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In this article, we introduce brief self-report and informant-report versions of the Grit Scale, which measures trait-level perseverance and passion for long-term goals. The Short Grit Scale (Grit-S) retains the 2-factor structure of the original Grit Scale (Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly, 2007) with 4 fewer items and improved psychometric properties. We present evidence for the Grit-S's internal consistency, test-retest stability, consensual validity with informant-report versions, and predictive validity. Among adults, the Grit-S was associated with educational attainment and fewer career changes. Among adolescents, the Grit-S longitudinally predicted GPA and, inversely, hours watching television. Among cadets at the United States Military Academy, West Point, the Grit-S predicted retention. Among Scripps National Spelling Bee competitors, the Grit-S predicted final round attained, a relationship mediated by lifetime spelling practice.
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Development and Validation of the Short Grit Scale
(Grit–S)
Angela Lee Duckworth
a
& Patrick D. Quinn
a
a
Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania
Version of record first published: 10 Feb 2009
To cite this article: Angela Lee Duckworth & Patrick D. Quinn (2009): Development and Validation of the Short Grit Scale
(Grit–S), Journal of Personality Assessment, 91:2, 166-174
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Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2), 166–174, 2009
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DOI: 10.1080/00223890802634290
Development and Validation of the Short Grit Scale (Grit–S)
ANGELA LEE DUCKWORTH AND PATRICK D. QUINN
Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania
In this article, we introduce brief self-report and informant-report versions of the Grit Scale, which measures trait-level perseverance and passion
for long-term goals. The Short Grit Scale (Grit–S) retains the 2-factor structure of the original Grit Scale (Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly,
2007) with 4 fewer items and improved psychometric properties. We present evidence for the Grit–S’s internal consistency, test–retest stability,
consensual validity with informant-report versions, and predictive validity. Among adults, the Grit–S was associated with educational attainment
and fewer career changes. Among adolescents, the Grit–S longitudinally predicted GPA and, inversely, hours watching television. Among cadets
at the United States Military Academy, West Point, the Grit–S predicted retention. Among Scripps National Spelling Bee competitors, the Grit–S
predicted final round attained, a relationship mediated by lifetime spelling practice.
Perseverance is more often studied as an outcome than as a pre-
dictor. For example, perseverance in difficult or impossible tasks
has served as the dependent variable in studies of optimistic at-
tribution style, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and depletion of
self-control resources (see, e.g., Bandura, 1977; Baumeister,
Bratslavsky, Muraven, & Tice, 1998; Elliott & Dweck, 1988;
Muraven, Tice, & Baumeister, 1998; Seligman & Schulman,
1986). However, the study of perseverance as a predictor, in
particular as a stable individual difference, was of keen interest
to psychologists in the first half of the 20th century. In a review
of the existing literature of his day, Ryans (1939) concluded that
“the existence of a general trait of persistence, which permeates
all behavior of the organism, has not been established, though
evidence both for and against such an assumption has been re-
vealed” (p. 737). Very recently, positive psychology has renewed
interest in the empirical study of character in general and in the
trait of perseverance in particular (Peterson & Seligman, 2004).
Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, and Kelly (2007) introduced
the construct of grit, defined as trait-level perseverance and pas-
sion for long-term goals, and showed that grit predicted achieve-
ment in challenging domains over and beyond measures of tal-
ent. For instance, at the U.S. Military Academy, West Point,
cadets higher in grit were less likely to drop out than their less
gritty peers, even when controlling for SAT scores, high school
rank, and a measure of Big Five conscientiousness. In four sepa-
rate samples, grit was found to be either orthogonal to or slightly
inversely correlated with intelligence.
Duckworth et al. (2007) proposed that grit is distinct from
traditionally measured facets of Big Five conscientiousness in
its emphasis on stamina. In particular, grit entails the capacity
to sustain both effort and interest in projects that take months
or even longer to complete. Grit is also related to but distinct
from need for achievement (n Achievement: McClelland, 1961).
Individuals high in grit do not swerve from their goals, even in
the absence of positive feedback. In contrast, McClelland (1985)
noted that
Received October 23, 2007; Revised July 22, 2008.
Patrick D. Quinn is now at the University of Texas–Austin.
Address correspondence to Angela Lee Duckworth, Department of Psychol-
ogy, University of Pennsylvania, 3701 Market St., Suite 209, Philadelphia, PA
19104; Email: duckwort@psych.upenn.edu
There is ample evidence that the moderate challenge incentive is crucial
for individuals high in n Achievement; they will work harder when this
incentive is present than when it is not present; that is, when tasks are
too easy or too hard [italics added]. (p. 814)
Duckworth et al. (2007) identified a two-factor structure for
the original 12-item self-report measure of grit (Grit–O). This
structure was consistent with the theory of grit as a compound
trait comprising stamina in dimensions of interest and effort.
However, the differential predictive validity of these two factors
for various outcomes was not explored. Duckworth et al. did not
examine whether either factor predicted outcomes better than
did the other. Moreover, the model fit of the Grit–O (comparative
fit index [CFI]
1
= .83; root mean square error of approximation
[RMSEA]
2
= .11) suggested room for improvement.
THIS RESEARCH
We undertook this investigation to validate a more efficient
measure of grit. In Study 1, we identified items for the Short Grit
Scale (Grit–S) with the best overall predictive validity across
four samples originally presented in Duckworth et al. (2007). In
Study 2, we used confirmatory factor analysis to test the two-
factor structure of the Grit–S in a novel Internet sample of adults,
compared the relationships between the Grit–S and Grit–O and
the Big Five personality dimensions, and examined predictive
validity for career changes and educational attainment. In Study
3, we validated an informant version of the Grit–S and estab-
lished consensual validity. In Study 4, we measured the 1-year,
test–retest stability of the Grit–S in a sample of adolescents.
Finally, in Studies 5 and 6, we further tested the predictive va-
lidity of the Grit–S in two novel samples of West Point cadets
and National Spelling Bee finalists.
STUDY 1
In Study 1, we aimed to extract a subset of items from the
Grit–O to create a brief version (Grit–S). In selecting items, we
considered predictive validity and replication of the two-factor
1
CFI is a noncentrality index that compares the proposed model to the
independence model.
2
RMSEA is the parsimony adjusted index of the discrepancy between ob-
served and implied covariances.
166
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SHORT GRIT SCALE 167
TABLE 1.—Item-level correlations with outcomes in Study 1.
West Point West Point 2005 National Ivy League
Class of 2008 Class of 2010 Spelling Bee Undergraduate
Item Retention Retention Final Round
a
GPA
Consistency of Interest
1. I often set a goal but later choose to pursue a different one. .10 .11 .12 .15
5. I have been obsessed with a certain idea or project for a short
time but later lost interest.
.08 .08 .05 .16
6. I have difficulty maintaining my focus on projects that take
more than a few months to complete.
.04 .04 .07 .28
2. New ideas and projects sometimes distract me from previous
ones.
.03 .03 .17 .13
4. My interests change from year to year. .06 .09 .08 .03
3. I become interested in new pursuits every few months. .04 .03 .12 .01
Perseverance of Effort
9. I finish whatever I begin. .13 .06 .12 .32
10. Setbacks don’t discourage me. .07 .07 .11 .03
12. I am diligent. .11 .00 .07 .31
11. I am a hard worker. .09 .01 .09 .26
7. I have achieved a goal that took years of work. .02 .01 .16 .17
8. I have overcome setbacks to conquer an important challenge. .04 .03 .03 .09
Note. Italicized items were retained in the Short Grit Scale. Boldface correlation coefficients are above the median.
a
Spearman’s rho correlation coefficients.
structure of the Grit–O across four different samples of children
and adults.
