as drugs since they are advertised to prevent sunburn and, more recently, the risk of skin cancer. In the USA, the FDA has been regulating this industry since August 25, 1978, with the publication of the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. Sunscreens are considered drugs and cosmetics and therefore must be governed by the FDA-OTC monograph. With the variety of sunscreen agents used in cosmetic and UV protection products, Australia, Canada, and the European Union (EU) have also developed regulatory protocols on safe sunscreen product use. Unlike the USA though, Australia has approved 34 active sunscreen ingredients and the EU has approved 28 of these ingredients. Current FDA regulations allow labeling of sunscreen products to a maximum of 30þ, despite the many products currently available with numbers as high as 100. From a cosmetic formulation point of view, increasing the SPF number in a product is governed by simple chemical principles.
... Aloe vera extract, with its polysaccharide-rich composition is often used in cosmetic products and has been shown to improve skin hydration (Casetti, Wolfle, Gehring, & Schempp, 2011;Dal'Belo, Gaspar, & Maia Campos, 2006;Feily & Namazi, 2009). Topical formulations containing green tea extract (Camellia sinensis) had skin smoothing and moisturizing effects (Gianeti, Mercurio, & Campos, 2013;Mahmood, Akhtar, Khan, Shoaib Khan, & Saeed, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective of this open, non‐interventional, non‐controlled study was to investigate the tolerability and performance of a woad extract containing cream in subjects with dry, pruritic skin after twice daily application over two weeks. Assessments included sensorial characteristics, skin condition, pruritus [numeric rating scale (NRS), dynamic pruritus score (DPS)], skin dryness [itch‐controlled days (ItchCD), overall dry skin (ODS)], transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration and quality of life (5PLQ, DLQI). All sensorial characteristics were well perceived (>4), with tolerability (4.77 ± 0.47) and no negative skin feelings (4.73 ± 0.74) achieving the highest scores (0‐5 scale). Dry skin and symptoms improved significantly (p < 0.001) for all variables: NRS (from 4.8 ± 1.74 to 1.83 ± 2.18), ItchCD (from 8.23 ± 4.40 to 4.81 ± 4.07), ODS (from 1.80 ± 0.85 to 0.65 ± 0.65), hydration (23.33 ± 1.33 to 40.70 ± 1.86), and quality of life (5PLQ: from 7.12 ± 4.25 to 4.24 ± 3.67; DLQI: from 5.29 ± 4.79 to 3.00 ± 3.98). The DPS revealed a moderate antipruritic effect. The TEWL decreased slightly (p=0.511). No side effects were reported. The study suggests, that the cream is effective, and well tolerated in treating dry, irritated, and pruritic skin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Camellia sinensis bitkisi antioksidan, saç uzamasını artırıcı, saç kepeklenmesini önleyici, alopesiyi tedavi edici özellikler göstermektedir.[36][37][38][39] Aloe vera bitkisinin antiinflamatuar ve antimikrobiyal etkileri ortaya konarak saç gelişimini artırıcı ve seboreik dermatit tedavisinde kullanımını destekleyici sonuçları bulunmaktadır.40,41 Yapılan diğer araştırmalarda, saç kepeklenmesini önleyici olarak Acacia concinna, Allium sativum, Persea americana; alopesi tedavisinde Capsicum frutescens, Glycine max; saç yoğunluğunu ve hacmini artırıcı olarak Myrtus communis, Cedrus atlantica, Laurus nobilis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Salvia sclarea, Cananga odorata bitkilerinin etkileri gösterilmiştir.[42][43][44][45][46][47] ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Hair cosmetics are widely used by the public for various purposes. In order to avoid the possible damages and side effects when using products, the trend towards herbal products is increasing. The main purpose of this study is to determine the most common plants, which are existed in the hair products, and their using purposes by investigation of shampoos, hair care products and hair dyes contain plant parts. Material and Methods: 259 hair cosmetics products of 45 brands in pharmacies and personal care markets were searched, the plants in their content, parts of the plants used and their usage purposes were investigated. The data obtained are presented in tables and the plants and their families which are the most common in the hair products are given in graphics based on the number of plants' participation in the products. Results: As a result of research, 182 plants belonging to 70 families were determined in the hair products and the total number of participation of plants to products was found as 852. The 5 most widely used species in shampoos, hair care products and hair dyes are defined as; Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lawsonia inermis L., Olea europaea L., Urtica dioica L. and Matricaria chamomilla L. Conclusion: It is thought that this study will be a reference to the future scientific studies by detecting the most common plants in hair cosmetic products and will be a resource for health care workers to offer the appropriate product for the treatment of the patient.
... 11 Aloe vera is a type of succulent plant species which also appears to have anti-inf lammatory and antimicrobial properties and has been found to promote wound healing. 12 Given the potential anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and wound healing properties of these natural ingredients and their frequent use in alternative medicine, it is highly possible that these products may have anti-psoriatic effects as well. ...
... Aloe vera has anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic, analgesic and wound healing properties. 38 It contains substances such as salicylic acid, magnesium lactate and gel polysaccharides. 39 Previous study demonstrate that application of 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5% of aloe vera extract for two weeks increase skin hydration, without any significant effect on TEWL. ...
Article
Full-text available
Moisturizer is a major component of basic daily skin care, particularly in presence of epidermal barrier alteration and reduced epidermal water content. It is an important part of a dermatologist's strategy to maintain skin health as well as treating various dermatoses which co-exist with skin dryness, linked to impaired skin barrier function such as in atopic disorder as well as other types of dermatitis. Mastering the knowledge regarding action mechanism, application, dosage, adverse effects as well as specific clinical usage of moisturizers is must for a dermatologist, in order to support the capability to recommend their use, particularly for therapeutic purposes, in accordance with evidence-based medicine. This review is aimed to discuss the use of moisturizer both as skin health maintenance as well as a definitive or adjuvant therapy, particularly for many kinds of dermatitis.
... One of the well-known medicinal herbs belonging to the Liliaceae family is aloe vera. It has been applied in the indigenous or folk medicine of many cultures for the treatment of a variety of skin disorders including acne, dermatitis, burns, and wounds [91]. Aloe vera contains many important nutrients such as amino acids, B group vitamins, ascorbic acid, vitamin A and E, polysaccharides, and other nutrients that support Healthcare. ...
Article
Full-text available
Conventional dressings are cost-effective and highly absorbent, but not effectual enough to promote hemostasis, adherence and in holding a moist wound bed. Thanks to the developments in the field of nanotechnology and bioengineering, one of the promising current trends is to move progress of innovative wound dressings, merging the application of traditional healing agents and modern products/practices, such as hydrocolloids, hydrogels, films and nanofibers. The electrospun nanofibers webs can provide the essential parameters require for wound dressing to heal wounds including absorptivity, oxygen permeability, and non-adherence to the healing tissue, barrier to bacteria, bioactivity and occlusivity. The modern wound dressings materials made of electrospun nanofibers contain various traditional healing agents such as plant derived compounds could be beneficial to the healing of wounds. Natural substances have been used in skin wound care for many years because of their therapeutic properties, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and mitogenic activities. This review surveys on potentials of electrospun nanofibrous mats for wound dressing applications. Furthermore, loading of bioactive molecules and therapeutic agents into the nanofibrous mats especially natural compounds with the aim of fabrication novel bioactive electrospun nanofibrous mats for skin substitutes and wound dressings are discussed.
