Article

Manual of histologic staining methods of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Third edition

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Horn SCC tissues were processed for histopathological studies and paraffin-embedded sections were cut at 5-6 µ thickness with section cutting machine (Leica, Germany) and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) [21]. The H and E stained sections were observed under light microscope and lesions were observed [21]. ...
... Horn SCC tissues were processed for histopathological studies and paraffin-embedded sections were cut at 5-6 µ thickness with section cutting machine (Leica, Germany) and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) [21]. The H and E stained sections were observed under light microscope and lesions were observed [21]. ...
... After removal of adipose tissue, tumor tissues (at 4°C) were mechanically minced in 1 mm 3 fragments . Then, the primary culture was established and incubated at 37°C and 5% CO 2 [21]. Similarly, tumor tissue explant culture was also performed by standard protocol [16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Squamous cell carcinoma or SCC of horn in bovines (bovine horn core carcinoma) frequently observed in Bos indicus affecting almost 1% of cattle population. Freshly isolated primary epithelial cells may be closely related to the malignant epithelial cells of the tumor. Comparison of gene expression in between horn’s SCC tissue and its early passage primary culture using next generation sequencing was the aim of this study. Materials and Methods: Whole transcriptome sequencing of horn’s SCC tissue and its early passage cells using Ion Torrent PGM were done. Comparative expression and analysis of different genes and pathways related to cancer and biological processes associated with malignancy, proliferating capacity, differentiation, apoptosis, senescence, adhesion, cohesion, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and metabolic pathways were identified. Results: Up-regulated genes in SCC of horn’s early passage cells were involved in transporter activity, catalytic activity, nucleic acid binding transcription factor activity, biogenesis, cellular processes, biological regulation and localization and the down-regulated genes mainly were involved in focal adhesion, extracellular matrix receptor interaction and spliceosome activity. Conclusion: The experiment revealed similar transcriptomic nature of horn’s SCC tissue and its early passage cells.
... For histopathological examination, tissues from visceral organs like lungs, trachea, liver, spleen, kidneys, proventriculus, intestine, caecal tonsils, bursa of Fabricious and brain were collected in 10% neutral buffered formalin and processed by paraffin embedding technique. Tissue sections were cut at 5-6 µ thickness with automatic section cutting machine (Leica, Germany) and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) (Luna, 1968). The H and E stained sections were observed under the light microscope and lesions were documented. ...
Article
Full-text available
Khorajiya, J.H., Mathakiya, R.A., Joshi, B.P., Prajapati, K.S., Acharya, A.T. and Rajpura, R.M. 2015. Isolation, identification, biological characterization and patho-epidemiology of genotype-XIII newcastle disease virus outbreak in commercial vaccinated broiler farms. Indian Journal of Poultry Science, 50(2): 132-137. Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most destructive diseases of poultry and has the potential to cause huge economic losses in the poultry industry. There were several outbreaks of ND recorded in and around Anand area of Gujarat despite routine vaccination programs demanded a scientific investigation. Isolation and identification of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were done by propagation of NDV in specific pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs of 9-11 days, Haemagglutination (HA) and Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) tests. Biological characterization was done by Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI). During the field study, mortality due to ND was documented in 10 broiler farms in spite of routine vaccination which contain Genotype-II strain of the NDV. The incidence of ND was mostly noticed in 23-34 days of age and during severe hot months of May and June, and average mortality rate in affected farms was 28.11% for the period of 14 days. The disease resulted in substantial reduction in body weight and feed intake. Greenish diarrhoea was generally seen in birds that survived in early infection and birds with torticolis showed lingering mortality. Gross lesions were characterized by wasting and dehydrated carcass with deep congestion of breast musculature, multifocal to diffuse haemorrhages around the proventricular gland and necrotic (diptheretic) haemorrhagic ulcers throughout the intestine and caecal tonsils. The microscopic lesions include marked atrophy of the lymphoid organs leading to immunosuppression in vaccinated chickens. All the 10 field samples along with F and R2B vaccine strain were found positive for HA and HI activity and the values of ICPI were 2.0 for all the field samples which were suggestive of velogenic NDV strains. The confirmation of Genotype-XIII NDV was supported by F gene sequencing and whole genome sequencing. Isolation of the novel genotype from the field outbreaks confirms the limit of presently used live (Genotype-II Lentogenic/LaSota/B1) and inactivated vaccines (Mesogenic/R2B vaccines) to protect the birds against genotype XIII NDV infection. This wide gap in the genetic makeup could be an important reason for the vaccine failure. More and more field isolates from various regions of the country should be genotyped and research should be directed towards identifying suitable live candidate vaccine virus.
... Sections (5μm) were prepared from eacht issue block and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin stain (H&E) for histological examination. (Luna and Lee, 1968) [22] . ...
Article
This study was conducted to investigate the clinico-pathological changes in rabbits after infected experimentally with E. coli O157: H7 isolated from human. This study was carried out on sixty domestic rabbits of both sexes in two experiments, in the first experiment, 20 rabbits were used to estimate the infective dose of E. coli O157: H7 and the remaining (40) rabbit were infected with the estimated infective dose of E. coli O157:H7. The results showed that the infective dose (ID) of E. coliO157: H7was (5×10-8 C.F.U/ml) which appeared the clinical signs of E. coli without mortality in this group. Post inoculation, all rabbits were examined clinically, and postmortem changes (macro and microscopic) were also examined. With isolation of the organism from different organs at 24,48,72,96, 120, 144 and 168 hours post infection. The body temperature, heart and respiratory rates were elevated accompanied with diarrhea, depression and loss of appetite. The lesion included the internal viscera of rabbits which show enlargement and congestion. The intestine revealed proliferation in the payer patch and infiltration of mononuclear cell. Other organ like brain, spleen, Lung, liver and kidney revealed congestion of blood vessels and infiltration of mononuclear cell.
... The tissues of penis were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and were processed by routine paraffin embedding technique. The section of 5-6 µ were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Wilder's reticulin stain for reticular fibres, Weigert's resorcin fuchsin stain for elastic fibres, PAS for glycogen, Alcian blue for acidic mucopolysaccharides (Luna, 1968), Mallory's triple stain (Crossman's modification, 1937) for collagen fibres, Modified Gomori's calcium method for alkaline phosphatase and Gomori's lead method for acid phosphatase demonstration (Bancroft and Stevens, 1971). ...
Article
Full-text available
A study was conducted on the penile urethra and penis of goat foeti from 0 day of gestation to till term. The foeti were divided into five groups viz. Group I (0-30 days), II (31-60 days), III (61-90 days), IV (91-120 days) and V (121-till term). The urethral plates and the groove on ventral aspect of tubercle were observed at 16 mm stage. At 25 th day of gestation, microscopically the primordia of the genital tubercle consisted of mass of mesenchymal cells which were arranged in clusters as well as in linear fashion. At 48 th day of gestation, the penis consisted of corpus cavernosum penis surrounded by tunica albuginea. The mesenchymal cells from the tunica albuginea started invaginating into underlying mesenchyme to form future septae. Formation of venous spaces began at this stage. The venous spaces increased in number and size as the age of foetus advanced. The shape of the corpus cavernosum penis varied from oval to rectangular with concavity facing ventrally towards the glans region. The connective tissue septae became thicker as the age of foetus advanced. In initial stages of gestation, tunica albuginea contained inner densely arranged, outer loosely arranged zones. The outer zone contained mesenchymal cells and blood capillaries while the inner zone contained compactly arranged mesenchymal cells, differentiating fibroblasts and blood capillaries along with reticular fibres. In late stage of gestation tunica albuginea became fibrous and thicker. The epithelium of glans penis was fused with prepuce epithelium till term.