Method
Participants.
We used four samples engaged in a variety of
challenging domains across the life span. Two samples of United
States Military Academy, West Point, cadets were collected by
Duckworth et al. (2007). Cadets in the class of 2008 (N = 1,218)
completed all 12 items of the Grit–O on entering West Point in
June 2004. As is typical of West Point classes, 84% of the sample
was male, and the mean age was 19.05 years (SD = 1.1). Cadets
in the class of 2010 (N = 1,308) completed the Grit–O in June
2006 and were demographically similar to class of 2008 cadets.
In both cadet samples, we considered attrition from West Point
after the rigorous summer training session to assess each item’s
predictive validity.
Duckworth et al. (2007) recruited a sample of finalists in the
2005 Scripps National Spelling Bee (N = 175). This sample
completed the Grit–O prior to the final competition. Of the
finalists, 48% were female (M age = 13.20 years, SD = 1.23).
The outcome of interest in this sample was final round reached
in the National Spelling Bee.
The fourth sample consisted of 139 Ivy League undergrad-
uates (Duckworth et al., 2007). Of the participants, 69% were
female. Participants in this sample completed an online version
of the Grit–O in fall 2002. Self-reported GPA was the outcome
of interest.
Procedure. We computed item-level correlations with out-
comes for all four samples. Because we intended to consider
predictive validity in each domain (West Point, the National
Spelling Bee, and an elite university) separately and because
mean correlations varied among domains, we chose not to com-
pute average correlation coefficients for each item. Rather, we
ranked the correlations within each domain and examined the
number of domains in which each item was above the median in
predicting an outcome. We then eliminated the two items from
the Consistency of Interest and Perseverance of Effort subscales,
which were most frequently below the median in prediction.
Results and Discussion
See Table 1 for item-level correlations. After excluding two
items from each subscale, the resulting eight-item Grit–S dis-
played acceptable internal consistency, with alphas ranging from
.73 to .83 across the four samples. As shown in Table 2, the four-
item Consistency of Interest subscale showed adequate internal
consistency as well, with alphas ranging from .73 to .79. Alphas
were somewhat lower for Perseverance of Effort, with values
ranging from .60 to .78.
Next, we ran four separate confirmatory factor analyses test-
ing the two-factor model of grit with each sample. Consistency
of Interest and Perseverance of Effort were first-order latent
factors that loaded on a second-order latent factor called Grit.
Structural equation models were run with AMOS Version 6.0
(Arbuckle, 2005) using the maximum-likelihood method. We
used multiple goodness-of-fit indexes as recommended by Kline
(2005) and Byrne (2001). Fit indexes for the Grit–S suggested
a good fit in the West Point Class of 2008, χ
2
(19, N = 1,218)
= 106.36, p<.001; RMSEA = .061 (90% confidence inter-
val [CI] = .050–.073), CFI = .95. Similarly, fit statistics indi-
cated a good fit for the Grit–S in the West Point Class of 2010,
TABLE 2.—Internal consistencies for the Grit–S, the Persistence of Effort factor,
and the Consistency of Interest factor in Study 1.
Cronbach’s Alpha
Persistence Consistency
Sample N Grit–S of Effort of Interest
West Point 2008 1,218 .73 .60 .73
West Point 2010 1,308 .76 .65 .74
2005 National Spelling Bee 175 .80 .65 .76
Ivy League undergraduates 139 .83 .78 .79
Note. Grit–S = Short Grit Scale.
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168 DUCKWORTH AND QUINN
χ
2
(19, N = 1,308) = 135.51, p<.001; RMSEA = .068 (90%
CI = .058–.080), CFI = .95. We found a slightly worse fit for
2005 Scripps National Spelling Bee finalists, χ
2
(19, N = 175)
= 71.57, p<.001; RMSEA = .101 (90% CI = .077–.126),
CFI = .86 and Ivy League undergraduates, χ
2
(19, N = 139) =
43.63, p = .001; RMSEA = .097 (90% CI = .059–.135), CFI
= .93, although the higher RMSEA and lower CFI values are
likely due to inadequate sample size (Kline, 2005).
STUDY 2
Study 2 was a cross-sectional online study with three objec-
tives: (a) confirm the factor structure of the Grit–S in a large
sample, (b) identify its relations with the Big Five personality
dimensions, and (c) establish its predictive validity for career
changes and educational attainment.
Method
Participants and procedure.
Participants were adults aged
25 and older who visited www.gritstudy.com from October 2006
through July 2007. Potential participants were directed to the
implied consent form and survey via links on A. L. Duckworth’s
personal Web site and www.authentichappiness.org, a noncom-
mercial, public Web site providing free information about psy-
chology research. In exchange for completing the online survey,
participants were later emailed a summary of general findings
from the study. To ensure that no individuals were included more
than once in our analyses, all participants submitted their e-mail
addresses with their surveys. We included only data from the
first survey completed by each participant. A total of 25 individ-
uals completed the survey more than once. Excluding duplicate
responders, the final sample comprised 1,554 participants. The
sample (M age = 45.64 years, SD = 11.27) was 81% female.
Measures. Participants reported their age, gender, and level
of education (postcollege graduate degree, Bachelor’s degree,
Associate’s degree, some college, or high school degree or less)
and “the number of times I have changed careers. In addition,
they completed the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John & Srivastava,
1999), a widely used five-factor personality questionnaire that
includes 44 statements (e.g., “I see myself as someone who does
a thorough job”) on a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1
(Disagree strongly)to5(Agree strongly). Observed internal
reliabilities for the BFI subscales were .82, .84, .88, .80, and .87
for Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion,
Agreeableness, and Neuroticism, respectively. Using a 5-point
Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (Not at all like me)to5(Very
much like me), participants endorsed 12 items comprising both
the Grit–S and Grit–O (Duckworth et al., 2007).
Results and Discussion
Confirmatory factor analysis.
A confirmatory factor anal-
ysis supported the two-factor model of grit. The two subscales,
Consistency of Interest and Perseverance of Effort, were first-
order latent factors that loaded on a second-order latent factor
called Grit. We compared this two-factor model to a more parsi-
monious model in which all eight items loaded on a single latent
factor. Structural equation models were run with AMOS Version
6.0 (Arbuckle, 2005) using the maximum-likelihood method.
The two-factor model, χ
2
(19, N = 1,554) = 188.52, p<.001,
fit the data significantly better than did the single-factor model,
INTEREST
2
.61
1
.67
6
.69
5
.74
EFFORT
10
.37
11
.56
12
.74
9
.80
GRIT
1.30
.62
FIGURE 1.—Standardized factor loadings for the second-order model of grit for
adults aged 25 and older in Study 2.
χ
2
(20, N = 1,554) = 380.45, p<.001 as indicated by a signif-
icant chi-square difference, χ
2
(1) = 191.93, p<.001. Other
fit indexes suggest a good fit for the two-factor model, RMSEA
= .076 (90% CI = .066–.086), CFI = .96. See Figure 1.
In contrast, although the chi-square statistic for the Grit–O
was also significant, χ
2
(53, N = 1,554) = 849.36, p<.001,
other goodness-of-fit indexes indicated that the Grit–O, RMSEA
= .098 (90% CI = .096–.104), CFI = .86, did not fit the data as
well as did the Grit–S.