... There are many other chemical and herbal drugs such as Aloe Vera, green tea [32,33], sulfasalazine, metronidazole [18], mycophenolate mofetil [34], griseofulvin, thalidomide and therapeutic modalities such as PUVA and bath PUVA [35], excimer laser [36], UVA1 radiation and extracorporeal phototherapy used in the treatment of LP or generalized LP [18] or other palmoplantar dermatoses but just the above-mentioned drugs have been used in the treatment of palmoplantar LP. As mentioned before palmoplantar LP is a rare variety of LP, that is why we could not find any clinical trial and just case reports have been described in this manuscript. ...
Article
Full-text available
Palmoplantar lichen planus is a localized and uncommon variant of lichen planus which is mostly resistant to treatment. Our purpose was to discuss all treatment modalities proposed and tested for palmoplantar lichen planus in the literature. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate evidence regarding all treatment modalities proposed and tested for palmoplantar lichen planus in the literature. Two major databases (PubMed, Google scholar) were searched. The review included all case reports, letters and original articles reporting any treatment for palmoplantar lichen planus but not treatment used in the other type of lichen planus, generalized lichen planus or other type of palmoplantar dermatoses. We have gone over more than 50 articles. There are many drugs that have been used in the treatment of lichen planus and generalized lichen planus but the palmoplantar type is a rare variety of lichen planus. That is why we could not find any clinical trial on the subject and just case reports have been described in this manuscript. In spite of plentiful investigations carried out on lichen planus, there is no treatment modality that has proved to be utterly satisfactory in treatment of palmoplantar lichen planus.
... Aloe is a large genus with 446 species [20] that belongs to the Xanthorrhoeaceae. A. vera (L.) Burm. f., also known as Aloe barbadensis Mill., is the most studied species in this genus ( Fig. 1) [21]. Aloe spp. ...
... There is other ingredients in the formulation which was believed to enhance the moisturising effect. For instance, in Brand A (Nivea), there was ArganiaSpinosa Kernel Oil (Argan Oil) which also has moisturising effect [22][23]. This will enhance the efficacy of aloe vera which acts as humectant. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Aloe Vera as skin moisturizer as measured by Trans Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL) and hydration value. The Dermalab®Combo was used to determine the efficacy of skin cosmetic products. Fifteen subjects were divided into three groups where each group was tested with one type of moisturizer product available in the local market. The TEWL and Hydration level of the subjects were measured before they were treated with the products as the baseline reading and after 3 weeks applying the products twice daily on the left forearm. The TEWL and Hydration levels were increased after 3 weeks for both side but the percentage increment of TEWL on the test side was lower than control side. Meanwhile, the percentage increment of Hydration level was higher on the test side compare to the control side. From the results, it is clear that Aloe Vera is effective for skin care treatment. In conclusion, it can be used asingredient to improve skin barrier function for different skin care products formulations. © 2016, SILAE (Italo-Latin American Society of Ethnomedicine). All rights reserved.
... Although some studies have demonstrated promising results in treating burns and abrasions in particular, they have not proven Aloe vera to be superior to standard treatment for these conditions. [10,11] Aloe vera products for oral consumption include capsules made of Aloe leaves, dried latex, and Aloe vera juice. [6] These products are utilized especially in the treatment of constipation because of a laxative effect. ...
Article
Aloe vera, a succulent plant species, has a long history in folk medicine. Its clear, viscous liquid has been used to treat skin problems and other disorders since ancient times. In the last century, oral consumption and the injection of aloe have also come to popular attention. Its topical use is effective in the treatment of burns and abrasions, and oral use is effective in the treatment of constipation. However, it has not been found to be superior to standard treatments. Most recently, claims of anti-cancer properties are prevalent. It has been found to inhibit proliferation and angiogenesis, and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Yet other clinical studies indicate that Aloe vera did not prevent or reduce the number of radiotherapy-related lesions; it merely delayed onset. Furthermore, many instances of toxicity and mortality have been reported in the literature. Today, it is better to avoid it, especially forms taken orally or by injection.
... Sık kullanıldığında saç gelişimini olumlu yönde etkilediği bildirilmiştir 23 . Seboreik dermatit hastalarında aloe vera losyonunun deriye uygulanmasının seboreik dermatiti tedavi ettiğini bildiren çalışmalar da mevcuttur 23,24 . Aloe vera birçok vitamin, mineral, enzim, aminoasit, doğal şeker ve bazı antiinflamatuvar ve antimikrobial olabilecek ajanlar içerir. ...
Article
Full-text available
For thousands of years, people benefited from natural products to have healthy hair. Nowadays this one of complementary and alternative medicine methods are preferred as an increasing frequency. Natural products used in hair care may vary by geographic region and ethnic origin. In this review, natural products used in hair care and diseases were studied.
... vera) is a medicinal plant with wide applications in the pharmaceutical industry for both systemic 9,10 and dermatologic disorders. [11][12][13][14] A. vera gel has been demonstrated to possess several pharmacological actions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-proliferative, and anti-diabetic properties. 15 Furthermore, A. vera has also shown anti-ulcer, 16,17 wound-healing, 18 and antimicrobial 19 effects, all of which may be relevant to the treatment of GERD and its comorbidities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To investigate the use of Aloe vera (A. vera) for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and compare its effects with those of omeprazole and ranitidine. Methods: In this pilot, randomized controlled trial, 79 subjects were allocated to A. vera syrup (standardized to 5.0 mg polysaccharide per mL of syrup) at a dose of 10 mL/d, omeprazole capsule (20 g/d) or ranitidine tablet (150 mg in a fasted state in the morning and 150 mg 30 min before sleep at night) for a period of 4 weeks. The frequencies of eight main symptoms of GERD (heartburn, food regurgitation, flatulence, belching, dysphagia, nausea, vomiting and acid regurgitation) were assessed at weeks 2 and 4 of the trial. Results: A. vera was safe and well tolerated and reduced the frequencies of all the assessed GERD symptoms, with no adverse events requiring withdrawal. Conclusion: A. vera may provide a safe and effective treatment for reducing the symptoms of GERD.
... [16] Aloe vera has been used as a moisturizing agent and for the treatment of skin abrasions, minor burns and irritations. [17][18][19] Aloe vera has been included in many herbal products for oral use, including dentifrices and mouth rinses. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the antibacterial effect of pomegranate and aloe vera extracts on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extracts of pulp from both Punica granatum (pomegranate) and Aloe barbadensis miller (aloe vera) were prepared to concentrations of 5, 25, 50 and 100%. Pure sorbitol powder dissolved in distilled water was taken as the negative control. Streptococcus mutans (S mutans) was isolated from saliva by inoculation on to Mitus Salivarius Bacitracin (MSB) agar, which was then streaked onto agar plates containing Brain Heart Infusion. In each petridish, wells were prepared and using a sterile micropipette, 125l of the specific concentration of the extract (pomegranate/aloe vera/sorbitol) was deposited in each well. This was done in triplicate for each concentration of the extracts. The effect of different concentrations of the extracts on S mutans was observed and the data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Pomegranate extract showed significantly higher inhibitory effect on S mutans at all concentrations (P0.05). On comparison of all three extracts at different concentrations, a significant difference (P0.05) was observed only at 50 and 100% concentrations. The inhibitory effect of pomegranate extract was significantly different when compared to aloe vera and sorbitol extracts. (P0.01). Discussion: Pomegranate extract has a significant antibacterial effect on S mutans at all concentrations.