... After which the section was prepared routinely. The slides were stained with Hematoxyline- Eosin stain ,some section was stained with Van-gieson stain to demonstrate the connective tissue [9]. Results Soon after the animals had recovered from sedation we noticed the following they stand and walked with an obvious lameness which continued for 5-7 days, then they recovered gradually on 8 th -10 th days and animals showed normal gait. ...
Article
Full-text available
Summary The present study was to compare the effectiveness of bone marrow transplantation on the healing of experimentally transected superficial digital flexor tendon in sheep. Eight adult sheep, aged between 9 months to one year were used. The animals were divided into two equal groups (control and allograft). An transverse cutting has been made in the superficial digital flexor tendon of the middle third of the metatarsal bone under the effect of sedation and local anesthesia. The tendons were sutured with Bunnell suture by using
... Each slide was then cleaned, blotted and mounted with DPX and cover slip, and examined under the microscope. Photomicrographs were taken at40X, 100X and 400Xmagnifications [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was carried out at the animal house of the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Basrah. This study has been designed to determine whether isoflovonoid extract of Punica granatum rinds effect on fertility efficiency and semen fluid characteristic (physical and biochemical properties). Twenty four adult rabbits, six-month-old and 1500-1750 body weight divided into two groups12 rabbits(6 male and 6 female) each group (male used for treated with extract while female only used for fertility test (untreated with extract). First group: male rabbits received orally administration of normal saline (3ml) served as control. Second group: male rabbits received orally administration of isoflavonoid extract of Punica granatum rinds at the dose of 0.5g/kg B.W dissolve in (3ml) of normal saline. Treatment with isoflovonoid extract of Punica granatum rinds 0.5g/kg B.W. caused significant (p< 0.05) increases in fertility efficiency such as number of offspring, sperm count, activities of sperm viability, number of sperm live to dead, motility, zinc and testosterone concentrations of treated rabbits in serum and semen plasma compared to control. Isoflavonoid extract of Punica granatum rind caused no significant changes in biochemical analysis such as total protein, ALP, ACP, AST and ALT in serum while ALP, ACP, AST and ALT concentrations significant (P<0.05) decrease in semen plasma. Treatment with isoflovonoid extract of Punica granatum rinds caused significant (p<0.05) decreases glucose level in serum and abnormal sperm morphology. It caused no visible lesion in the seminiferous tubules and spermatogenesis. These findings revealed that isoflovonoid extract could cause ameliorating effect on the reproductive parameters in male rabbits.
... Specimens from testes were collected and preserved in 10 % neutral buffered formalin and processed to obtain paraffin sections of 6 micron thickness, then stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain, then the slide was used for histolopathological examination under a light microscope (Luna, 1968). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was designed to determine the ameliorative effect of melatonin (Mel.), vitamin C (Vit.C) alone and their combination on reproductive hormone concentration, epididymal sperm characteristic and testicular histological changes in acrylamide (ACR) intoxicated rats. Forty eight adult male rats were divided randomly into two main groups. Control group (no.16) subdivided into two groups: I group: eight animals of control administration distal water and group II-eight animals give 5 mg/kg BW Mel. for 21 days. second group: the ACR trested group subdivided into ACR + distal water orally, ACR + Mel (5 mg/kg BW/day), ACR + Vit. C (200 mg/kg BW/day), ACR + Mel. + Vit. C (5 + 200 mg/kg BW/day) for 21 days. The result revealed significant decrease in serum LH and testosterone hormones and non significant differences in serum FSH concentration in Mel group, significant elevation in serum LH, FSH and testosterone concentrations in all treatment groups compared with ACR – non treated group. No significant differences were observed in sperm concentration, viability and abnormality and significant decrease in sperm motility in Mel. treated normal male rats compared with control. A significant improvement in sperm concentration, sperm motility, viability and abnormality in all treatment groups compared with ACR-treated group. Hisopathological changes showed improvement in testicular tissues.
... The infected intestine with cestodes were examined histologically according to ( Luna, 1968) with Haematoxyline and eosin and examined under the microscope at x10 to x40 objectives lens. ...
Article
The wild and domestic pigeons Columbia livia can be infected with different parasites at the world and one of them, cestoda. This work focusing about the histopathological changes of intestine which infected naturally with the cestoda Cotugnia sp. and the resutles was: present of inflammatory cells of lamina properia of vilia, a lymphatic reaction in the serosa of small intestine. An agreggate of lymphocytes found at lamina properia and muscularis externa of small intestine, an inflammatory cells in lamina properia , interstaila edoma in muscularis externa, small lymphatic agreggate in dillated veins in muscularis externa. A vaculated epithelium of mucosal glands in lamina properia recognized in, other was agreggate of lymphocytes in lamina properia. A clear scolex of the parasite Cotugnia sp. with suckers found surrounding with agreggation of lymphocytes as inflammatory reaction and an elongation in villia of small intestine, and other showed an agreggation of lymphocytes in serosa.
... Using rotary microtome, sections were cut at 5 microns thickness. Each section was stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) using standard staining procedures, according to Luna (1968). Slides were prepared from these tissues and examined under light microscopy. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of fractions from a crude extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on spermatogenesis, testicular histology and testosterone concentration of New Zealand White rabbits were evaluated in this study. Twenty-five matured male New Zealand White rabbits were used for this study and were randomly assigned to five groups (A, B, C, D, and E). Group A served as the control and was administered distilled water (0.5ml); while groups B, C, D and E served as the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol treated groups, respectively at the same dosage of 300 mg/kg. Semen samples were collected using an artificial vagina weekly for twelve weeks and were evaluated for volume, colour, motility, concentration, percentage live-dead ratio and morphological abnormalities. A blood sample (2ml) was also collected from each buck through venipuncture of the ear vein three times at regular intervals for the determination of testosterone concentration. Two bucks from each group were humanely sacrificed at the end of the experiment for testicular histology. Significantly lower (p<0.05) sperm motility, higher dead sperm cells, sperm abnormalities, degenerative changes, depletion and vacuolation of spermatogenic cell layers were observed in treatment group C at the end of the experiment. The present study has shown that the chloroform fraction of methanolic crude Azadirachta indica (neem) leaves extract is detrimental to sperm cells and testicular histology.
... Each slide was then cleaned, blotted and mounted with DPX and cover slip, and examined under the microscope. Photomicrographs were taken at 40X, 100X and 400X magnifications (Luna, 1993). ...
Article
Full-text available
Diazinon (DZN) is one of the organophosphorus (OP) insecticides widely used in local market, can affect animals even after exposure to a single dose. Grape seed oil (GSO), may be rich in more efficient antioxidants. Therefore, the aim of this study was conducted to evaluate the possible protective effect of grapes seed oil GSO in male rats exposed to diazinon at dose of DZN (50 mg/L) induced adverse effects on haematological and semen quality of male rats. The experimental 24 male albino rats were divided into four groups for 1 month. The rats of the first group were served as control. The experimental animals of the second group were exposed to diazinon (DZN). The animals of the third group were supplemented with grape seed oil and treated with DZN. The rats of the fourth group were supplemented with grape seed oil. Hematological such as Red blood corpuscles (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and hematocrit (Hct) showed significant reduction, while the value of white blood corpuscles (WBC) count was statistically increased in rats exposed to DZN. Hematological evaluations were chosen as indicators of DZN toxicity and protective role of grape seed oil. Moreover, the semen quality evaluations of the testis showed that DZN causes several severe alterations. Also, animals were dissected and the reproductive organs (epididymus and testes) were taken to measure fertility indices, oxidative parameters and testicular biomarkers. The results indicated DZN decreased testes and epididymus weights for this dose. This effect was dose-related and should be associated with decline in epididymus sperm count, percent of sperm motility, viability and maturity and increased abnormal sperm morphology.