The structure of the Grit–S did not vary across gender. We fit
a model for participants in which path weights and error vari-
ances were constrained to be equivalent for men and women.
The chi-square for this model was 223.13 (df = 54, combined
N = 1,554, p<.001). The difference in chi-square values be-
tween the gender-invariant model and the baseline second-order
model, χ
2
(38, combined N = 1,554) = 201.00, p<.001, which
was 22.13 for 16 df, was not significant, p = .14. In the entire
sample, the correlation between Grit–S scores and Grit–O scores
was r = .96, p<.001. The Perseverance of Effort factor, the
Consistency of Interest factor, and the whole Grit–S showed ad-
equate internal consistency, αs = .70, .77, and .82, respectively.
See Table 3 for summary statistics.
Relation to Big Five dimensions, education, age, gender,
and career changes.
As predicted, the Grit–S correlated more
TABLE 3.—Summary statistics for adults aged 25 and older in Study 2.
Consistency Perseverance Career
Female Grit–S M of Interest of Effort Changes
Group n (%) (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M
Age 25–34 300 79 3.2 (0.7) 2.9 (0.9) 3.6 (0.7) 1.3
Age 35–44 404 84 3.2 (0.8) 2.8 (1.0) 3.6 (0.7) 2.3
Age 45–54 476 82 3.4 (0.7) 3.0 (0.9) 3.8 (0.7) 2.6
Age 55–64 309 80 3.5 (0.7) 3.1 (0.9) 3.9 (0.7) 2.9
Age 65 + 65 72 3.7 (0.7) 3.4 (0.9) 4.0 (0.7) 2.8
Total sample 1,554 81 3.4 (0.7) 2.9 (0.9) 3.7 (0.7) 2.4
Note. Grit–S = Short Grit Scale.
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SHORT GRIT SCALE 169
TABLE 4.—Correlations between Big Five dimensions and Grit Scale for adults
aged 25 and older in Study 2.
Big Five Consistency Perseverance
Dimension Grit–S of Interest of Effort Grit–O
Conscientiousness .77
.64
.74
.73
Neuroticism .40
.32
.42
.37
Agreeableness .24
.18
.25
.23
Extraversion .20
.12
.26
.19
Openness to Experience .06 .02 .14
.07
Note. Grit–S = Short Grit Scale; Grit–O = original 12-item self-report measure of grit.
p<.001.
with BFI Conscientiousness (r = .77, p<.001) than with Neu-
roticism (r = –.40, p<.001), Extraversion (r = .20, p<.001),
Agreeableness (r = .24, p< .001), or Openness to Experi-
ence (r = .06, p = .03). Following Meng, Rosenthal, and Ru-
bin (1992), we confirmed that the association between Grit–S
and Conscientiousness was significantly stronger than between
Grit–S and any other BFI factor (ps < .001). See Table 4.
Because of the close association between Grit–S and Consci-
entiousness, it was important to test for incremental predictive
validity for Grit–S over and beyond Conscientiousness. Edu-
cational attainment was an ordinal variable. We therefore used
ordinal logistic regression models (Scott, Goldberg, & Mayo,
1997) to test the effects of predictors. We standardized all con-
tinuous predictor variables prior to fitting ordinal regression
models to facilitate interpretation of odds ratios.
Controlling for Conscientiousness as well as other BFI di-
mensions, grittier individuals had attained more education than
individuals of the same age. In an ordinal logistic regression
predicting educational attainment from Grit–S scores and us-
ing age as a covariate, both Grit–S (B = 0.21, odds ratio [OR]
= 1.23, p<.001) and age (B = 0.22, OR = 1.25, p<.001)
were significant predictors. That is, participants who scored 1
SD higher in grit than same-aged peers were 23% more likely
to have attained more education. Moreover, in a hierarchical
ordinal logistic regression with age, Conscientiousness, Agree-
ableness, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experi-
TABLE 5.—Summary of hierarchical ordinal logistic regression predicting edu-
cational attainment in Study 2.
Variable B SE B Odds Ratio (95% CI) R
2a
χ
2
Step 1 .03 47.82
Age 0.23 0.05 1.26 (1.14–1.39)
Agreeableness 0.08 0.06 0.92 (0.82–1.04)
Conscientiousness 0.15 0.05 1.16* (1.05–1.28)
Extraversion 0.00 0.05 1.00 (0.90–1.11)
Neuroticism 0.01 0.06 0.99 (0.88–1.12)
Openness to Experience 0.15 0.05 1.16* (1.05–1.28)
Step 2 .04 59.45
Age 0.22 0.05 1.24* (1.13–1.38)
Agreeableness 0.08 0.06 0.92 (0.82–1.04)
Conscientiousness 0.04 0.08 0.96 (0.82–1.13)
Extraversion 0.02 0.05 0.98 (0.89–1.08)
Neuroticism 0.03 0.06 1.03 (0.91–1.16)
Openness to Experience 0.15 0.05 1.16* (1.05–1.28)
Grit 0.27 0.08 1.31* (1.12–1.54)
Note. SE = standard error; CI = confidence interval. χ
2
= 11.63, p<.001.
a
Nagelkerke R
2
.
p<.01.
ence entered in Step 1 and grit added in Step 2, Grit–S was a
significant predictor of educational attainment over and beyond
Step 1, B = 0.27, OR = 1.31, p<.001. See Table 5.
Grit–S scores did not differ significantly by gender, t (1552)
= 1.50, p = .13, d = .10 but were significantly associated with
age, r = .19, p<.001. The finding that older adults reported
higher levels of grit suggests that grit may increase with life ex-
perience. This account is consistent with evidence that interests
stabilize over time (Swanson, 1999) and also that traits associ-
ated with psychological maturity increase over the life course
(Roberts, Walton, & Viechtbauer, 2006). The cross-sectional
design of Study 2 makes it equally possible that changes in
American culture account for the association between grit and
age, with individuals born in the 1950s growing up grittier than
their counterparts born in the 1940s, and so on. Birth cohort
differences have been documented for several other personal-
ity traits (Twenge, 2006), suggesting that historical changes in
culture can materially impact personality development.
As predicted, Grit–S was inversely related to the number of
lifetime career changes individuals had made, even when con-
trolling for age, Conscientiousness, and other BFI dimensions.
Because the distribution of lifetime career changes was skewed
right (M = 2.34, SD = 2.04), we performed a median split
to compare individuals with high (three or more) versus low
(two or fewer) career changes. To allow for a more intuitive
understanding of ORs, we standardized continuous predictor
variables prior to analysis. In a hierarchical binary logistic re-
gression predicting high versus low career changes with age and
all BFI dimensions entered in Step 1 and Grit–S entered in Step
2, Grit–S significantly predicted fewer career changes over and
beyond Step 1, B = 0.22, OR = 0.80, p = .01. That is, indi-
viduals scoring a standard deviation higher on the Grit–S than
peers of comparable age and BFI profile were 20% less likely to
have made three or more lifetime career changes. See Table 6.
STUDY 3
In Studies 1 and 2, we developed and validated a brief grit
scale. The aim of Study 3 was to validate an informant report
version of the brief form.
Method
Participants and procedure.