Article
Objective: Aloe vera is a cost-effective, accessible wound care adjunct with a minimal risk profile. Despite its centuries-long history being used to treat varying wound types, published reports remain inconclusive on its efficacy. In this article, the authors report the results of a systematic review assessing the efficacy of topical aloe vera products in wound care applications, as well as a meta-analysis of its utility in burn healing where data are most robust. Data sources: In accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, the authors searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL for randomized controlled trials assessing the use of aloe vera in healing various wound types. Study selection: The database search identified 91 articles. After duplicates were removed, 74 articles were screened, and of those, 47 were assessed for eligibility. Ultimately, 28 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis, and 4 studies assessing second-degree burns were included in the meta-analysis. Data extraction: The following data points were collected from each study: number of participants/wounds, treatment type, adjunctive therapy (if any), and primary outcomes. Data synthesis: Risk-of-bias analysis was conducted on included articles, and results were compiled. A meta-analysis was undertaken for studies focusing on the treatment of burns. Cumulatively, these studies had a total of 133 patients with 163 wounds being assessed. Analysis revealed a statistically significant mean difference in time to healing of 4.44 days in favor of aloe vera treatment (P = .004). Conclusions: Topical aloe vera usage for second-degree burn wound healing demonstrated significantly faster time to healing compared with other treatments.
Article
Frostbite is a severe ischemic injury which occurs due to the tissue vascular damage after sub-zero temperature tissue exposure. Deep frostbite can result in necrosis and may need amputation of affected tissue. Though a serious injury, it is not very well understood, and further scientific exploration is needed. This work explores the current understanding of the pathophysiology of frostbite. We reviewed the current status of the diagnostics, the drugs, the therapies and the surgical practices for prevention and management of frostbite. Advances in nanotechnology and drug delivery had improved the therapeutic outcomes significantly. This review also explored the latest advancements and researches done for development of newer therapeutics and diagnostics for frostbite care.
Chapter
Normal wound healing is a carefully orchestrated biological process in which a series of key phases occur, resulting in epidermal closure and scar formation. Immediately following an injury, the body utilizes several mechanisms to ensure hemostasis. Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are wounds that form on the lower legs in patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are primarily caused by diabetes induced peripheral neuropathy, leading to skin breakdown due to excess pressure on the foot and gait abnormalities. Pressure ulcers are a common occurrence in the acute care setting. Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with unclear etiology, characterized by nodules, abscesses, and scarring of apocrine gland‐bearing skin areas. Chronic wounds significantly impact the social and emotional wellness of patients. Skin grafts have been used for millennia in the treatment of chronic wounds. The mainstay of treatment for VLUs is local wound care and compression therapy.
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Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the relationship among abstract structure, readability, and completeness, and how these features may influence social media activity and bibliometric results, considering systematic reviews (SRs) about interventions in psoriasis classified by methodological quality. Study Design and Setting: Systematic literature searches about psoriasis interventions were under- taken on relevant databases. For each review, methodological quality was evaluated using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Abstract extension, structure, readability, and quality and completeness of reporting were analyzed. Social media activity, which consider Twitter and Facebook mention counts, as well as Mendeley readers and Google scholar citations were obtained for each article. Analyses were conducted to describe any potential influence of abstract characteristics on review’s social media di↵usion. Results: We classified 139 intervention SRs as displaying high/moderate/low methodological quality. We observed that abstract readability of SRs has been maintained high for last 20 years, although there are some di↵erences based on their methodological quality. Free-format abstracts were most sensitive to the increase of text readability as compared with more structured abstracts (IMRAD or 8-headings), yielding opposite e↵ects on their quality and completeness depending on the methodological quality: a worsening in low quality reviews and an improvement in those of high-quality. Both readability indices and PRISMA for Abstract total scores showed an inverse relationship with social media activity and bibliometric results in high methodological quality reviews but not in those of lower quality. Conclusion: Our results suggest that increasing abstract readability must be specially considered when writing free-format summaries of high-quality reviews, because this fact correlates with an improvement of their completeness and quality, and this may help to achieve broader social media visibility and article usage.
Article
Objectives: No gold standard exists to assess methodological quality of systematic reviews (SRs). Although AMSTAR is widely accepted for analysing quality, the ROBIS instrument has recently been developed. This study aimed to compare the capacity of both instruments to capture the quality of SRs concerning psoriasis interventions. Study Design and Setting: Systematic literature searches were undertaken on relevant databases. For each review, methodological quality and bias risk were evaluated using the AMSTAR and ROBIS tools. Descriptive and principal component analyses were conducted to describe similarities and discrepancies between both assessment tools. Results: We classified 139 intervention SRs as displaying high/moderate/low methodological quality, and as high/low risk of bias. A high risk of bias was detected for most SRs classified as displaying high or moderate methodological quality by AMSTAR. When comparing ROBIS result profiles, responses to domain 4 signalling questions showed the greatest differences between bias risk assessments, while domain 2 items showed the least. Conclusion: When considering SRs published about psoriasis, methodological quality remains suboptimal, and the risk of bias is elevated, even for SRs exhibiting high methodological quality. Further, the AMSTAR and ROBIS tools may be considered as complementary when conducting quality assessment of SRs.
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Search strategy for identifying systematic reviews and meta-analyses in EMBASE (Table A), list of included studies (Table B), list of non included studies (Table C), AMSTAR checklist (Table D), PROSPERO register file (Table E), giant components in co-authorship subnetworks (Table F), PRISMA Flowchart for Overview of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis on psoriasis included and excluded in the study (Fig A), co-authorship networks modularity (Fig B), community analysis of co-authorship of low, moderate, and high methodological quality reviews derived subnetworks (Fig C), visualization of unique and intersection analysis of authors who have published systematic reviews classified by methodological quality and author productivity (Fig D). (PDF)
Article
Aloe vera is a well known medicinal plant which thrives in varied agro-climates. It was native to Northern Africa, but now it is widely distributed throughout the world. The chemistry of the plant reveals the presence of diverse biologically active compounds associated with curing different ailments such as wound, inflammations, cancer, diabetes, ulcer, microbial diseases, skin diseases, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), liver problems, dental problems, cardiovascular problems, hyperlipidmia and others. The plant also shows anti-aging, laxative, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities. Most of the biological activities are contributed by the wide varieties of compounds present in the sap and gel of A. vera. Various scientific investigations have proved that anthraquinones and glycosides present in the sap of A. vera are responsible for minimizing the severity of cancer, free radicals activity, diabetes, inflammation, microbial diseases, tyrosinase activity, spermatogenic activity, β-secretase inhibitory activity and proliferative activity. It also affects estrogen status and intestinal absorption of the cell along with laxative activities. In addition to the therapeutic properties, the gel is used as an important ingredient of various cosmetic formulations. Though few reports have cited the side effects of anthraquinones, but it is negligible compared to its medicinal properties. This review article also describes about the various factors affecting the chemical composition of A. vera such as different existing varieties of A. vera, annual season rainfall, temperature, incident solar radiation, harvest date, climate, land and cultivation methods. In view of high interest shown by the people of different countries for its medicinal value and commercial uses, it is quite worthy to review the active constituents and clinical effectiveness of A. vera.