... Samples from (liver) placed immediately in 10% formalin for histopathological examination. The histopathological section was processed according to (Luna, 1968). The tissue samples were processed in an automated tissue processor for about 15 hours, the fixed specimens were processed and embedded in paraffin wax, section at 3-5 micron thickness prepared and stained with H&E stain for histopathological examination (Sheehan et al., 1980). ...
Article
Full-text available
Liver abscesses considered a major economic problem and there exists very less information in association with liver abscesses in bovine. Although studies in several countries have reported on the incidence of bovine liver abscesses at abattoirs, few surveys have identified the etiology and pathological characteristics of liver abscesses. The present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of liver abscesses in cattle in Karbala province in Iraq, during the interval which extended from July 2014 to April 2016, the livers of 125 animals in both sexes aged from 1st to 8th years were slaughtered in at the Karbala abattoir, the prevalence of liver abscess was high in cattle aged four years (24%) while Sexes of animals were showed highly significant differences prevalence was high in female (68%) than male (32%). Also the gross evaluation of hepatic lesion according to liver abscess score showed high prevalence of score (A+) (70%) while the histopathological examinations of abscessed liver were observed abscess foci surrounding by the pyogenic membrane.
... LIGHT AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPY One to three whole shrimp from each sampling were injected with 5 ml Davidson's fixative and placed in fresh Davidson's fixative at approximately 10× their volume for 24 to 48 h and then transferred to 70% ethanol (Bell and Lightner, 1988). Standard histological protocols, based on the procedures of Luna (Luna, 1968; Peterson et al., 2011), were employed by the Louisiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Histology Lab (Sokolova et al., 2015). Smears from gonads, hepatopancreas, thoracic and abdominal muscles, subcuticular lesions of the carapace, and intestines were either examined directly under the light microscope with phase contrast optics, or were fixed by absolute methanol, stained with Trichrome stain, Calcofluor and Giemsa, as previously described (Sokolova and Fuxa, 2008), and examined with bright field optics. ...
... The tissue samples were immediately collected in 10% neutral buffer formalin solution. The fixed tissues of brain and kidney were processed through conventional histopathological methods, and 5 μm thick sections were stained with Mayer's Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and Kinouyn carbol fuschin stain (Luna et al., 1968). ...
... Tissues were cleared in xylene and embedded in paraffin wax (at 58?-60?C). The tissue was then processed routinely and prepared into paraffin block cut at 6?m thickness using microtome and stained with Haematoxyline and Eosin [7]. Standard histopathological procedures were followed for histopathological investigations [8]. ...
... A small piece of testes from each rat of the group was collected and kept in 10% formal saline and processed as per standard procedure . Tissue sections of 5e6 mm thickness were cut using microtome and stained with haematoxylin and eosin [34] and slides were examined under light microscope to observe the changes in histoarchitecture of testes, if any. ...
... The proximal colon tissues from large intestines were collected and processed for paraffin and frozen sectioning techniques. The sections were stained with Mayer's haematoxylin and eosin stain for histomorphological studies (Luna, 1968), Masson's Trichrome stain for collagen fibers (Luna), Gridley's stain for reticular fibres (Sheehan & Hrapchak, 1973), Verhoeff's for elastic fibers (Sheehan & Hrapchak), Alcian blue for mucosubstances (pH 2.5), McManus' PAS method for glycogen, Mayer's mucicarmine method for mucin, and Sudan black B method for fats (Luna). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was conducted on six healthy early neonatal and six prepubertal buffalo calves to study the location, gross morphology, histomorphology and histochemistry of lymphoglandular complexes in proximal colon. In very proximal part of colon of buffalo calves, an irregular oval mucosal lymphoid patch was found grossly as a proximal colon (PC) patch. Histologically, in proximal colon patch of early neonates (3-4 weeks), an extensive invasion of mucosal glands was observed towards lymphoid nodules that were present in submucosa. The structure as a whole thus formed a complex known as lymphoglandular complex (LGC). Large number of such complexes i.e., LGCs were observed in submucosa of proximal colon at this age. At some places, invasion of mucosal glands into lymphoid tissue was restricted to superficial layer of complexes, with the lymphoglandular complexes opening directly into the lumen but some were deep seated. However, by the age of 6 months in buffalo calves i.e., prepubertal period, LGCs were reduced and were present in single layer within the submucosa of the proximal colon. Moreover, some of LGCs were completely encapsulated by their own lamina muscularis mucosae. But some of the complexes still had their mucosal openings into lumen while others had lost their connection with tunica mucosa. Histochemically, the glands that were observed within LGCs contained mucosubstances, glycogen, mucopolysaccharides, and mucin. However, lipids were present around the lymphocytes observed towards the periphery of these LGCs.
... A loop full volume of cough was smeared onto clean slide; air dried and fixed on flame. The smears on to the slides were stained with Ziehl Neelsen staining [16]. The stained slides were air dried and observed under oil immersion microscopy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Tuberculosis (TB) in cattle and human is caused by M. bovis, M. tuberculosis and M. avium subsp. var Paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis). Selected dairy cattle (N=700) and human (N=20) were tested using tuberculin tests and X-ray imaging. Aspiration biopsy of prescapular lymphnodes from tuberculin test positive cattle and urine, cough, pleural and peritoneal fluid from suspected human was further tested using Ziehl Neelsen staining. Genomic DNA from tuberculin test positive cattle (N=23) and suspected humans (N=20) were tested using multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCR) targeting 16srRNA (1030bp, 180bp). Results showed that 23 cattle and 11 human were infected with TB. To detect infectivity due to M. bovis and M. tuberculosis selected cattle (N=11) and humans (N=11) samples were tested in uniplex PCR targeting MPB83 (600bp) and H37Rv Rv3479HP (667bp) genes respectively. Results of PCR showed that all of the bovine and seven human samples generated MPB83 gene specific 600bp amplicon. Two bovine and seven human DNA generated H37Rv Rv3479HP gene specific 667bp amplicons. Seven cattle were infected with M. bovis and two with M. tuberculosis. Two cattle were co-infected with M. bovis and M. paratuberculosis. Four humans were infected with M. bovis and seven with M. tuberculosis. The MPB83 gene is invariably shared by M. bovis and M. tuberculosis. The PCR protocol designed targeting fragment of H37Rv Rv3479HP (667bp) gene is selective for M. tuberculosis. Results of sequencing showed point mutation in 16srRNA, MPB83 and H37Rv Rv3479HP genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the selected genes of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis showed that the organisms were belonging to Lineage 1. Intradermal tuberculin test and smear microscopy unable to differentiate infectivity due to M. bovis or M. tuberculosis. The PCR technique designed appear specific for M. tuberculosis, can be used to detect causes of TB in mammals and designing future preventive strategies accordingly.