Study 3 included adults aged
25 and older who visited www.gritstudy.com from April 2006
through September 2006 and who, in addition to completing
the self-report measures described in Study 2, also nominated a
friend and a family member to complete online, informant ver-
sions of the Grit–S. To nominate informants, index participants
submitted names and e-mail addresses for one friend and one
family member each. We then e-mailed these friends and family
members a link to the informant Grit–S. Of the 613 index partic-
ipants who visited www.gritstudy.com during this time period,
only those (N = 161) for whom we received both friend and
family member informant reports were included in this sample.
Of the index participants, 89% were female (M age = 43.11
years, SD = 10.59).
Because all informant e-mail addresses were unique, it is
unlikely that multiple participants were rated by the same in-
formants. Informant versions of the scale were identical to self-
report version with the exception that all first-person pronouns
were replaced with gender-specific, third-person pronouns.
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170 DUCKWORTH AND QUINN
TABLE 6.—Summary of hierarchical binary logistic regression predicting career
changes in Study 2.
Odds
Variable B SE B Ratio (95% CI) R
2a
χ
2
Step 1 .11 134.49
Age 0.57 0.06 1.77
(1.57–1.99)
Agreeableness 0.13 0.06 0.88
(0.78–0.99)
Conscientiousness 0.17 0.06 0.84
(0.75–0.95)
Extraversion 0.22 0.06 1.25
(1.11–1.40)
Neuroticism 0.05 0.07 1.05 (0.91–1.21)
Openness to Experience 0.10 0.06 1.11 (0.98–1.25)
Step 2 .12 140.67
Age 0.58 0.06 1.79* (1.58–2.01)
Agreeableness 0.13 0.06 0.88
(0.78–0.99)
Conscientiousness 0.02 0.09 0.98 (0.82–1.17)
Extraversion 0.23 0.06 0.79
(0.70–0.90)
Neuroticism 0.02 0.07 1.02 (0.89–1.17)
Openness to Experience 0.10 0.06 1.11 (0.98–1.25)
Grit 0.22 0.09 0.80
(0.67–0.96)
Note. SE = standard error; CI = confidence interval. χ
2
= 6.18, p = .01.
a
Nagelkerke R
2
.
p<.05.
Results and Discussion
Our findings suggest that grit can reliably be assessed by in-
formants. Internal consistency estimates for Grit–S ratings by
family members, peers, and self were α = .84, .83, and .83,
respectively. The correlations between the self-report version
of the Grit–S and scores on the informant versions completed
by either family members or peers were medium to large, r =
.45, p<.001 and r = .47, p<.001, respectively. The correla-
tion between family member and peer scores was also medium
to large, r = .37, p<.001. These correlations compare favor-
ably with estimates of consensual validity for the Revised NEO
Personality Inventory (NEO–PI–R; e.g., self and peer ratings
of NEO–PI–R Conscientiousness correlate at r = .40; Costa &
McCrae, 1992b). Our estimates are also in line with associations
reported by Meyer et al. (2001) in a summary of meta-analytic
estimates ranging from r = .31 to .44 for associations among
self-report and informant report Big Five personality measures.
STUDY 4
In Study 4, we sought to establish the test–retest stability of
Grit–S scores in a population of high-achieving, middle and
high school students. This prospective, longitudinal study also
allowed us to test the ability of Grit–S to predict school grades
and, inversely, hours watching television during the school year.
Method
Participants and procedure.
In the spring of 2006, 45%
of 7th-, 8th-, 10th-, and 11th-grade students (N = 279) at a
socioeconomically and ethnically diverse magnet public school
completed 12 items comprising both the Grit–S and the Grit–O.
The following spring, participating students again completed
these 12 items. The sample, which was part of an existing lon-
gitudinal research project, had a mean age of 13.94 years (SD
= 1.59) and was 59% female. Of the participants, 58% were
White, 20% were Black, 16% were Asian, 4% were Hispanic,
and 1% were other ethnicities. Of participants, 18% were low-
income as indicated by their participation in the federal free or
reduced price lunch program.
TABLE 7.—Summary statistics and correlations with Grit for adolescents in
Study 4.
r With Grit
Variable MSDSpring 2006 Spring 2007
Grit, Spring 2006 3.4 0.8 .68*
Grit, Spring 2007 3.4 0.8
Age 13.9 1.6 .01 .02
GPA, 2006–2007 88.4 5.4 .30
a
*.32
a
*
Hours watching television, 2006–2007 1.3 0.7 –.24
a
*–.22
a
*
a
Controlling for age.
*p<.001.
In the spring of 2007, in addition to completing items com-
prising the Grit–S and Grit–O for a second time, participants
reported the number of hours per day they spent watching tele-
vision. We obtained report card grades and demographic data
from school records. GPA was calculated as the average of fi-
nal grades in all academic subjects and was scored on a scale
ranging from 0 to 100. See Table 7 for summary statistics.
Results and Discussion
We found evidence that Grit–S is relatively stable over time.
The correlation between scores on the Grit–S from the spring
of 2006 and Grit–S scores 1 year later was r = .68, p<.001.
The Grit–S showed good internal consistency at both the 2006
and 2007 assessments, αs = .82 and .84, respectively.
Grit–S scores did not differ between genders. Because the
sample included students ranging from 11 to 17 years old, age
was controlled in all subsequent analyses. As expected, scores
on the Grit–S, measured in the spring of 2006, predicted GPA
1 year later and (inversely) hours watching television per day.
See Table 7.
STUDY 5
Admission to United States Military Academy, West Point, is
extremely competitive. Specifically, admission depends heavily
on a Whole Candidate Score, a weighted average of SAT scores,
class rank, demonstrated leadership in extracurricular activities,
and physical aptitude. Even with such a rigorous admissions
process, about 1 in 20 cadets drops out in during the first sum-
mer of training. In Study 5, we expected the Grit–S to predict
retention over the first summer at West Point.
Method
Participants and procedure.
Participants were 1,248 fresh-
man cadets comprising the West Point class of 2009. This group
was typical of recent West Point classes in terms of gender (15%
female) and ethnicity (75% White, 7% Asian, 7% Hispanic, 7%
Black, 1% American Indian, and 2% other). Participants com-
pleted questionnaires during routine group testing after arrival
to West Point in June 2005. Separately, official records were
obtained for retention data.
Measures. Participants completed 12 items comprising the
Grit–O and Grit–S. We obtained the Whole Candidate Score,
which is used in conjunction with other information to admit
applicants to West Point, from school records. A Whole Can-
didate Score is a weighted composite of high school rank, SAT
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SHORT GRIT SCALE 171
88%
90%
92%
94%
96%
98%
100%
1234
Quartiles
Retention Rate
Grit-S
Whole Candidate
Score
FIGURE 2.—Summer retention as a function of ranked quartiles of grit and the
Whole Candidate Score among West Point Cadets in Study 5. Grit–S = Short
Grit Scale.
score, participation in extracurricular activities, and a standard-
ized physical exercise evaluation. Summer retention was coded
as a dichotomous variable in which 1 = retained and 0 = sepa-
rated as of the 1st day of the fall semester.
Results
Grit–S predicted completion of the rigorous summer training
program better than the Whole Candidate Score. Observed in-
ternal consistency of the Grit–S was α = .77. Predictor variables
were standardized before regression analysis to allow for a more
intuitive understanding of ORs. Cadets who scored a standard
deviation higher than average on the Grit–S were 99% more
likely to complete summer training (B = 0.69, OR = 1.99, p<
.001). The Whole Candidate Score, the composite score used
by West Point to admit candidates, did not predict summer re-
tention (B = 0.06, OR = 1.06, p = .64). See Figure 2. Further,
in a hierarchical binary logistic regression predicting retention
with the Whole Candidate Score entered in Step 1 and Grit–S
scores entered in Step 2, Grit–S was a significant predictor over
and beyond the Whole Candidate Score, B = 0.69, OR = 1.99,
p<.001. See Table 8.