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Lecithin and hyaluronic acid were used for the preparation of polysaccharide decorated nanoparticles loaded with vitamin E using the cationic lipid dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODMA). Nanoparticles showed mean particle size in the range 130–350 nm and narrow size distribution. Vitamin E encapsulation efficiency was higher than 99%. These nanoparticles were incorporated in polymeric films containing Aloe vera extract, hyaluronic acid, sodium alginate, polyethyleneoxide (PEO) and polyvinylalcohol (PVA) as an innovative treatment in skin wounds. Films were thin, flexible, resistant and suitable for application on burn wounds. Additionally, in vitro occlusion study highlighted the dependence of the occlusive effect on the presence of nanoparticles. The results obtained show that the bioadhesive films containing vitamin E acetate and Aloe vera could be an innovative therapeutic system for the treatment of skin wounds, such as burns. The controlled release of the vitamin along with a reduction in water loss through damaged skin provided by the nanoparticle-loaded polymer film are considered important features for an improvement in wound healing and skin regeneration.
Article
Aloe vera is a perennial, drought-resisting and succulent plant belonging to the Liliaceal family, which historically has been used for a variety of medicinal purposes. Scientific investigations on A. vera have gained more attention the last several decades due to its reputable medicinal properties. After describing Aloe in a botanical point of view, the papers relating with the chemical composition of skin and gel of Aloe, particularly describes the gel of Aloe. The chemical analysis reveals that A. vera contains various carbohydrate polymers, notably glucomannans, along with a range of other organic and inorganic components. The heterogeneous nature of Aloe products may contribute to the diverse biological and therapeutic activities that have been observed including promotion of wound healing, antifungal activity, hypoglycemic or antidiabetic effects, antiinflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory and gastroprotective properties etc. On the other hand, different factors also affecting the chemical composition of the gel, such as species and variety, climatic and soil conditions, cultivation methods and stress adaptation are enumerated and discussed. In this review, the historical uses, the botany, the chemistry, pharmacological activity and clinical trial, adverse effects and agricultural cultivation of A. vera will be described. This paper concludes that it still remains uncertain as to which of the component(s) is responsible for these physiological properties, more researches are needed to confirm the therapeutic and beneficial effects and to definitively clarify the myth surrounding Aloe vera. In addition, promoting its large-scale cultivation such as beach planting and seawater irrigation is also a meaty theme to study and debate.
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To compare the efficacy of aloe vera gel and placebo in the topical management of vulval lichen planus. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Department of Dermatology, Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad, from January 2007 to January 2008. Thirty-four female patients were randomized into two groups to receive aloe vera gel or placebo for local application for 8 weeks. Clinical data and treatment response was graded according to Thongprasom criteria. Z-test was used for comparing response between the groups. Thirty-four consecutive patients participated in the study. We found erosive and ulcerative lesions in 83% and 17%, respectively. The most common site of vulval lichen planus was the labia minora. Fourteen (82%) out of 17 patients treated with aloe vera had a good response i.e. clinically improved by at least 50% after 8 weeks of treatment, while one (5%) of 17 placebo-treated patients had a similar response (p < 0.001). Furthermore, one patient (5%) treated with aloe vera had a complete clinical remission. No side-effects were found in both groups. Aloe vera gel was a safe and effective treatment for patients with vulval lichen planus.
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We assessed the safety and surrogate markers' effect of acemannan as an adjunctive to antiretroviral therapy among patients with advanced HIV disease receiving zidovudine (ZDV) or didanosine (ddI) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of acemannan (400 mg orally four times daily). Eligible patients of either sex had CD4 counts of 50-300/microl twice within 1 month of study entry and had received 26 months of antiretroviral treatment (ZDV or ddI) at a stable dose for the month before entry. CD4 counts were made every 4 weeks for 48 weeks. P24 antigen was measured at entry and every 12 weeks thereafter. Sequential quantitative lymphocyte cultures for HIV and ZDV pharmacokinetics were performed in a subset of patients. Sixty-three patients were randomized. All were males (mean age 39 years). The mean baseline CD4 counts were 165 and 147/microl in the placebo and acemannan groups, respectively; 90 percent of the patients were receiving ZDV at entry. Six patients in the acemannan group and five in the placebo group developed AIDS-defining illnesses. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups at 48 weeks with regard to the absolute change or rate of decline at CD4 count. Among ZDV-treated patients, the median rates of CD4 change (ACD4) in the initial 16 weeks were - 121 and - 120 cells per year in the placebo and acemannan groups, respectively ( p = 0.45), ACD4 from week 16 to 48 was 0 and - 61 cells per year in the acemannan and placebo groups (p = .11), respectively. There was no statistical difference between groups with regard to adverse events, p24 antigen, quantitative virology, or pharmacokinetics. Twenty-four patients, 11 receiving placebo and 13 receiving acemannan, discontinued study therapy prematurely, none due to serious adverse reactions. Our results demonstrate that acemannan at an oral daily dose of 1600 mg does not prevent the decline in CD4 count characteristic of progressive HIV disease. Acemannan showed no significant effect on p24 antigen and quantitative virology. Acemannan was well tolerated and showed no significant pharmacokinetic interaction with ZDV.
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Herbal therapy is becoming increasingly popular among patients and physicians. Many herbal preparations are marketed to the public for various ailments including those of the skin. Herbal therapies have been used successfully in treating dermatologic disorders for thousands of years in Europe and Asia. In Germany, a regulatory commission oversees herbal preparations and recommended uses. In Asia, herbal treatments that have been used for centuries are now being studied scientifically. Currently, the United States does not regulate herbal products, as they are considered dietary supplements. Therefore, there is no standardization of active ingredients, purity, or concentration. There are also no regulations governing which herbs can be marketed for various ailments. This has made learning about and using these treatments challenging. Information compiled in a practical fashion may enable more patients to benefit from these treatments currently used worldwide. We reviewed the herbal medications that show scientific evidence of clinical efficacy, as well as the more common herbs shown to be useful in the treatment of dermatologic disorders. The safety of each herb has been addressed to better enable the physician to know which herbal therapies they may want to begin to use in practice. Common drug interactions and side effects of herbal medicines that may be seen in the dermatologic setting were also studied.