... At the same time, fish sex was confirmed by the standard gonadal squash technique (Anonimous, 2009; Conover and Fleisher; Guerrero and Shelton, 1974). At the end of the experiment, the gonads of all fish were fixed in formalin buffer solution (FBS), embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned at a thickness of 7 lm, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (Luna, 1968). Slides were photographed under the microscope using an Olympus SC30 camera and GetIt software Olympus. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this research was to assess the possible use of dietary supplementation of 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), to produce all-male population of silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus Mitchell 1838, as a step forward in producing neomales, which later can be used to produce an all-female population. Larvae were fed 17α-MT at various concentrations, viz. 0 (control), 9 and 18mg/kg diet for the period of 30days from 31 to 60days post hatching (dph). Phenotypic sex ratios at 225dph identified through histological examination revealed that MT significantly (P<0.05) increases the male percentage from 59% to 100%. Testes of MT-fed fish were well developed, had a normal appearance at the same developmental stages to that of the control group. No significant differences (P>0.05) in gonad weight (GW), gonad length (GL) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) among treatments which may indicate that the resulting neomales were viable. The MT supplementation did not influence the mortality rate, but significantly (P<0.05) increased the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR). The study suggests that the dietary supplementation of MT at 9–18mg/kg of the diet from 31 to 60dph larvae is effectively in inducing masculinization in silver perch.
... The samples were then dehydrated in graded Ethanol and embedded in Parrafin wax. Section of 5mm in thickness were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and examined an ordinary light microscope (Luna., 1968). ...
Article
Full-text available
Echinococcosis is a disease that causes public health problems and economic losses directly by the organ seizures made at the slaughterhouses or indirectly through fall of productivity in affected animals. The cycle of the parasite threatens the human health because its persistence in the dog facilitates its transmission. It seemed useful to conduct this survey in order to establish an estimate of the prevalence of pulmonary hydatid cysts through the study of infested lungs examined at the slaughterhouse of Batna. The present study was conducted in the municipal abattoir, to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts in lungs of sheep slaughtered from March to September 2013. A total of 7420 sheep including 7289 males (less than 01 year of age) and 131 females (more than 03 years of age) were slaughtered and examined for the prevalence echinococcosis. The prevalence of echinococcosis was 0.013% for males (01/7289) and 37.40% for females (49/131). The prevalence of the hydatid cysts in lungs of females varied significantly according to season and host age (P<0.001). The sheep play an important role in maintaining of the parasite cycle especially females because they are kept for a longer time for breeding and slaughtered only after the reform age, which increases the possibility of the development of hydatid cyst.
... The stain can also stain the smooth muscle fibers present in the muscularis mucosa and muscularis externa of the duodenal wall. Periodic acid Schiff stain for the goblet cells in the duodenal mucosa (Luna, 1968). For the identification of paneth cells, both H&E and MTC were successfully used. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was conducted to investigates the histomorphological and histochemical developmental changes established in the duodenum of the domestic cats at three different postnatal ages, that were one week (suckling kittens), 4-6 weeks (weaned immature cats) and adult of one year and up cats. Macromorphometric measurements of duodenum were conducted and listed in tables. Histological sections prepared and stained by general and special stains. Gross findings revealed that the duodenum is U-shaped of longer descending part and shorter ascending part. The beginning of the duodenum contains duodenal papilla in which found central orifice for the exits of bile and pancreatic secretions. The internal mucosal surface of the organ showed gross circular folds called plicae circularis. Histologically, the wall of duodenum in suckling kittens possessed thick tunica muscularis and thin mucosa, but it changed in weaned immature and adult cats to become thin tunica muscularis and thick mucosa. At all ages the submucosa remains thin layer, but slightly thickened in the first part of descending duodenum due to the presence of Brunner's glands. Characteristically goblet cells in cat's duodenum were rounded or circular in shape rather than globular shape as usually found. Their number in the villi was higher than those counted in the duodenal crypts at one week, but approximately equal in number in the 4 weeks and were conversely changed in adult in which the percentage of goblet cells was higher in crypts than in the villi. Histochemically they were stained faintly with PAS stain showed moderate amount of neutral mucin in their cytoplasm. Paneth cells were detected in the duodenal crypts in 4 weeks aged cats and subsequent adult cat but not after birth in one week aged kittens. It could be concluded that the duodenum was not fully developed in cats at birth.
... The tissue samples were dehydrated in serial alcohol, diafanized in xilol, embedded in paraffin and sliced into sections of 4 µm. The sections were stained in hematoxylin and eosin (HE) (Luna 1968). After the processing of the tissue, the structure of the testicular parenchyma was described, starting from the capsule to the lumen. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to study the microscopic morphology of the testicular parenchyma of Rhea americana birds. Fifty-four 2.5±0.5 year-old male adults bred in captivity. were used. During commercial slaughter, samples of testis were collected in November/2005, December/2006 and May/2007, in order to compare possible differences. The samples underwent optical microscopy analysis and measurements of seminiferous tubule (ST) total diameters, lumen, epithelium thickness and the relative volume of parenchyma. The ST had circular form in transverse cross sections. November/2005 and December/2006 samples had many types of germinative cells and spermatozoa in lumen, but in May/2007 the samples of epithelium were poor regarding meiotic and mitotic pictures, and it was difficult to find any spermatozoon; in many tubules the lumen was inexistent or diminished. In December/2006 and May/2007 the averages were: tubule diameter 110.3 and 5.3mμ, lumen 52.4 and 4.5mμ, epithelium thickness 57.8 and 0.7mμ respectively. The volumetric proportions were: seminiferous epithelium 75.6 and 75.9, cysts in epithelium 2.1 and 1.0, ST 93.3 and 84.0, interstitium 6.2 and 15.6 respectively. The sperm reserves were: 19.7±2 and 0±0 x109 sperm cells in December 2006 and May 2007 respectively. Microscopic measures of seminiferous tubules, spermatic cells and diameter of the nuclei were presented. These data confirm reproductive seasonality, with breeding season in spring-summer with sperm production. A great variation n parenchyma, when compared breeding was noticeable.
... One testes from each mouse were fixed in buffered neutral formalin according to method used by Luna 21 , dehydrated in ethanol series and xylene and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The protective effect of selenium chloride (SeCl2) against cadmium chloride (CdCl2), induced toxicity on sperms parameters, testes architecture and antioxidant enzymes in male Swiss mice was investigated. Intraperitoneal injection of CdCl2 (0.15 mg) dose in mice reduced total sperm count and significantly associated with increased sperm abnormality and death sperm percentage when compared with controls. The effect of Cd-treated mice showed a significant decrease in weight of testes and epididymides as compared with control groups. The degree of organ weight loss (testes and epididymides) were less severe in long-term treatment. Long-term exposure of both cadmium-injected mice had similar effect as acute exposure but with lower efficacy. Recovery period showed restoring effects in both exposure periods. The histopathological testes changes indicated by the reduction of seminiferous tubule diameter and testes architecture appearance due to the epithelial sloughing and elimination of germ cells were more pronounced at 72h/ Cd treatment. Substantially proves the ongoing damage effect of cadmium on developing germ cells. Long-term exposure of a batch of cadmium –injected mice had a similar effect as acute exposure but with lower efficacy. In addition, Intraperitoneal injection of CdCl2 (0.15 mg) also stimulate lipid peroxidation in testicular tissues, indicated by significant decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activity such as peroxidase and catalase in the experimental mice group. Administration of SeCl2 in combination with equal volume CdCl2 at the above mentioned doses led to partially organs weight resorted, elevated sperm count and reduction in the percentage of abnormal and dead sperm population along with significant increase in antioxidant enzymatic activities. The protective action and the antagonistic effect of Se at different periods against cadmium –induce toxicity are discussed.