STUDY 6
Study 6 was a prospective, longitudinal investigation of final-
ists in the 2006 Scripps National Spelling Bee, which tested the
predictive validity of the Grit–S scale with respect to a behav-
ioral (i.e., not self-report) measure of performance. Study 6 also
allowed us to test whether the effect of grit on achievement was
mediated by cumulative effort.
TABLE 8.—Summary of hierarchical binary logistic regression predicting West
Point retention in Study 5.
Variable B SE B Odds Ratio (95% CI) R
2a
χ
2
Step 1 .00 0.22
Whole Candidate Score 0.06 0.12 1.06 (0.84–1.35)
Step 2 .08 35.32
Whole Candidate Score 0.02 0.12 1.02 (0.80–1.30)
Grit 0.69 0.12 1.99
(1.57–2.53)
Note. SE = standard error; CI = confidence interval. χ
2
= 35.32, p<.001.
a
Nagelkerke R
2
.
p<.001.
Method
Participants and procedure.
We mailed consent forms,
self-report surveys, and prestamped return envelopes to the 274
finalists in the 2006 Scripps National Spelling Bee, an annual
competition that involves thousands of children in the United
States, Europe, Canada, New Zealand, Guam, Jamaica, Puerto
Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, The Bahamas, and American
Samoa. Of the finalists, 69% (N = 190) elected to participate
by returning the questionnaires in April and May 2006, prior
to the May 31st final competition. Participants ranged in age
from 10 to 15 years old (M = 12.88, SD = 1.07); 47% were
female. Scripps competitors who agreed to participate in the
study did not differ from nonparticipating competitors on age,
gender, final round reached, or number of prior competitions.
Measures. Participants completed 12 items comprising
both the Grit–S and the Grit–O. The Grit–S showed good inter-
nal consistency, α = .82. In addition, participants completed the
BFI (John & Srivastava, 1999) and answered a series of ques-
tions about their spelling habits, providing detailed estimates of
the time they spent studying and practicing spelling in previous
years. Starting with the year that they began spelling compet-
itively and ending with the current year, participants reported
the months per year that they studied regularly and the average
amount of time per week they studied. From these responses, we
calculated the estimated cumulative hours of spelling practice
for each participant.
Following the 2006 final competition, we obtained from
records provided by the Scripps National Spelling Bee the fol-
lowing data for each speller: gender, birth date, final round
attained in the competition before elimination, and number of
prior Scripps National Spelling Bee competitions entered. The
final competition of the Scripps National Spelling Bee is an oral
competition conducted in rounds until only one speller remains.
Beginning in the third round, if a speller misspells a word, he
or she is eliminated. During the 2006 competition, the win-
ner spelled words correctly during 20 rounds, the second place
finisher correctly spelling words during the first 19 rounds, and
so on. See Table 9 for summary statistics.
Results and Discussion
The primary outcome of interest in this study, final round
achieved, was ordinal. We therefore used ordinal logistic re-
gression models to test the effect of predictors. To facilitate
interpretation of ORs, we standardized all continuous predictor
variables prior to fitting ordinal regression models.
Grit–S scores were associated more strongly with BFI Consci-
entiousness (r = .70, p<.001) than with Agreeableness (r =
.44, p<.001), Neuroticism (r = –.28, p<.001), Openness to
Experience (r = .18, p = .02), and Extraversion (r = .12, p =
.10). Males did not score significantly differently from females,
t(188) = .86, p = .39, d = .12. National spelling bee competi-
tors who participated in the study were no more likely to reach
higher rounds than were nonparticipating competitors, B =
0.11, OR = 0.89, p = .67. See Table 9 for correlations between
the Grit–S and the other continuous measures in Study 6.
As expected, scores on the Grit–S completed prior to compe-
tition predicted the final round attained by participants. Specif-
ically, participants who scored 1 SD higher on the Grit–S than
same-aged peers were 38% more likely to advance to further
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172 DUCKWORTH AND QUINN
TABLE 9.—Summary statistics for National Spelling Bee finalists in Study 6.
Variable M SD αrWith Grit
Grit 3.4 0.8 .82
Big Five dimensions
Agreeableness 3.6 0.8 .84 .47
Conscientiousness 3.5 0.8 .86 .77
Extraversion 3.5 0.9 .84 .05
Neuroticism 2.7 0.8 .79 .28
Openness to experience 4.0 0.6 .68 .17
Age 12.9 1.1 .01
Lifetime spelling practice 986.4 1,668.3 .27
a
Previous National Spelling Bees 1.3 0.7 .21
b
Final round 3.2 2.5 .16
b
a
Correlation between grit and natural log transformation of cumulative spelling practice.
b
Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient.
p<.05.
rounds (B = 0.32, OR = 1.38, p = .04). Moreover, in a hierar-
chical ordinal logistic regression with age, Conscientiousness,
Agreeableness, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Openness to Ex-
perience entered in Step 1 and Grit–S scores added in Step 2,
Grit–S was a significant predictor of final round attained over
and beyond Step 1, B = 0.55, OR = 1.73, p = .03. See Table 10.
Grittier competitors outperformed their less gritty counter-
parts at least in part because they had accumulated more practice
in spelling. We conducted two separate analyses that supported
the hypotheses that the effect of grit on performance was medi-
ated by (a) more accumulated lifetime spelling practice and (b)
experience in more Scripps National Spelling Bee competitions.
Three criteria must be met for a variable to be considered a me-
diator. The independent variable must predict the mediator, the
independent variable must predict the dependent variable, and
the mediator must predict the dependent variable when the inde-
pendent variable is held constant. Following Baron and Kenny
(1986), we established that Grit–S predicted final round in an
ordinal logistic regression controlling for age (see previously).
For the first mediation analysis, we conducted a simultaneous
multiple regression with cumulative spelling practice as the de-
pendent variable and age as a covariate. Grit–S was a significant
TABLE 10.—Summary of simultaneous multiple ordinal logistic regression pre-
dicting National Spelling Bee final round in Study 6.
Variable B SE B Odds Ratio (95% CI) R
2a
χ
2
Step 1 .07 12.24
Age 0.24 0.16 0.79 (0.57–1.09)
Agreeableness 0.27 0.19 0.76 (0.53–1.11)
Conscientiousness 0.36 0.18 1.43 (0.99–2.07)
Extraversion 0.15 0.16 0.86 (0.63–1.18)
Neuroticism 0.15 0.17 0.86 (0.61–1.21)
Openness to experience 0.29 0.16 0.75 (0.55–1.02)
Step 2 .09 17.07
Age 0.20 0.16 0.82 (0.59–1.14)
Agreeableness 0.32 0.19 0.73 (0.50–1.06)
Conscientiousness 0.03 0.25 0.97 (0.58–1.61)
Extraversion 0.17 0.16 0.84 (0.61–1.16)
Neuroticism 0.13 0.17 0.88 (0.63–1.23)
Openness to experience 0.34 0.16 0.71* (0.52–0.97)
Grit 0.55 0.26 1.73* (1.04–2.89)
Note. SE = standard error; CI = confidence interval. χ
2
= 4.84, p = .03.
a
Nagelkerke R
2
.
p<.05.
predictor (β = .27, p<.001), whereas age (β = .03, p = .65)
was not. Finally, in a simultaneous ordinal regression model
predicting final round, cumulative spelling practice (B = 1.20,
OR = 3.32, p<.001) was a significant predictor, but Grit–S
(B = 0.17, OR = 1.19, p = .32) and age (B = –0.17, OR =
0.84, p = .24) were not.