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The aim of the study was to see if topical aloe vera gel would be beneficial in reducing the identified skin side-effects of radiation therapy, including erythema, pain, itching, dry desquamation, and moist desquamation, when compared with aqueous cream. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of other factors known to predict severity of radiation skin reaction, ie, breast size, smoking habit, and one or more drainages of lymphocele after surgery, on other skin side effects. A Phase III study was conducted involving 225 patients with breast cancer after lumpectomy or partial mastectomy, who required a course of radiation therapy using tangential fields. Patients were randomized to either topical aloe vera gel or topical aqueous cream to be applied 3 times per day throughout and for 2 weeks after completion of radiation treatment. Weekly skin assessments were performed by nursing staff. Aqueous cream was significantly better than aloe vera gel in reducing dry desquamation and pain related to treatment. Subjects with D cup or larger size breasts experienced significantly more erythema, regardless of treatment arm. For subjects who had undergone lymphocele drainage, the aloe vera group experienced significantly more pain than the aqueous cream group. Within the aqueous cream arm, smokers were significantly more likely to experience itching within the treatment field than were nonsmokers. Within the aloe vera arm, subjects who had undergone one or more lymphocele drainages after surgery were significantly more likely to experience erythema and itching within the treatment field than those who did not have drainage. In this study, aloe vera gel did not significantly reduce radiation-induced skin side effects. Aqueous cream was useful in reducing dry desquamation and pain related to radiation therapy.
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The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6 M HCl and acid output was studied in the pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats, respectively. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0. Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe vera, dose dependently inhibited gastric acid secretion. The plant was more active as a gastroprotective agent at lower concentration against mucosal injury induced by 0.6 M HCl. In conclusion, Aloe vera is endowed with gastric acid anti-secretory activity and could protect the gastric mucosa at low concentrations against injurious agents.
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Aloe-emodin (AE) is a plant-derived hydroxyanthraquinone with potential anticancer activity. We investigated the ability of AE to modulate survival of mouse L929 fibrosarcoma and rat C6 astrocytoma cells through interference with the activation of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) and subsequent production of tumoricidal free radical NO. Somewhat surprisingly, AE in a dose-dependent manner rescued interferon-gamma + interleukin-1-stimulated L929 cells from NO-dependent killing by reducing their autotoxic NO release. The observed protective effect was less pronounced in C6 cells, due to their higher sensitivity to a direct toxic action of the drug. AE-mediated inhibition of tumor cell NO release coincided with a reduction in cytokine-induced accumulation of transcription and translation products of genes encoding inducible NOS and its transcription factor IRF-1, while activation of NF-kappaB remained unaltered. These data indicate that the influence of AE on tumor growth might be more complex that previously recognized, the net effect being determined by the balance between the two opposing actions of the drug: its capacity to directly kill tumor cells, but also to protect them from NO-mediated toxicity.
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To define the effect of dexpanthenol with or without Aloe vera extract on radiation-induced oral mucositis. Mouse tongue mucosal ulceration was analysed as the clinically relevant endpoint. Graded single or fractionated dose irradiation (10 x 3 Gy/2 weeks, graded test doses on day 14) were combined with topical administration of dexpanthenol or a base, with or without Aloe vera extract. The formulations were applied for 14 days (single dose) or 24 days after the first fraction. Single dose irradiation resulted in an ED50 (dose at which a positive mucosal response was expected in 50% of the animals irradiated) of 11.9+/-1.2 Gy. None of the formulations yielded a significant change in incidence or time course of ulceration. Test irradiation after 10 x 3 Gy gave an ED50 of 9.0+/-0.1 Gy. Base treatment increased the ED50-values to 10.5+/-0.8 Gy (p = 0.0095) and 9.9+/-0.7 Gy (p = 0.0445) without or with Aloe vera. Dexpanthenol resulted in ED50 values of 9.5+/-0.1 Gy without Aloe vera (p > 0.05), and of 10.9+/-0.9 Gy (p = 0.0035) with Aloe vera. The latent time to ulceration was prolonged, compared to the control (6.3 days) without Aloe vera (8.0-8.2 days, p < 0.001) and with dexpanthenol and Aloe vera (7.3 days, p = 0.0239). With single dose irradiation, neither dexpanthenol nor Aloe vera extract significantly changed the oral mucosal radiation response. With fractionated irradiation, drug administration significantly increased the isoeffective radiation doses, independent of dexpanthenol or Aloe vera content. Neither dexpanthenol nor Aloe vera display a prophylactic potential.
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Aloe vera has wide spread use in health products, and despite several reports on the whole plant and inner gel, little work has been performed on the leaf exudate. Our aim was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of Aloe vera leaf exudate (AVL) in leishmaniasis. Irrespective of the disease manifestation, promastigotes from strains responsible for cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis were susceptible to AVL and their IC(50) ranged from 100 to 180 microg/ml. In axenic amastigotes cultured from a L. donovani strain 2001 responsible for visceral leishmaniasis, the IC(50) was 6.0 microg/ml. AVL caused activation of host macrophages evident by an increased release of members of reactive oxygen species that was attenuated by preincubation with free radical scavengers. Collectively, our data indicates that AVL, via its direct leishmanicidal activity which can be further enhanced by activation of host macrophages, is an effective antileishmanial agent meriting further pharmacological investigations.
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Leishmaniasis constitutes a complex of diseases with clinical and epidemiological diversity and includes visceral leishmaniasis, a disease that is fatal when left untreated. In earlier studies, the authors reported that Aloe vera leaf exudate (AVL) is a potent antileishmanial agent effective in promastigotes of Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania tropica, Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum and also in axenic amastigotes of Leishmania donovani. In the present study, it has been demonstrated that, in promastigotes of L. donovani (IC(50) = 110 microg ml(-1)), AVL mediates this leishmanicidal effect by triggering a programmed cell death. Incubation of promastigotes with AVL caused translocation of phosphatidylserine to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane as measured by annexin V binding, which was accompanied by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and concomitant nuclear alterations that included chromatin condensation, deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP end labelling and DNA laddering. As this AVL-induced leishmanicidal effect could not be inhibited by protease inhibitors including Z-Val-Ala-dl-Asp (methoxy)-fluoromethylketone, a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, non-involvement of caspases and major proteases was suggested. Additionally, AVL treatment caused no increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) or generation of reactive oxygen species, indicating that although promastigote death was induced by an apoptotic-like mechanism similar to metazoan apoptosis, the pathways of induction and/or execution differed at the molecular level.
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Radiation dermatitis is a common side effect of radiation therapy (RT). In severe cases, RT must be interrupted until the skin heals, which can compromise treatment. The purpose of the study was to compare an anionic polar phospholipid (APP)-based cream and an aloe vera-based gel to determine their effectiveness in preventing and treating radiation dermatitis. Forty-five pediatric patients (median age, 11 years) with various diagnoses who received at least 23.4 Gy participated. APP cream and aloe vera gel were symmetrically applied within the irradiated field after each treatment. Three measures were collected before, during and after completion of treatment: subject's skin comfort, dermatologic assessment, and common toxicity criteria (CTC). Significant differences in specific variables favoring APP cream use were noted in some patients including skin comfort variables, dry (p = 0.002), soft (p = 0.057), feels good (p = 0.002), rough (p = 0.065), smooth (p = 0.012) and dermatologic variables, dryness (p = 0.013), erythema (p = 0.002) and peely (p = 0.008). Grouped CTC scores were supportive of APP cream (p = 0.004). In comparing the first and last assessments, two dermatologic variables, dryness (p = 0.035) and peely (p = 0.016), favored APP cream. APP cream is more effective than aloe vera-based gel for prevention and treatment of radiation dermatitis.