... Tissues were embedded in paraffin wax (Leica Microsystem) for further processing . Approximately, 4-5 μ thick sections were cut, stained with routine hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining technique [10] and examined by BX61 Research Photomicrograph Microscope System (Olympus Corporation, USA), the facility provided by the department. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Presently, diagnosis of rabies is primarily based on, conventional fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), immunopathological and molecular techniques. Recently, rapid immunodiagnostic assay (RIDA) - A monoclonal antibody-based technique has been introduced for rapid diagnosis of rabies. The present investigation is envisaged to study the efficacy of RIDA kit for the diagnosis of rabies in cattle. Materials and methods: About 11 brain samples from cattle, clinically suspected for rabies, were screened by the FAT, Heminested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (HnRT-PCR), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), and RIDA. Results: The sensitivity for detection of rabies from brain tissue by RIDA was 85.7% as compared to 100% by IHC as well as HnRT-PCR. The accuracy of detection of rabies by RIDA was 91.6% as compared to 100% that of IHC and HnRT-PCR, whereas specificity of RIDA was 100% like that of the IHC and HnRT-PCR. Conclusion: Despite a comparatively low-sensitivity and accuracy of RIDA, latter can still be useful in screening a large number of field samples promptly. However, it is recommended that negative results with RIDA in cattle need to be authenticated by suitable alternative diagnostic approaches.
... The second gill arch of all fish samples was removed and processed for paraffin embedding. The tissue sections of 5 μm were cut, placed on microscope slides and stained with hematoxylin and eosin [18]. All slides were examined and imaged using a microscope (Leica DFC365 FX model). ...
Article
Full-text available
The gill histology in fish is used as an identification of infectious and non-infectious diseases. This approach has also been used in recent years as a biomarker for the determination of pollution and as a tool in environmental monitoring. The gill structure is extremely influenced by external factors, and might serve as an indicator of many problems. In the present study, pathology associated with Ichthyobodo necator, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Apiosoma sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp. (parasites), Flavobacterium sp. (bacteria) and concrete contamination were investigated on different fish gills (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Salmo coruhensis, Salvelinus fontinalis, Acipenser baeri and Symphysodon discus). The gill tissues of all examined fish were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin embedded in paraffin blocks and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Hyperplasia and lamellar apposition were observed as the most common pathologies on the gills analyzed. However, abundant necrotic cells, as an indication of a more serious complication, were also observed on the gills of Symphysodon discus infested by Gyrodactylus sp. The vacuolisation of the gills in brook trout, infected with Flavobacterium sp. was recorded as another notable finding.
... For histopathological studies, all the collected samples were cut into pieces, fixed in the 10% neutral buffered formalin (Gridley, 1960), dehydrated in a series of ascending grades of alcohol, cleared in several changes of xylene and infiltrated with different grades of melted paraffin in the oven at 56 o C. The tissues were then embedded in paraffin and finally the sections were cut at 6-μm thickness using rotatory microtome. Then the sections were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin staining method (H&E) (Luna, 1968). ...
Article
Full-text available
Quail industry has become a promising sector in livestock of Bangladesh in last decade. This study was aimed to find out the incidence of bacterial and viral diseases in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in Bangladesh. This is the first report about the incidences of diseases in Japanese quail in Bangladesh. The incidences of diseases were investigated by the clinical signs, gross lesions in different organs and histopathological changes of different tissues in bacterial and viral diseases. A total number of 476 birds, either diseased or dead, from 40 quail farms were included in this study. The result showed that the occurrence of viral and bacterial diseases in Japanese quail were 25.21% and 34.45%, respectively where as 15.13% cases were mixed infection. Newcastle disease was found as most prevalent (11.35%) among the viral diseases. On the other hand, colibacillosis was the highest prevalent disease accounting for 15.34% among all bacterial diseases. Moreover, 22.48% cases were other types of infections (mycoplasmosis, coccidiosis, aspergillosis, deficiency disorder and internal parasitic problem) and 2.73% cases were unidentified. The highest numbers of diseases were found in the age group 21 to 30 days (23.53%) whilst the quails aged between 11 to 40 days (59.67) were most vulnerable to various diseases. The highest occurrences of diseases were found in rainy season (39.29%). It can be concluded that Newcastle disease and colibacillosis are the most frequent challenge for the quail farming in Bangladesh. Strict bio-security and proper management system might effectively reduce the incidences of the reported diseases.
... For light microscopy, infected organs were cut into small pieces and fixed in Bouin's fixative. For histology, the tissue samples were dehydrated in ascending grades of ethanol, cleared in xylene, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned at 8-10 µm and stained with Luna's method (Luna, 1968) and haematoxylin and eosin (H+E). ...
Article
During the present study, two myxosporean species, M. nanokiensis Kaur et al., (2015) and M. slendrii Kaur and Singh (2010) have been described from the gills of Cirrhinus mrigala Hamilton vern. mrigal and Labeo rohita Hamilton vern. rohu at nursery ponds located in village Fagan majra, District Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India. Earlier, M. nanokiensis were described from L. rohita and M. slendrii from C. mrigala. 40 speciemens of Labeo rohita and 40 specimens of Cirrhinus mrigala were examined from November 2014 to April 2015. Out of which 33 and 21 fishes were infected respectively. The age of the fish was recorded as 2-3 months and length of the fish was 4-4.5 cm. The prevalence rate was more in M. nanokiensis (82.5%) than M. slendrii (52.5%). The histological effects of the pathogen were observed by light microscopy. The plasmodia of M. nanokiensis were located in the fine blood capillaries at the centre of gill lamella and plasmodia of M. slendrii were located located within the arteries at the tip of the gill filaments. M. nanokiensis was highly pathogenic than M. slendrii. The plasmodia of M. nanokiensis were typed in “A” category caused complete necrosis of cellular elements and degeneration of gill lamellae and M. slendrii also in “A” category caused total destruction of the gill filament. The gill plasmodial index (GPI) was 1 for both species.