We followed a similar procedure to show that experience in
prior final competitions was also a mediator between grit and
final round. Grit–S postdicted participation in prior National
Spelling Bee final competitions. In an ordinal regression model
with prior competitions as the dependent variable, Grit–S was a
significant predictor controlling for age (B = 0.53, OR = 1.70,
p = .004). Moreover, in a simultaneous ordinal logistic regres-
sion predicting final round, number of prior competitions (B =
1.42, OR = 4.14, p<.001) remained a significant covariate
when age (B = –0.20, OR = 0.82, p = .17) was controlled, but
Grit–S (B = 0.14, OR = 1.19, p = .37) did not.
GENERAL DISCUSSION
In this investigation, we developed and validated the Grit–S
questionnaire, a more efficient measure of trait-level persever-
ance and passion for long-term goals. Confirmatory factor anal-
yses supported a two-factor structure of the self-report version
of Grit–S in which Consistency of Interest and Perseverance of
Effort both loaded on grit as a second-order latent factor. Both
factors showed adequate internal consistency and were strongly
intercorrelated, r = .59, p<.001.
As shown in Table 11, differential associations with predicted
outcomes provided evidence that these factors were distinct
from each other. For example, Perseverance of Effort was a supe-
rior predictor of GPA, extracurricular activities, and (inversely)
television watching among adolescents in Study 4. In contrast,
Consistency of Interest was a better predictor (inversely) of ca-
reer changes among adults in Study 1 and of final round attained
among National Spelling Bee finalists in Study 6. Further, we
found evidence that individuals may need both Perseverance
of Effort and Consistency of Interest to succeed in the most
demanding domains. The total Grit–S score was a better pre-
dictor of final round reached in the National Spelling Bee and
retention among West Point cadets than was either factor alone.
This pattern of findings supports the conceptualization of grit
as a compound trait (Hough & Ones, 2002), although it is also
possible that the superior predictive validity of the whole scale
(compared to either subscale) is a consequence of its superior
reliability.
Collectively, the studies summarized in Table 11 provide ev-
idence for the predictive validity, consensual validity, and test–
retest stability of the Grit–S questionnaire. In Study 2, grittier
adults progressed farther in their education and made fewer ca-
reer changes, controlling for age and BFI factors including Con-
scientiousness. In Study 3, correlations among self-report, peer
report, and family member report Grit–S scores were medium
to large, indicating that grit can be reliably assessed by infor-
mants. In Study 4, grittier adolescents earned higher GPAs and
watched less television. In the same sample, the 1-year test–
retest stability of the Grit–S (r = .68) compared favorably with
Robins, Fraley, Roberts, and Trzesniewski (2001) finding that
NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992a) Consci-
entiousness scores correlate across 4 years at r = .59. In Study 5,
grittier West Point cadets were less likely to drop out during their
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SHORT GRIT SCALE 173
TABLE 11.—Summary of criterion-related validity.
% Variance in Success Explained
Perseverance Consistency
Sample Design Measure Grit–S of Effort of Interest Grit–O
Study 2: Adults aged 25 and older Cross-sectional Educational attainment 1.3
ab
0.6
ab
1.4
ab
2.0
ab
Study 2: Adults aged 25 and older Cross-sectional Career changes 1.3
ab
0.2
ab
2.0
abc
1.5
ab
Study 4: 7th- to 11th-grade students Longitudinal (1 year) GPA 8.9
a
12.4
ac
2.7
a
7.9
a
Study 4: 7th- to 11th-grade students Longitudinal (1 year) Hours watching television 5.9
a
7.1
a
2.6
a
5.7
a
Study 5: West Point cadets Longitudinal (3 months) Retention 7.8
b
6.1
b
5.2
b
7.9
b
Study 6: National Spelling Bee
finalists
Longitudinal (1 month) Final round 2.5
ab
2.0
ab
1.8
ab
2.5
ab
Note. Grit–S = Short Grit Scale; Grit–O = original 12-item self-report measure of grit.
a
Controlling for age.
b
Percentage of variance estimated using Nagelkerke R
2
.
c
In comparison with the other subscale, significantly stronger association with outcome according to a
test for correlated correlation coefficients (Meng, Rosenthal, & Rubin, 1992).
first summer of training. In Study 6, grittier National Spelling
Bee finalists were more likely to advance to further rounds than
were their less gritty competitors, in part because they had ac-
cumulated more spelling practice. The prospective, longitudinal
designs of Studies 4, 5, and 6 suggest that Grit–S drove the ob-
served relationships with achievement rather than the other way
around. Moreover, the majority of outcomes in this article were
objectively measured, which effectively rules out the possibil-
ity of social desirability bias as an omitted third variable that
accounts for these associations.
Limitations
We acknowledge several limitations of this investigation.
First, it is possible that respondents answered positively to items
on the Grit–S in anticipation of future achievement, in which
case achievement would in fact be driving Grit–S scores even in
a prospective longitudinal design. Against this possibility is the
finding that in Study 2 and Study 6, Grit–S predicted outcomes
over and beyond BFI Conscientiousness, another self-report
measure that is susceptible to the same effects. Nevertheless,
insofar as informants are less likely to be influenced by predic-
tions of future achievement, multisource measurement of grit
is preferable. For this reason, we validated an informant-report
version of the Grit–S in Study 3. Future research into grit should
employ both the self-report and informant-report versions of the
Grit–S whenever feasible.
Participants in Studies 2 and 3 were largely female, possibly
limiting the generalizability of the factor structure of the Grit–S.
We found no significant gender differences in Grit–S scores, but
because the confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using
mostly women, the hierarchical structure of the Grit–S might not
hold in more representative samples. However, this possibility
seems unlikely given that this research confirmed a previously
reported structure for grit (Duckworth et al., 2007) and that this
structure was invariant between genders (see Study 2).
Because of time constraints, we were not able to administer
the full NEO PI–R measure of the Big Five personality do-
mains. Although the Grit–S predicted achievement outcomes
over and beyond BFI Conscientiousness, fine-grained measures
of the facets of Conscientiousness would have provided a more
rigorous test of the incremental predictive validity of the Grit–
S. Grit is similar to one Conscientiousness facet in particular,
achievement striving, which is measured with items such as
“I’m something of a ‘workaholic”’ and “I strive for excellence
in everything I do” (Costa & McCrae, 1992a). We believe grit
is distinct from achievement striving in grit’s emphasis on long-
term goals and persistence in the face of setbacks. However,
further research is needed to determine the relationships be-
tween grit and other facets of Big Five Conscientiousness.
In Studies 2 and 3, we collected data using online surveys.
The anonymity provided by the Internet prevents us from ensur-
ing that we did not include any repeat responders. Although it is
possible that some participants completed our survey twice by
using different e-mail addresses to log on, there is no obvious
incentive for them to have done so. Gosling, Vazire, Srivastava,
and John (2004) reviewed evidence that questionnaires com-
pleted on the Internet demonstrate psychometric properties that
are very similar to those of paper-and-pencil measures. More-
over, Internet samples tend to be more diverse than traditional
samples.