Article
BACKGROUND Genital herpes simplex virus infection is unique to humans, and is one of the commonest sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this double-blind placebo-controlled study was to determine the clinical efficacy and tolerability of Aloe vera extract 0.5% in a hydrophilic cream to cure patients afflicted with the first episodes of genital herpes. METHODS Preselected patients (n=60), aged 18–40 years (mean 23.6), with culture-confirmed diagnosis of herpes simplex genitalis, harboring 738 lesions (mean 12.3), were randomized to active or placebo treatment. Patients entered the study within 7 days (mean 4.1) of the onset of the lesions. Each patient was provided with a precoded 40-g tube, containing placebo/active preparation with instructions on self-application of the trial medication to their lesions three times daily for 5 consecutive days (maximum 15 topical applications per week). To assess the clinical efficacy and other beneficial effects patients were examined twice weekly and reepithelialized lesions with some residual erythema were considered as healed. Patients whose lesions resolved during the active treatment period (1 or 2 weeks) were spared further medication, and were requested to report to the clinic as scheduled for review and recurrence control. Empty tubes were collected from the remaining patients, and similarly coded replacement tubes were given to continue the treatment (in total 102 tubes were used). RESULTS The group treated with Aloe vera extract cream had both significantly shorter mean time to healing than the placebo group (4.9 days vs 12 days; P CONCLUSION The clinical results suggest that Aloe vera extract (0.5%) in a hydrophilic cream is more efficacious than placebo, thus supporting the benefits of Aloe vera therapy as an alternative, reliable and effective treatment to cure the first episodes of genital herpes in men.
Article
Various Aloe vera extracts are widely used in a variety of over-the-counter skin products, but only a few studies have been conducted to provide support for the use of Aloe vera (A. barbadensis), one of the most commonly used species of Aloe vera, in the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions. Seborrheic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disorder for which available topical treatment may be helpful but not curative. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an emulsion formulated from a crude extract of Aloe vera (A. barbadensis) on seborrheic dermatitis. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled prospective clinical trial was performed in 44 adult patients with seborrheic dermatitis. A comparison of symptom scores in the Aloe vera (A. barbadensis) and placebo groups, before and after treatment revealed a significant decrease in scaliness, pruritus and the number of sites involved in seborrheic dermatitis, but not in erythema. Global improvement rates in patients treated with Aloe vera (A. barbadensis) were significantly higher than in placebo-treated patients, as assessed by both dermatologists (58% and 15%, respectively; P=0.009) and patients (62% and 25%, respectively; P=0.03). The results of the present study indicate that Aloe vera (A. barbadensis) crude extract emulsion is effective in the therapy of patients with seborrheic dermatitis.
Article
The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and tolerability of topical Aloe vera extract 0.5% in a hydrophilic cream to cure patients with psoriasis vulgaris. Sixty patients (36M/24F) aged 18–50 years (mean 25.6) with slight to moderate chronic plaque-type psoriasis and PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) scores between 4.8 and 16.7 (mean 9.3) were enrolled and randomized to two parallel groups. The mean duration of the disease prior to enrolment was 8.5 years (range 1–21). Patients were provided with a precoded 100 g tube, placebo or active (with 0.5%Aloe vera extract), and they self-administered trial medication topically (without occlusion) at home 3 times daily for 5 consecutive days per week (maximum 4 weeks active treatment). Patients were examined on a weekly basis and those showing a progressive reduction of lesions, desquamation followed by decreased erythema, infiltration and lowered PASI score were considered healed. The study was scheduled for 16 weeks with 12 months of follow-up on a monthly basis. The treatment was well tolerated by all the patients, with no adverse drug-related symptoms and no dropouts. By the end of the study, the Aloe vera extract cream had cured 25/30 patients (83.3%) compared to the placebo cure rate of 2/30 (6.6%) (P<0.001) resulting in significant clearing of the psoriatic plaques (328/396 (82.8%) vs placebo 28/366 (7.7%), P<0.001) and a decreased PASI score to a mean of 2.2. The findings of this study suggest that topically applied Aloe vera extract 0.5% in a hydrophilic cream is more effective than placebo, and has not shown toxic or any other objective side-effects. Therefore, the regimen can be considered a safe and alternative treatment to cure patients suffering from psoriasis.
Article
Forty-three dogs and cats with spontaneous tumors were treated with the immunostimulating polysaccharide acemannan by intraperitoneal and intralesional routes of administration. Tumors from 26 of these animals showed histopathological evidence of immunological attack as shown by marked necrosis or lymphocytic infiltration. Thirteen showed moderate to marked tumor necrosis or liquefaction. Twenty-one demonstrated lymphoid infiltration, and seven demonstrated encapsulation. Twelve animals showed obvious clinical improvement as assessed by tumor shrinkage, tumor necrosis, or prolonged survival; these included five of seven animals with fibrosarcomas. It is believed that acemannan exerts its antitumor activity through macrophage activation and the release of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interferon.
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a novel laxative preparation, composed of celandin, aloevera and psyllium in patients with chronic constipation. Thirty-five men and women were randomized to receive capsules containing celandin-aloevera-psyllium, or placebo, in a double-blind trial lasting 28 days. Symptoms in the last 2 weeks of the treatment period were compared to those in the 14-day pre-trial basal period. In the celandin, aloevera and psyllium group, bowel movements became more frequent, the stools were softer and laxative dependence was reduced. In the placebo group, all these parameters were unchanged. Abdominal pain was not reduced in either group. The results of this study show that the preparation is an effective laxative in the treatment of constipation.
Article
Aloe vera, as a biological vehicle for hydrocortisone 21-acetate, was tested topically and systemically against acute inflammation. Systemically, the combination of A. vera and hydrocortisone produced a maximum 88.1% inhibition of edema. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration was reduced 91.1%. The topical inhibition of edema peaked at 97%. The possibility that A. vera has significant potential as a biologically active vehicle for steroids is discussed.
Article
Aloe vera preparations were evaluated for topical anti-inflammatory activity using the croton oil-induced edema assay. The results show that small amounts of A. vera given topically will inhibit inflammation induced by a moderate amount of irritant. In general, the decolorized Aloe was more effective than the colorized Aloe (with anthraquinone). A 47.1% inhibition of inflammation was obtained by 5% decolorized irradiated Aloe. These results may be used as a baseline to assess the biologic activity of A. vera in the treatment of inflammation by podiatric physicians.
Article
An evaluation of antimetastatic properties of succus Aloës was carried out using three types of experimental tumors of mice and rats. It was found that succus Aloës treatment contributes to reduction of tumor mass, metastatic foci and metastasis frequency at different stages of tumor progress without affecting major tumor growth. Succus Aloës potentiates the antitumor effect of 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide as components of combination chemotherapy.