... Thereafter, specimens were embedded with paraffin wax at 58 C on two stages, then blocks of specimens were made with paraffin wax and sectioned by rotary microtome at 5 mm for all tissue. All tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and the histopathological changes were observed under light microscope (Luna, 1968). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was designed for the development of a vaccine composed of different antigens (LPS, OMP, LPS+OMP and Bacterin) of avian pathogenic E. coli O78 to protect of chicken against colibacillosis. A total of 100 clinical samples from ill broiler chicks with colibacillosis were collected from different regions of AL-Qadisiya province. All subjected to isolation, identification, biotyping, serotyping and antimicrobial agent sensitivity for APEC by using biochemical, Api – 20E, and biotyping using patterns of different fermentation and sertyping by monospecific antisera for O and H antigen. The study showed that the prevalence of resistant APEC O78 isolates is very high. Of a battery of antibiotics used, these isolates were sensitive for only few antibiotics; Colistin sulphate and Gentamycin. The study have carried out in two stages; first stage included cultivation of identified isolates, extraction and purification of target antigens, and analysis for carbohydrate and protein contents. In addition, gel filtration and SDS-PAGE were performed for extraction of antigens; i.e. LPS. Second stage included the field trial, where 300 of 1 day aged broiler chicks were divided into 6 equal groups. Four of five challenged groups (inoculated with 1x10 9 cells/ml) were immunized with LPS (2.5 mcg/bird, sc) and OMP (2 mcg/bird, sc). The first initial dose was given at 5th day old of broiler chicks followed by a booster dose after 9 days. A clinical follow-up, morbidity and mortality were monitored daily. The challenge dose was given at 29 days old for all of studied groups. At 33rd day old, histopathological examination of different vital organs, CFU/g, cytokins assay for selected interleukins (IL-1B, IL-6, and TNF-α;TLiA) and immunoglobulines (IgG and IgM) assessment were performed. Mortality rate was significantly lower than that of positive control (56.7%) after bacterial challenge. Significant difference in IgG concentration was shown among groups. It was higher in vaccinated groups compared with positive control. Serum IL-6, IL-1B, and TNF-α concentrations were significantly higher in the 1st vaccinated group and placebo controls compared with positive group. Infected chicks showed gross lesions represented by airsaculitis, pericarditis and hepatitis, whereas, vaccinated groups appeared no significant gross lesions in air sacs, heart and liver. It is concluded that LPS and OMP of avian pathogenic E. coli O78 can protect chicken against colibacillosis.
... Another important modulator of TLR signaling is the single immunoglobulin IL1R- related (SIGIRR) molecule, which is transiently down regulated after TLR-mediated activation and blocks signaling by sequestering IRAK and TRAF-6. TLRs are long believed to have autonomous recognition and transcriptional signaling capacity and TLR-mediated recognition of MAMPs and DAMPs can occur at the plasma membrane or intracellularly [23][24][25][26][27]. It is well known that SCN functions as the antidote for ACN majorly by two different mechanisms. ...
Acrylonitrile is a potent mutagen and carcinogen for hepatocytes. A role of toll-like receptor 4 in the immune toxicity of acrylonitrile has been suggested in many studies. The following study was designed to assess the quantitative alteration of toll-like receptor 4 under the influence of sodium thiosulfate which was used to antagonize acrylonitrile-induced immune toxicity in rats. 70 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 7 groups. Rats of control group were gavaged with saline for 4 weeks. Rats of acrylonitrile groups were daily gavaged by acrylonitrile of different concentrations for 4 weeks, whereas all rats of sodium thiosulfate groups received gavage of acrylonitrile 10 mg/kg/d for 4 weeks and for the 4th w, meanwhile daily intraperitoneal injection of sodium thiosulfate of different concentrations was administered to detoxify acrylonitrile. All rats were anesthetized and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were measured to evaluate liver damage. Spleens of rats from different groups were dissected for histopathologic examination and immunohistochemistry of toll-like receptor 4 protein in spleen. Concentrations of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis facor-α in blood samples were also analyzed. Acrylonitrile decreased body and spleen weight of the rats and increased the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. There were significant visible changes in spleen microstructure in rats treated with acrylonitrile alone when compared with control group. Moreover, it was proved in our study that acrylonitrile of 10 mg/kg could cause the most significant increase in the quantity of toll-like receptor 4 protein, when compared with both acrylonitrile (L) and acrylonitrile (H) group. The expression of toll-like receptor 4 protein of all acetonitrile groups was stronger than that of all sodium thoisulfate groups, which was in accordance with the inflammation caused by acrylonitrile with or without the influence from sodium thiosulfate. Among all sodium thiosulfate groups, toll-like receptor 4 expression of sodium thoisulfate (L) group was stronger than that of sodium thoisulfate (M) and sodium thoisulfate (H) group. Administration of sodium thiosulfate on the fourth week after first 3 w treatment with acrylonitrile alleviated acrylonitrile-induced morphological alterations in spleen, hepatic enzymatic indexes including serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, as well as the expression of toll-like receptor 4. Therefore, we suggested that sodium thiosulfate could antagonize the immune toxicity induced by acrylonitrile, which was reflected by quantitative change in expression of toll-like receptor 4 protein.
Article
Full-text available
Garcinia hombroniana has been used in Malay traditional medicine to treat various disorders such as abdominal pain and gonorrhea, and little is known about its toxicological properties. This study investigated the acute toxicological effects of the plant's leaves aqueous extract using theoral acute toxic class (ATC) method. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into T1, T2, T3 and control groups. The T1, T2 and T3 rats administered a single oral dose of 300, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg of G. hombroniana leaves aqueous extract, respectively.The animals were checked daily for abnormal clinical signs and mortality rate for 14 days. The body weight, daily food and water consumption were recorded. The haematological and biochemical parameters of blood as well as relative organ weight and tissues histology such as heart, kidney, liver and spleen were evaluated. Results have shown significantly decreased (p< 0.05) food and water consumption in T2 and T3 rats, which returned to normal after 72 hr post administration. No significant differences (p≥ 0.05) in the haematological and serum biochemical parameters in the treated rat groups, compared to the untreated control animals. An increase in the relative weight of spleen was noticed in T3 animals. Congestion of the splenic, hepatic, cardiac and renal tissues was seen in T2 and T3 rats. The oral LD 50 was higher than 5000 mg/kg of body weight. Thus, it can be concluded that G. hombroniana aqueous extract shows little toxicity in the laboratory rats and the therapeutic potentials should be further investigated.
Article
Full-text available
The hepatoprotective activity of freeze-dried methanolic extracts of three herbal plants including Berberi slyciumroot bark, Tinospora cordifolia stem and Hippophae salicifolia leaves were evaluated against lantadenes-induced hepatic damage in guinea pigs. A total of 36 guinea pigs of either sex were divided into 9 groups. The oral administration of two graded doses of freeze-dried methanolic extract of the ameliorating plants (100 and 200 mg/kg bw) was started a week prior to the administration of lantadenes (at the dose of 25 mg/kg bw). The total duration of the trial was 21 days. The results of gross and histopathology suggested that amongst the three herbal plants, B. lycium was the most effective herbal plant in preventing lantadenes-induced damage in a dose-dependent manner. This was followed in decreasing order by the higher dose of T. cordifolia. Amongst all the three plants, methanolic extract of H.salicifolia appeared to be noneffective plant against lantadene-induced hepatotoxicity.
Article
Full-text available
Various possible causes of proventriculitis include virus, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, nematodes, biogenic amines and excessive copper sulphate. In the present case, parasites were found in the lumen of the proventriculus, gizzard and duodenum of a poultry bird. Characteristic features of the parasite were studied and confirmed as Ascaridia galli. An ulcerative proventriculitis evident as denuded superficial epithelium, sub-epithelial hemorrhages, infiltration of the inflammatory cells and fibrosis were seen at histopathology. Proventriculitis caused by A. galli has not been reported till date. Here, we report a case of ulcerative proventriculitis in a poultry bird caused by nematode, A. galli.