An untested assumption of this investigation is that individ-
uals in each study were actually invested in achieving the mea-
sured outcomes. For instance, we assumed that Spelling Bee
finalists cared about winning the national competition and that
West Point cadets wanted to stick through their first summer of
training. Without explicitly assessing the goals of the partici-
pants in these studies, we cannot be sure how well the outcomes
of interest mapped onto their personal objectives. In light of
this limitation, it is more accurate to summarize these findings
as evidence that grit predicts objectively measured achievement
outcomes rather than outcomes of subjective importance.
Finally, an important conceptual question that should be ad-
dressed in further research concerns the domain specificity of
grit. Like most personality measures, the Grit–S attempts to
assess behaviors that are reasonably stable across time and sit-
uation. The implicit assumption is that the tendency to pursue
long-term goals with passion and perseverance is relatively do-
main general, but of course, it is possible that an individual
shows tremendous grit in her or his professional life but none at
all in her or his personal relationships. Similarly, it may be that an
individual sees oneself as gritty with respect to a serious hobby
but not with respect to one’s career. In these cases, how would
these individuals answer the Grit–S items? Our intuition is that
respondents integrate behavior over domains, but we cannot be
sure. Future studies are needed to explore the domain-specific
versus domain-general aspects of grit. One step in this direction
would be to ask respondents to answer items separately with
respect to particular contexts.
Downloaded by [University of Pennsylvania] at 12:49 16 August 2012
174 DUCKWORTH AND QUINN
C
ONCLUSION
In sum, this investigation presents the Grit–S, a more efficient
measure of grit. The 8-item Grit–S is both shorter and psycho-
metrically stronger than the 12-item Grit–O. In confirmatory
factor analyses, the Grit–S fit the data better than did that of the
Grit–O. Moreover, the reduction of items from the Grit–O to the
Grit–S does not come at the expense of predictive validity. Given
its superior psychometric properties, comparable predictive va-
lidity, and fewer items relative to the Grit–O, we recommend the
Grit–S as an economical measure of perseverance and passion
for long-term goals.
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... The retention and dropout rates of students have long been a concern for educational institutions and organizations all over the world (Brown, 2012). Grit has been shown to predict the retention of military cadets in an extensive training program (Duckworth et al., 2007;Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2014;Maddi et al., 2012) and of novice teachers in challenging education environments (Robertson-Kraft and Duckworth, 2014;Duckworth and Quinn, 2009). More importantly, research has suggested that grit can greatly impact the retention of students in schools, colleges, and universities (Bazelais et al., 2016;Crede et al., 2016;Eskreiss-Winkler et al., 2014). ...
... Clearly, these constructs are related to some degree. Even Angela Duckworth herself, suggests that resilience is a component of grit (Duckworth et al., 2007;Duckworth and Quinn, 2009), and research advocates the strong interrelated nature of the two constructs. ...
... 6. The Short Grit Scale (Duckworth and Quinn, 2009). ...
Chapter
In this chapter the authors start by providing an overview of the concept of resilience and then examine its relevance for the field of education, mainly in the University sector. They review the linked concept of grit and its relevance for education. They describe three studies they conducted on grit. Although these studies show the importance of the concept of grit for university students, the authors claim that in order to thrive at university, students need other attributes. In their “thriving versus languishing” model, they highlight the importance of strengths use, persistence in the face of difficulty, resilience, a growth mindset, self-control and mental wellbeing. They conclude by describing a measure that combines these attributes into a single scale.
... Academic procrastination is operationally defined as the total score across the five items on the Academic Procrastination Scale -Short Form (Yockey, 2016), measured on a 5-point Likert scale, whereby a higher total score indicates a greater tendency to procrastinate on academic tasks. Grit is operationally defined as the average score across the eight items on the Short Grit Scale (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009), measured on a 5-point Likert scale, whereby a higher average score indicates a grittier personality. ...
... Following that, participants were asked to complete the demographic questionnaire, which included a question asking if they were currently enrolled as undergraduate students in Malaysia. Participants then completed the Social Media Addiction Scale -Student Form (Şahin, 2018), followed by the Academic Procrastination Scale -Short Form (Yockey, 2016), and the Short Grit Scale (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009). Participants then submitted their responses via Google Forms by clicking "Submit". ...
Article
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The current study examines grit as a mediator in the relationship between social media addiction and academic procrastination. Social media platforms were used to recruit 88 young adult undergraduates aged 18-26. This study was a non-experimental, correlational mediation design. Participants were asked to complete the Social Media Addiction Scale – Student Form, Academic Procrastination Scale – Short Form, and Short Grit Scale questionnaires. It was hypothesized that grit would be a statistical mediator for the effects of social media addiction on academic procrastination. The hypothesis was supported as results showed a full mediation. The current study suggests that social media addiction predicts lower level of grit and thus higher tendency of academic procrastination. It is advised that institutions encourage undergraduates to cultivate grit in order to break the vicious cycle of social media addiction and academic procrastination.
... It is a self-evaluation scale developed by Duckworth and Quinn (2009) and adapted to Turkish by Sarıçam et al. (2016) The scale, consisting of 8 items, has a structure of two dimensions, which are (1) The Cronbach alpha internal consistency reliability coefficients for the whole scale were found to be 0.82. The Cronbach alpha value of the Turkish scale version was 0.83 for the whole scale. ...
Article
Students, who are trying to complete academic activities in an educational environment, are objected to academic stress. Research results indicated that this stress can be reduced by the individual and psychosocial resources of them. So, this study aimed to determine the mediating role of grit and academic self-efficacy in the relationship between students’ psychological need satisfaction and academic stress. The research was conducted on 967 college students who are studying at education, theology, and medical education faculty. We used serial mediation analysis to determine the mediator effect. Results demonstrated that there are statistically significant positive relationships between autonomy, competence, and relatedness, which are the components of psychological need satisfaction, grit, and academic self-efficacy, and negative relationships between academic stress. Mediation analysis results showed that the serial mediator effect of grit and academic self-efficacy was statistically significant in the relationship between autonomy, competence, relatedness, and academic stress. The research findings were interpreted according to the self-determination theory and positive psychology literature.
... The second article in this special issue is by Vuorio et al. (2022), which applies a configurational approach using a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to differentiate between capabilities and resources in early and late internationalizing firms. The study posits the concepts of cognitive flexibility (Martin & Rubin, 1995) and grit (Duckworth et al., 2007;Duckworth & Quinn, 2009) as key determinants of successful entrepreneurial internationalization during the COVID-19 pandemic, and thus sheds light on how the distinct embodiments of entrepreneurial resilience are linked to early internationalization of firms. The study also extends the discussion on the role of slack resources in entrepreneurial internationalization (cf. ...