Article
To compare the therapeutic effects of systemic pentoxifylline and topical aloe vera cream in the treatment of frostbite. The frostbitten ears of 10 New Zealand white rabbits were assigned to one of four treatment groups: untreated controls, those treated with aloe vera cream, those treated with pentoxifylline, and those treated with aloe vera cream and pentoxifylline. Tissue survival was calculated as the percent of total frostbite area that remained after 2 weeks. The control group had a 6% tissue survival. Tissue survival was notably improved with pentoxifylline (20%), better with aloe vera cream (24%), and the best with the combination therapy (30%). Pentoxifylline is as effective as aloe vera cream in improving tissue survival after frostbite injury.
Article
The activity of seven anthraquinones and four anthrones against nonenzymatic and enzymatic lipid peroxidation in vitro and their ability to scavenge free radicals have been studied. In nonenzymatic peroxidation in rat hepatocytes induced by t-butyl hydroperoxide, dithranol and anthrone were the strongest antioxidants, having IC50 values of 8 +/- 1 and 24 +/- 5 mumol/l, respectively. Rhein (IC50 64 +/- 2 mumol/l) and aloe-emodin (IC50 65 +/- 3 mumol/l) showed the highest inhibitory activity against peroxidation of linoleic acid catalyzed by soybean 15-lipoxygenase. Anthrone (IC50 62 +/- 2 mumol/l), dithranol (IC50 72 +/- 1 mumol/l) and rhein anthrone (IC50 76 +/- 6 mumol/l) were the most effective radical scavengers of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical. The antioxidant activities in hepatocytes and the radical scavenging activities were correlated, whereas the inhibition of enzymatic lipid peroxidation showed no correlation with the two other effects.
Article
The present in vitro and in vivo experiments were undertaken to clarify the genotoxic potential of the hydroxyanthrachinone aloeemodin which can be found in different plant derived products for therapy of constipation. The results demonstrate that aloeemodin is able to induce mutagenic effects in vitro. Positive results were obtained in the chromosomal aberration assay with CHO cells, as well as in the Salmonella reverse mutation assay (frameshift mutations in strains TA 1537, TA 1538 and TA 98). No mutagenic potential of aloeemodin, however, was observed in the gene mutation assay with mammalian cells in vitro (HPRT assay in V79 cells). Each assay was performed in the presence and absence of an extrinsic metabolic activation system (S9-mix). In in vivo studies (micronucleus assay in bone marrow cells of NMRI mice; chromosome aberration assay in bone marrow cells of Wistar rats; mouse spot text [DBA/2JxNMRI]) no indication of a mutagenic activity of aloeemodin was found. Information about a possible reaction of aloeemodin with DNA was derived from an in vivo UDS assay. Hepatocytes of aloeemodin-treated male Wistar rats did not show DNA damage via repair synthesis. All these data suggest that aloeemodin is able to interact with DNA under certain in vitro conditions. However, in vivo the results that were negative did not indicate a genotoxic potential. Therefore, it may be assumed that a genotoxic risk for man might be unlikely.
Article
Considerable pilot data and clinical experience suggested that an aloe vera gel might help to prevent radiation therapy-induced dermatitis. Two Phase III randomized trials were conducted. The first one was double blinded, utilized a placebo gel, and involved 194 women receiving breast or chest wall irradiation. The second trial randomized 108 such patients to aloe vera gel vs. no treatment. Skin dermatitis was scored weekly during both trials both by patients and by health care providers. Skin dermatitis scores were virtually identical on both treatment arms during both of the trials. The only toxicity from the gel was rare contact dermatitis. This dose and schedule of an aloe vera gel does not protect against radiation therapy-induced dermatitis.
Article
This research protocol was designed to test the effectiveness of a gel containing silicon dioxide, aloe vera, and allantoin in the healing of recurrent aphthous ulcers. The subjects were patients with histories of developing multiple ulcers on the oral mucosa during a 3-to-4-month period. The parameters used to evaluate healing were number of lesions during a 3-to-4-month period, length of the interval between ulcers, size of ulcers, and pain from ulcers. An approach was used in which data were accumulated from diaries maintained by the subjects throughout the study intervals. Because 3 active substances were present in the gel, a preliminary study (study I) was performed to indicate the effect of each active substance and each combination. In this phase, different combinations of the substances were compared with the use of the 2(3) factorial experimental design. The results of this study demonstrated that statistical differences in the durations of lesions (P = .017) were present when all 3 substances were included in the gel. In the next study (study II), which was initiated to test the results of study I, additional subjects were divided into 2 groups; one used a control gel with silicon dioxide, and the other a gel with all 3 active substances. Study II found no statistical differences in the parameters when the 2 groups were compared. In study III, a modified crossover design was used with the subjects of study II, and a significant difference was found in lesion-free intervals (P = .0335) and length of time for the study (P = .0001). The differences in lesion intervals may have been caused by the differences in study length. Alteration in the occurrence of aphthous ulcers was demonstrated by the reduction in numbers of lesions in study I and by the increase in length of intervals between lesions in study III. However, a consistent pattern was not present; this indicated a lack of effect of the gel on aphthous ulcers.
Article
Lichen planus is a disease that involves the skin and mucous membranes. It is characterized by unique eruptions. The cause of this disease is unknown, but has been linked to emotional stress, and has also been attributed to viral infections. A case is described of a successful treatment of lichen planus.
Article
To evaluate the efficacy of a new bioadhesive patch, Aloe vera hydrogel, for the treatment of aphthous stomatitis. An open, not controlled study was performed in 31 pediatric out-patients, aged 6-14 years, affected by mouth ulcers were enrolled consecutively in the 3 Gps Depts+ of San Marino Republic. For each case, data on case history and clinical profile, patterns of the lesion, presence of spontaneous or provoked pain were collected at baseline, and a bioadhesive patch ("Alovex patch") was administered on the basis of a daily regimen of < or = 3 patches for 4 days. Data on modification of the above-mentioned parameters, with patients and physicians opinion on the therapeutical efficacy, were collected during a control visit (4 days later). Moreover, by means of a daily diary, patients recorded information on the course of the symptoms during the 4 days and were also asked to compare the current treatment with other previous therapies. At the control visit 77% of the patients have shown a marked resolution of spontaneous pain, while in the other patients, pain was significantly decreased to a "mild" or "moderate" level. No one child declared to suffer from severe pain. Also provoked pain resulted to be significantly decreased after treatment Global efficacy was judged positively, being the therapeutical effect in more than 80% of cases "evident or of absolute improvement" both by physicians and patients opinion. A positive improvement of symptomatology started within the 2nd day of treatment in 74% of the patients. The compliance (adhesivity, acceptability and palatability) of the formulation was judged largely favourable in more than 90% of the patients. The results of this study underline the good efficacy and compliance of the patch for the treatment of the aphtous stomatitis; also the limit of topical available therapies, linked to the "contact time", to develop their therapeutical action, seems not to be evinced on the basis of this study, so the application of this patch seems to be more easy and beneficial.