Article
Full-text available
The intestinal mucosa is known to be adversely affected by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). It has been demonstrated that Hesperetin has protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion injury on various organs. The aim of this study is to determine protective effects of Hesperetin on I/R injury of the intestine in rats. For this purpose, forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups as control (group 1), sham IR (group 2), intestinal IR (group 3) and Hesperetin plus intestinal IR (group 4). Intestinal IR was produced by 30 min of intestinal ischemia followed by a 60 min of reperfusion. Rats in the group 4 received Hesperetin (1000 U/kg) subcutaneously, 120 minutes before ischemia. After the experiments, the colon was removed and the tissues were processed for histopathological examination. Serum total antioxidant activity (TAA), and levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were measured in colon tissue. Histopathology show that, severe inflammatory cell infiltration, hyperemia and hemorrhage in lamina propria, as well as epithelial cell necrosis and reduction of mucosal thickening in colon tissues of the intestinal IR group. Administration of Hesperetin alleviated the colon damage in group 4. Levels of TAA, SOD, CAT, GPx and GR decreased in the intestinal IR group, but increased significantly (p<0.05) in the IR+ Hesperetin group. Hesperetin significantly (p<0.05) decreased MDA levels which was increased by IR. The results of this study, showed that Hesperetin treatment protected the rat's intestinal tissue against intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to unveil the light microscopic morphology and distribution of the goblet cells, paneth cells and Brunner's glands in duodenum of the adult one humped camels.The present study was carried out on fifteen duodeni,these have been removed from healthy adult male camels aging (4-5) years, immediately after slaughtering. The specimens were divided into equal five parts, named as following (first ,second,third,fourth and fifth) .Ten specimens (1cm 3) was taken from different regions of each part of the duodenum; and fixed into 10% formalin and Bouin's solution approximately 24 hours, then treating by routine histological processing. The sections are stained by H & E, PAS and V.G. stains. Goblet cells, paneth cells and alveoli of the Brunner's glands were counted ,used ten microscopic fields of each part of the duodenum. Mean ± Standard error were calculated.The duodenal wall was composed of four tunicae (mucosa, submucosa,muscularis and serosa or adventitia).Goblet cells,shown as globular shaped cells dispersed among the columnar cells in the epithelium that lined the villi and crypts of Lieberkuhn in the tunica mucosa of the duodenum, and take positive reaction with(PAS) and the Paneth cells, were granular cells in crypts of Lieberkuhn only. The present study revealed the mean number of goblet and paneth cells in crypts of Lieberkuhn were increased in last parts of camel duodenum toward the jejunum. Brunner's glands, appeared as branched tubuloalveolar glands, found in the lamina propria of first, second and third parts and in submucosa of each duodenal part. The mean number of the alveoli of the Brunner's glands in submucosa of the first part were more than that in other parts, and decreased toward last parts, but absent in last sections of fifth part toward the jejunum. Conclusion : The present study revealed reversed relation between number of the goblet and paneth cells with the Brunner's glands in the duodenum toward the jejunum for neutralize of the ingesta and contributing to the immunity of duodenum.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The present research article was conducted to study the toxicity profile, antioxidant potential and wound healing activity of ethanolic leaves extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (ELEHR). Materials and Methods: In-vitro antioxidant properties were assessed using DPPH radical scavenging activity, Nitric oxide scavenging activity, and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Acute toxicity was performed to study the general behavioural pattern of mice and sub-acute toxicity studies were performed to study the toxic effects of the test extract on different biochemical and haematological parameters, body and organ weight and histopathology of liver, pancreas and kidney. Wound healing properties was evaluated using excision, incision, dead space and burn wound model. Results: Strong antioxidant activity was recorded in a concentration dependant manner for ELEHR in all three models. The toxicological evaluation of ELEHR revealed that it has a reasonable safety profile as there was no severe alteration. In the evaluation of wound healing properties, ELEHR treated group showed an enhanced wound contraction rate and epithelisation period in both excision and burn wound models, whereas in incision wound model wound breaking strength was significantly increased in extract treated group compared to control. Histology of the skin of healed excised wound also showed restoration to normal architecture in extract treated group. Wound healing activity was further substantiated by enhanced antioxidants and connective tissue markers which were estimated in dead space wound model. Conclusion: Thus ELEHR proved to be effective in wound healing which may be because of strong antioxidant properties and also possesses reasonable safety profile. © 2016, Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to assess the pathological changes in kidneys after twenty day from induction of diabetes mellitus in male rabbits.Sixteen male rabbits were used in this study and divided into two equal groups: diabetic group (Dm) and control group (Cm). Diabetes mellitus was induced by i.v injection of alloxan monohydrate at dose rate 100 mg/kg dissolved in 1 ml of normal saline. Blood was collected after three days to check fasting serum glucose.Serum glucose level was elevated starting from the 1 st 3 days after induction of diabetes mellitus. The histopathological results revealed that there were: edema, glomerular hypertrophy and hypercellularity, as well as glomerular necrosis, glomerular swelling, glomerular congestion with glomerular cast and rupture. The conclusion that renal glomeruli and tubules affected progressively after short period from beginning of diabetes mellitus.
Article
Macrophage stimulates growth of surrounding cells by various cytokines and growth factors synthesized and eliminate apoptotic cells by its phagocytes activity. This study was to evaluate the evidence of macrophage as regulator cells during haematopoiesis. Haematopoietic activity assessed microscopically by proportion of various haematopoietic blood cells to total nucleated blood cells on imprint preparation of fetal ratus (Wistar) spleen and human marrow aspirate, after Wright’s stain coloration. Fetal ratus spleen and human marrow aspirate were used to evaluate macrophage as a stimulator cell and suppressor cell respectively. During prenatal period, the proportion of macrophage increased at 14thdays (1.3 ± 0.9%), 16thdays (7.6 ± 1.8 %), 18thdays (12.9 ± 2.8 %) and 20thdays prenatal gestation periods (14.1 ± 3.1%). Thismacrophage increment was associated with the increase of other blood cells, except the proportion of lymphoid cell which decreased. During postnatal period the macrophage proportion decreased (11.0 ± 1.7 %), and other bloodcells proportion continuously increased except lymphoid cells which decreased. Many haematopoietic islands representing active haematopoietic process were found at 14thdays of fetal rat spleen. Macrophage in human hypocellular marrow (n = 9) increased and it exceed other blood cells proportion (29 %, p < 0.001) and contained phagocytosed apoptotic bodies. This study concludes that high macrophage regulates haematopoiesis when it was proportionally low and regulate haematopoiesis when it was proportionally high. Keywords:Macrophage, Apoptosis, Haematopoiesis
Article
Full-text available
In order to determine the toxicopathological effects of sodium dichromate Cr VI in the lung of rats, the present study used 30 rats (Rattus norvegicus) which divided into five equal groups, both (1 st) and (2 nd) groups were administered orally 3 mg and 9 mg /100gram B.W of CrVI orally for 30 days respectively. While (3 rd) and(4 th) groups administered the same doses as in (1 st) and (2 nd) groups respectively but for 60 days, in addition the (5 th group) was kept as negative control. The results showed interstitial pneumonia, necrosis of small bronchioles and contained inflammatory cells in their lumens in addition there was necrotic bronchiolitis with papillae hyperplastic projections of lining columnar epithelial cells and peri-aggregation of mononuclear cells in (1 st group). The (2 nd group) showed peribroncheolitis and marked hyperplastic changes of ciliated columnar epithelia, also the alveoli showed marked emphysema, The (3 rd group) revealed chronic necrotic bronchiolitis with papillae hyperplastic projections of lining columnar epithelial cells and peri-aggregation of mononuclear cells, while the (4 th group) appeared great enlargement of bronchioles due to hyperplasia of lining epithelium as papillae and peri-mononuclear cells infiltration. We concluded that the Cr (VI) had a major toxic effects on the pulmonary tissues especially in highly repeated doses.