Article
Full-text available
International entrepreneurship is the pursuit of entrepreneurial opportunities across national borders (Reuber et al., 2018), behaviourally a combination of innovative, proactive and risk-seeking behaviours that crosses national borders and is intended to create value in organizations (McDougall & Oviatt, 2000). Agile and resilient entrepreneurial firms and individuals are able to take advantage of their international entrepreneurial orientation and find international opportunities even in times of global uncertainty, such as the COVID-19 pandemic conditions (Torkkeli, 2021a; Torkkeli, 2021b ; Zahra, 2020a). In such environments characterized by high volatility and uncertainty, the role of entrepreneurial resilience (Bullough et al., 2014; Bullough & Renko, 2013) can differentiate between survival and failure of enterprises, and the speed with which international new ventures can learn can determine their growth and survival in the long term (Zahra, 2020a). The uncertainty brought on by crises and external shocks also presents opportunities to firms for digitalization and business model change (Seetharaman, 2020), provided that they are resilient enough to seize those opportunities and have the self-efficacy needed to cope with the uncertainty (Torkkeli et al., 2021). While internationalization is a risky process, it can also be a risk diversification strategy for small entrepreneurial firms (Saarenketo et al., 2022). Having an international outlook and orientation are crucial for them to develop resilience needed for international growth (Boso et al., 2017). It is with this backdrop that the present special issue in Small Enterprise Research focusing on resilient growth in international entrepreneurship is published. The collection of articles in this special issue shed light on how resilience and growth are manifested and interlinked in international entrepreneurship during times of uncertainty and political turbulence (cf. Zahra, 2020b; Zahra, 2022). The five empirical studies comprising the special issue address the concepts on resilience and growth in international entrepreneurship from several theoretical perspectives, units of analysis and through a diverse set of country contexts.
... The comparative effects of talent versus effort on success outcomes have attracted meticulous attention in grit research in social and educational psychology. Defined as the perseverance of effort and consistency of passion toward a long-term goal (Duckworth et al., 2007), grit has been argued to be as important as talent in predicting success across contexts (Duckworth & Quinn, 2009, Duckworth et al., 2007. ...
Article
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Defined as a combination of perseverance and passion for long-term goals, grit has been hypothesized to be as important as talent in determining the success of students, adding incremental predictive validity for achievement criteria above and beyond natural or inherent ability. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of second language (L2) aptitude and L2 grit on L2 achievement. We also explored how age, L2 learning experience, and gender of the students influenced their L2 aptitude and L2 grit levels. The findings showed that L2 aptitude and L2 grit had similar, positive effects in predicting language achievement measures. Moreover, some aspects of the students' language aptitude and L2 grit were susceptible to change as they aged and gained more L2 learning experiences, but their gender played no reliable part in this regard. WE ARE ALL FAMILIAR WITH THE AESOP'S iconic fable about the race between the hare and the tortoise-how the hare, fast but distracted, loses the race to the tortoise, slow but steady. Due to the popularity of the fable, the metaphors of hare and tortoise have even entered scientific papers. For instance, a quick search of Google Scholar using the terms "hare" and "tortoise" will bring up dozens of articles, chapters, and books in different disciplines with these words in their titles. The use of "hare" and "tortoise" in the titles of these scientific papers is not merely a marketing decision to grab readers' attention but a conscious attempt to highlight the comparative effects of key factors within a scientific domain by drawing on our knowledge of the fable and its exemplary characters. In educational domains, the hare metaphor is best representative of talent, a key cognitive factor accounting for the speed of learning, and
Article
This study investigates how sensitively the current grit measure (Grit-S) is able to reflect the differences between individuals (i.e. item discrimination) and change within individuals (i.e. sensitivity to change of items) using longitudinal data. Data from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Study 2018 of elementary (fourth grade) and middle school (seventh grade) cohorts were analyzed. We compared a series of longitudinal factor models of change with an initial trait and a change in grit represented by latent traits. Results showed that the models hypothesizing two latent traits with respect to the two elements of grit (interest and effort) best fit the data. In the elementary school cohort, sensitivity to change was different from discriminating between-person differences at baseline. Meanwhile, in the middle school cohort, sensitivity to change was identical to discriminating between-person differences at baseline. The items having low discrimination and low sensitivity to change resulted in syntactical complexity and did not accurately reflect the trait that was intended to be measured. Despite the Grit-S being widely used for many years, it is suggested that researchers and educators should administer this measure at taking an individual’s change and school-level difference into account.
Article
Despite the widespread enthusiasm towards grit, little attention has been paid to how stable grit remains over time and what contextual factors can predict longitudinal changes in grit. The present study investigated adolescent students’ grit and its change over one year. We employed nationally representative longitudinal data from a sample of Korean adolescent students (N =2,590) and their parents (N =2,590). Specifically, we evaluated the temporal stability of student grit, parent grit and educational expectations as determinants of student grit, and the relative importance of student grit in predicting academic achievement compared to academic self-concept. Results of autoregressive cross-lagged modeling revealed that grit was fairly stable over one year. In addition, parents’ grit and educational expectations for students’ educational attainment emerged as significant predictors of longitudinal changes in students’ grit. Finally, when students’ academic self-concept was controlled, students’ grit was not predictive of their academic achievement. Implications and areas of future research are presented and discussed.
Article
It has been suggested that children’s persistence is associated with their satisfaction with school and life. However, the mechanism of this relationship in children is not understood well. The present study investigated whether there is a correlation between persistence and school and life satisfaction in elementary school children, considering that self-esteem is a mediator between the two factors. A total of 107 children in Grades 1 through 6 and their mothers participated and they answered the questionnaires on persistence, self-esteem and school and life satisfaction. We found that self-esteem explains the relationship between children’s persistence and school and life satisfaction. Our findings suggest the underlying mechanisms linking children’s persistence and school and life satisfaction. The development of persistence and self-esteem may play an important role in the education of elementary school children.
Article
Air traffic controllers are responsible for the safe and efficient flow of air traffic. The safety-critical nature of the job calls for understanding the psychological characteristics related to success, particularly those that promote adaptive responses in the face of stress and challenge. Several non-cognitive aptitudes describe one’s capacity to bounce back or persevere under task demands. This study investigated if resilience, grit, and stress mindset were predictive of controller training success and differentiated successful and unsuccessful trainees. Findings suggest that these aptitudes did not significantly differ between trainees and accounted for only a small amount of incremental validity, though range restriction may have attenuated the results.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)
Article
This study tested a framework in which goals are proposed to be central determinants of achievement patterns. Learning goals, in which individuals seek to increase their competence, were predicted to promote challenge-seeking and a mastery-oriented response to failure regardless of perceived ability. Performance goals, in which individuals seek to gain favorable judgments of their competence or avoid negative judgments, were predicted to produce challenge-avoidance and learned helplessness when perceived ability was low and to promote certain forms of risk-avoidance even when perceived ability was high. Manipulations of relative goal value (learning vs. performance) and perceived ability (high vs. low) resulted in the predicted differences on measures of task choice, performance during difficulty, and spontaneous verbalizations during difficulty. Particularly striking was the way in which the performance goal-low perceived ability condition produced the same pattern of strategy deterioration, failure attribution, and negative affect found in naturally occurring learned helplessness. Implications for theories of motivation and achievement are discussed.
Article
Studies involving the measurement of "persistence" are summarized under the headings: (1) subjective judgments of persistence, and (2) the testing of persistence. The review covers not only the measurement of persistence but also the studies of the relationship between persistence as measured and other variables such as intelligence, school grades, etc. Methodological considerations are stressed. 52 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews research that demonstrates the importance of motivation, incentive value, and probability of success, independently measured, for predicting achievement performance and the frequency with which affiliation acts are performed. Both theory and research lead to the following conclusions: (1) motive strength, particularly in relation to the strength of other motives in the person, is the more important determinant of operant act frequency; (2) incentive value is the more important determinant of cognitively based choices; (3) motive strength and probability of success combine multiplicatively to predict response strength or probability; and (4) all determinants, plus this last interaction, together account for over 75% of the variation in operants such as affiliative act frequency. The remainder of the variation is readily attributable to environmental opportunities. (51 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)