Article
Aloe vera (L.) Burm. fil. (= A. barbadensis Miller) (Liliaceae) is native to North Africa and also cultivated in Turkey. Aloes have long been used all over the world for their various medicinal properties. In the past 15 years, there have been controversial reports on the hypoglycaemic activity of Aloe species, probably due to differences in the parts of the plant used or to the model of diabetes chosen. In this study, separate experiments on three main groups of rats, namely, non-diabetic (ND), type I (IDDM) and type II (NIDDM) diabetic rats were carried out. A. vera leaf pulp and gel extracts were ineffective on lowering the blood sugar level of ND rats. A. vera leaf pulp extract showed hypoglycaemic activity on IDDM and NIDDM rats, the effectiveness being enhanced for type II diabetes in comparison with glibenclamide. On the contrary, A. vera leaf gel extract showed hyperglycaemic activity on NIDDM rats. It may therefore be concluded that the pulps of Aloe vera leaves devoid of the gel could be useful in the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
Article
Aloe vera has been used as a family medicine for promoting wound healing, but it is not known which component of the plant is effective for this purpose. To isolate and characterize the component effective in wound healing. Chromatography, electrophoresis and spectroscopic methods were used. The cell-proliferation activity of each component isolated was measured by a [3H]thymidine uptake assay. The cell-proliferation activity of the effective component was tested on a three-dimensional raft culture (cell culture technique by which artificial epidermis is made from keratinocytes). The effect of the active component on cell migration and wound healing was observed on a monolayer of human keratinocytes and in hairless mice. A glycoprotein fraction was isolated and named G1G1M1DI2. It showed a single band on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, with an apparent molecular weight of about 5.5 kDa. It exhibited significant [3H]thymidine uptake in squamous cell carcinoma cells. The effect of G1G1M1DI2 on cell migration was confirmed by accelerated wound healing on a monolayer of human keratinocytes. When this fraction was tested on a raft culture, it stimulated the formation of epidermal tissue. Furthermore, proliferation markers (epidermal growth factor receptor, fibronectin receptor, fibronectin, keratin 5/14 and keratin 1/10) were markedly expressed at the immunohistochemical level. The glycoprotein fraction enhanced wound healing in hairless mice by day 8 after injury, with significant cell proliferation. It is considered that this glycoprotein fraction is involved in the wound-healing effect of aloe vera via cell proliferation and migration.
Article
Photochemical pathways leading to the phototoxicity of the aloe vera constituent aloe emodin were studied. The results indicate a photochemical mechanism involving singlet oxygen to be the most likely pathway responsible for the observed phototoxicity. Aloe emodin was found to efficiently generate singlet oxygen when irradiated with UV light (phidelta = 0.56 in acetonitrile). The survival of human skin fibroblast cells in the presence of aloe emodin was found to decrease upon irradiation with UV light. A further decrease in cell survival was observed in D2O compared with H2O, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen as the primary pathway. Laser flash photolysis experiments were also carried out on aloe emodin alone and in the presence of various biological substrates. Aloe emodin proved to be relatively photostable (phi = 1 x 10(-4)) and a poor photo-oxidant (E*red = +1.02 V). Only absorption bands caused by the triplet state of aloe emodin (lambdamax = 480 nm) and the aloe emodin conjugate base (lambdamax = 520 nm) were observed in the transient spectra.
Article
Antioxidant components in Aloe vera were examined for lipid peroxidation using rat liver microsomal and mitochondrial enzymes. Among the aloesin derivatives examined, isorabaichromone showed a potent antioxidative activity. The DPPH radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities were determined. As one of the most potent components, isorabaichromone together with feruloylaloesin and p-coumaroylaloesin showed potent DPPH radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities. Electron spin resonance (ESR) using the spin trapping method suggested that the potent superoxide anion scavenging activity of isorabaichromone may have been due to its caffeoyl group. As A. vera has long been used to promote wound healing, the inhibitory effects of aloesin derivatives for cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2 and thromboxane (Tx) A2 synthase were examined and the participation of p-coumaroyl and feruloyl ester groups in the aloesin skeleton was demonstrated. These findings may explain, at least in part, the wound healing effects of A.vera. Abbreviations ADP:adenosine diphosphate ASA:ascorbic acid BHT:butylated hydroxytoluene BSA:bovine serum albumin DMPO:5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide DPPH:1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl EDTA:edetic acid HEPES:N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-piperazine-N-2′-ethane-sulfonic acid NADH:reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADPH:reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NBT:nitroblue tetrazolium Pg:prostaglandin SOD:superoxide dismutase TBA:thiobarbituric acid TCA:trichloroacetic acid XOD:xanthine oxidase
Article
Plants containing aloin A, aloe emodin, and structurally related anthraquinones have long been used as traditional medicines and in the formulation of retail products such as laxatives, dietary supplements, and cosmetics. Since a recent study indicated that topically applied aloe emodin increases the sensitivity of skin to UV light, we examined the events following photoexcitation of aloin A and aloe emodin. We determined that incubation of human skin fibroblasts with 20 microM aloe emodin for 18 h followed by irradiation with UV or visible light resulted in significant photocytotoxicity. This photocytotoxicity was accompanied by oxidative damage in both cellular DNA and RNA. In contrast, no photocytotoxicity was observed following incubation with up to 500 microM aloin A and irradiation with UVA light. In an attempt to explain the different photobiological properties of aloin A and aloe emodin, laser flash photolysis experiments were performed. We determined that the triplet state of aloe emodin was readily formed following photoexcitation. However, no transient intermediates were formed following photoexcitation of aloin A. Therefore, generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage after irradiation of aloin A is unlikely. Although aloin A was not directly photocytotoxic, we found that human skin fibroblasts can metabolize aloin A to aloe emodin.
Article
Propionibacterium acnes, an anaerobic pathogen, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acne by inducing certain inflammatory mediators. These mediators include reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, ROS, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were used as the major criteria for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity. To prove the anti-inflammatory effects of herbs, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and monocytes were treated with culture supernatant of P. acnes in the presence or absence of herbs. It was found that Rubia cordifolia, Curcuma longa, Hemidesmus indicus, and Azadirachta indica caused a statistically significant suppression of ROS from PMNL. Sphaeranthus indicus caused a smaller, still significant suppression of ROS. Aloe vera had no effect on ROS production. In the case of proinflammatory cytokine-induced monocytes, maximum suppression was shown by Azadirachta indica and Sphaeranthus indicus, followed by Hemidesmus indicus, Rubia cordifolia, and Curcuma longa. Aloe vera showed insignificant inhibitory activity. Thus, these herbs shows anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the capacity of P. acnes-induced ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the two important inflammatory mediators in acne pathogenesis.
Article
Inhibition of wound contraction by topical anti microbial agents has been described. The purpose of this study was to further investigate that phenomenon and to explore the effect that other agents such as Aloe vera might have on this process. Full-thickness excised wounds were created on the dorsum of Sprague-Dawley rats under anaesthesia. The wounds