Assessment of the sensitization potential of persulfate salts used for bleaching hair

CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Barcelona, Spain.
Contact Dermatitis (Impact Factor: 3.75). 03/2009; 60(2):85-90. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0536.2008.01477.x
Source: PubMed


Persulfate salts have been associated with both allergic contact dermatitis and bronchial asthma. Because there is currently no experimental data available on the sensitizing properties of persulfate salts (ammonium, sodium, and potassium persulfates), we determined their dermal sensitizing capacity, using the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA).
For three consecutive days, BALB/c mice were dermally treated with ammonium, sodium, or potassium persulfate or with the vehicle alone (dimethyl sulfoxide) on each ear (2 x 25 microl). On D6, mice were injected intravenously with [(3)H]-methyl thymidine. The draining auricular lymph nodes were removed, and the incorporation of [(3)H]-methyl thymidine was compared with that of vehicle-treated control mice. A stimulation index (SI) relative to the vehicle-treated control value was derived. The sensitizing potency of the chemicals tested was determined by estimating the concentration of chemical required to induce a SI of 3 (EC3).
All three chemicals provoked positive responses in the LLNA, with dose-dependent increases in proliferation. Maximal SIs recorded were 6.8 +/- 1.8, 6.5 +/- 1.2, and 5 +/- 1.0 at 5% for ammonium, sodium or potassium persulfate, respectively. The EC3 values were 1.9%, 0.9%, and 2.4% for ammonium, sodium, and potassium persulfates, respectively.
All three persulfate salts need to be considered strong-to-moderate sensitizers according to the murine LLNA.

Download full-text


Available from: Vanessa De Vooght
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The relationships between asthma and rhinitis are still a crucial point in respiratory allergy and have scarcely been analysed in occupational setting. We aimed to compare the clinical and inflammatory features of subjects with occupational asthma only (OA) to subjects with OA associated to occupational rhinitis (OAR) caused by persulphate salts. The clinical charts of 26 subjects diagnosed in our Unit as respiratory allergy caused by ammonium persulphate (AP), confirmed by specific inhalation challenge (SIC), were reviewed. Twenty-two out of twenty-six patients underwent pre-SIC-induced sputum challenge test (IS) and 24/26 underwent nasal secretion collection and processing. Twelve out of twenty-six patients received a diagnosis of OA-only and 14/26 of OAR. Duration of exposure before diagnosis, latency period between the beginning of exposure and asthma symptom onset, basal FEV(1), airway reactivity to methacholine and asthma severity did not differ in the two groups. Eosinophilic inflammation of upper and lower airways characterized both groups. Eosinophil percentage in IS tended to be higher in OAR [11.9 (5.575-13.925)%] than in OA-only [2.95 (0.225-12.5)%] (P = 0.31). Eosinophilia in nasal secretions was present both in subjects with OAR [55 (46-71)%] and in subjects with OA-only [38 (15-73.5)%], without any significant difference. Our results indicate that OA because of ammonium persulphate coexists with occupational rhinitis in half of the patients. Unexpectedly, rhinitis did not seem to have an impact on the natural history of asthma. The finding of nasal inflammation in subjects with OA-only without clinical manifestations of rhinitis supports the united airway disease concept in occupational respiratory allergy as a result of persulphates.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Allergy

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Contact Dermatitis
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Persulfate salts are the main cause of occupational asthma (OA) in hairdressers. The aim of this study was to verify whether ammonium persulfate ((NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8), AP) is capable of triggering an asthma-like response in mice. BALB/c mice were dermally treated on days 1 and 8, with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), 1% AP or 5% AP (20 microl/ear). On day 15, the auricular lymph nodes were removed and an in vitro lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) was performed. AP was tested for its ability to elicit an asthmatic response using a locally developed mouse model of chemical-induced asthma. On days 1 and 8, BALB/c mice received 20 microl AP (5%) or DMSO on each ear. On day 15, they received an intranasal instillation of AP (1%) or saline. Afterwards, ventilatory, inflammatory and immunological parameters were assessed. The LPT showed that in vitro stimulation of lymphocytes with AP leads to specific proliferation of lymphocytes from AP-sensitised mice. In vivo, AP induced, in AP-sensitised mice only, an 'early' ventilatory response (increased Penh (enhanced pause)) immediately after challenge, and airway hyper-reactivity to methacholine 22 h later. Pulmonary inflammation was mainly characterised by neutrophils (10-15%). AP-sensitised mice showed an increase in total number of T helper (Th) and B lymphocytes together with an increased in vitro secretion of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10 and IL-13 and an increase in total serum immunoglobulin E. In a mouse model, it was confirmed that dermal sensitisation to AP can lead to asthma-like responses after a single administration via the airway.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Thorax
Show more