Chapter
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sudden unexplained perinatal death are tragic events, still representing the most common form of death within the first year of life despite the progress in the field of maternal and infant health care. They remain unexplained after the usual gross and microscopic examination, and are referable to similar underlying cardiac and neurophysiological mechanisms, as frequent alterations of the autonomic nervous system, both central and peripheral, have been reported. Malignant arrhythmias are known to be a substrate of unexpected infant and perinatal death, especially following accessory atrio-ventricular pathways. Therefore, an accurate examination of the cardiac conduction system, again under the control of the nervous system, is also mandatory. These structural alterations are mainly of a congenital nature and therefore represent a common morphological substrate in both perinatal and infant sudden death. In view of the post mortem pathological findings, the need to perform an in-depth study of the cardiac conduction and autonomic nervous systems, following the guidelines reported below, is self-evident. Because this examination is not routinely performed, detailed indications are given in this protocol of the sampling, processing, cutting and staining procedures.
Article
Full-text available
The study was conducted to evaluate the histological effect of bee pollen grains at the testis in rabbits. Twenty male rabbits were divided into two equal groups, the first administrated with normal saline orally, the second group treated by bee pollen aqueous suspension, Histological observation showed an increase in the number and size of seminiferous tubules containing spermatozoa with the invasion of blood vessels in comparison with the control group
Chapter
In this chapter our attention will be centered on the various microorganisms which cause pulmonary disease. Clearly any attempt to be thorough in this coverage would be beyond the scope of the book; rather we will discuss only those micro-organisms which cause lesions that can be diagnosed from bronchial biopsy and in particular those with morphological features which allow recognition in specimens. The histological reactions to these organisms are in themselves often distinctive and will be discussed with more detail in Chapters 5 and 8.
Article
Full-text available
En el presente trabajo se reporta la presencia de Plesiomonas shigelloides causando un cuadro patológico entérico en tilapia Oreochromis niloticus en una piscigranja de la región Lima, Perú. Las bacterias fueron aisladas e identificadas por técnicas bioquímicas convencionales y confirmadas por el sistema API 20NE (perfil numérico 7162744 que ratifica a P. shigelloides al 99.3%). Las cepas evaluadas (n=4) presentaron un metabolismo fermentativo de glucosa, positividad en las pruebas de citocromo oxidasa, indol, Voges-Proskauer y rojo de metilo. Los signos externos más frecuentes de la enfermedad fueron eritema en el vientre y las aletas pectorales, ano prominente y enrojecido con descarga sanguinolenta. Internamente se observó el intestino inflamado y la presencia de líquido ascítico en la cavidad visceral. El estudio histopatológico reveló edema de la lámina propia y necrosis epitelial del tejido gástrico e intestinal, y necrosis en el riñón anterior y gónadas.
Article
Full-text available
A study was conducted from October 2009 and March 2010 with the objective of determining the prevalence of poultry coccidiosis and identifying the species of Eimeria at Kombolcha poultry farm. A total of 638 dead White leghorn chickens of age 1 to 60 days were examined on post mortem, mucosal scraping examination, examination of gross and histopathological changes, and identification of Eimeria species. Prevalence rate of 22.3% (142/638) was assessed. A statistically significant difference p< 0.05 (χ2 = 261.995, p = 0.000) was noted among the studied age groups with maximum prevalence at 41-50 days of age. Five Eimeriaspecies were identified, namely: E. tenella(37.86 %), E. brunette (29.22 %), E. necatrix(12.35 %), E. acervulina(15.22 %), and E. maxima (5.35 %)which were identified for the first time in the farm. In conclusion, coccidiosis remained still a major problem in the farm by changing its mode of occurrence from time to time as to the variations of the management system. Further strategies needs to be implemented to reduce the loss due to coccidiosis
Article
Full-text available
The study was conducted in Collage of Veterinary Medicine \Basrah University,to evaluate the effect of proanthocyanidin and ranitidin on gastric ulcer, haematological and biochemical parameters changes by using female rabbits with acute gastric lesions induced by indomethacin.The study done on (30)adult female rabbits, their weight ranged between (1500-2000.0mg); divided into five groups, each group consist of six rabbits as the following: Group1:-healthy (negative control group) administrated normal saline (0.9 of normal saline) for 10 days; Group 2:-given indomethacin 75mg\kg B.W. for two days(positive control group); Group 3:-at first given indomethacin 75mg\kg B.W. for two days, then treated with proanthocyanidin(PA) 100mg\kg B.W. for 10 days; Group 4, initially given indomethacin 75mg\kg for two days, then treated with proanthocyanidin(PA) 200mg\kg for 10 days; Group 5, given indomethacin 75mg\kg for two days, then treated with ranitidin 50mg\kg for10 days.The results showed that proanthocyanidin(PA) and ranitidin caused significant reduction (P≤0.05) in gastric volume, ulcer area, serum MDA, gastric tissue MDA while significant increase (P≤0.05) in mucin and gastric pH. It also revealed significant decrease (P≤0.05) in glucose concentration in rabbits treated with proanthocyanidin compared to positive control group while showedno-significant change in glucose concentration in rabbits treated with ranitidine compared with positive control group. It also, showed ISI Impact Factor:3.461. 133 significant increase (P≤0.05) in Red Blood Cell(RBC),Hemoglobin(Hb) andMean Corpuscle hemoglobin concentration(MCHC) in rabbit treated with proanthocyanidin or ranitidin, while there was significant decrease (P≤0.05) in Mean Corpuscle Volume(MCV) in rabbits treated with proanthocyanidin in dose of 100mg\kgand ranitidine in a dose of 50mg/kg with non-significant change of MCV in female rabbits with gastric ulceration treated with proanthocyanidin at dose 200 compared with positive control group.It showed non-significant changes in White Blood Cell (WBC) of female rabbits with gastric ulceration treated with proanthocyanidin compared with positive and negative control groups, while the results showed significant decrease (P≤0.05) in WBC of female rabbits with gastric ulceration treated with ranitidine group compared with positive and negative control groups and the other groups. The study revealed significant decrease (P≤0.05) in total cholesterol, triglyceride, Low Density Lipoprotein(LDL) and very Low Density Lipoprotein(VLDL) of female rabbits with gastric ulceration treated with proanthocyanidin and ranitidine group compared with positive control group while it showed significant increase (P≤0.05) in High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in rabbits treated with proanthocyanidin and ranitidine group compared with positive control group. It is concluded that proanthocyanidin extract of the grape seeds(Vitis vinifera)displayed good antiulcer activity, hypoglycemia effect, amelioration of heamatological parameters and improve dyslipidemia corroborating the folk use of Vitis vinifera preparations, and contributing for its pharmacological validation.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the macroanatomy and histology of the caecum in guinea fowl using light and scanning electron microscopy. Six adult male and six adult female guinea fowl were used as the study material. The cavum abdominis of the animals was opened under anaesthesia, and the caeca uncovered. The height and thickness of the villi were smaller in the apex and corpus caeca than in the basis caeci. The SEM image of the guinea fowl caeca showed that the villi send finger like extensions into the lumen, and the height of the villi towards the basis caeca increases and exhibits a tight structure.Thus, in this study, the anatomy and histology of guinea fowl caeca were examined in detail using light and scanning electron microscopy, and the similarities and differences with the caeca of other poultry species were investigated.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.