Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Gratitude practice can be a catalyzing and relational healing force, often untapped in clinical practice. In this article, we provide an overview of current thinking about gratitude's defining and beneficial properties, followed by a brief review of the research on mental health outcomes that result from gratitude practice. Following an analysis of our case study of the use of gratitude as a psychotherapeutic intervention, we present various self-strategies and techniques for consciously choosing and cultivating gratitude. We conclude by describing ways in which gratitude might be capitalized upon for beneficial outcomes in therapeutic settings.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Moreover, current literature lacks studies investigating means and ways to offset destructive bullying outcomes. Arguably, gratitude presents a positive employee strength (Emmons & Stern, 2013) that may buffer the relationships between workplace bullying and organizational deviance. Some recent empirical studies (Cunha et al., 2019;Witvliet et al., 2018) establish that gratitude enhances happiness, life satisfaction, positivity and suppresses sadness and negativity pointing to a constructive role of gratitude. ...
... In concurrence with this finding, Mccullogh et al. (2002) suggested that gratitude thwarts cynical feelings as antagonism and resentment. As such, gratitude assists in valuing constructive aspects of life, cherishing blessed features of one's life, encourages constructive analysis of harmful occurrences (Emmons & Stern, 2013;Sheldon & Lyubomirsky, 2006;Tsang, 2006), and boosts individual and organizational well-being (Ting, 2017). ...
Full-text available
Article
Two objectives guide this study: first, to examine whether organizational deviance is a consequence of workplace bullying, and second, to investigate a possible moderating effect of gratitude on the relationship between workplace bullying and organizational deviance. Variables were tapped using the Negative Acts Questionnaire, Organisational Deviance Measure, and Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ6). This study uses a correlation-causal design; data were drawn from a sample of 215 workers employed in telecom organizations and higher education institutes and universities based in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Linear and hierarchical regression techniques were used to test the hypothesized direct and moderating effects. Results confirmed both hypotheses, implying that workplace bullying offsets organizational deviance in bullied employees and that gratitude moderates the relationship. Theoretically, the study contributes to the current literature by signifying that workplace bullying triggers deviance in employees and that gratitude is an important variable that lessens the undesirable triggering of workplace deviance in bullied employees. Managers should create awareness about bullying and deviant acts at work and assert gratitude within the organizational environment through training and workshops to lessen bullying incidents and offset unwanted bullying outcomes. They are also advised to minimize bullying and its subsequent effects by establishing clarity in work design.
... Much work has been done in recent years demonstrating the positive therapeutic effects of gratitude. There is evidence that gratitude improves one's mental health and emotional wellbeing in a variety of ways, from a greater sense of purpose and success in achieving personal goals to an improved physical and psychological health (Emmons 2013;Emmons and Stern 2013;Petrocchi and Couyoumdjian 2016). ...
... A further step is to follow Emmons and Stern's (2013) distinction between gratitude's "worldly" and "transcendent" definitions. Focusing on the latter, Emmons and Stern quote Streng (1989), who states that those who adopt a grateful attitude " . . . ...
Full-text available
Article
Gratitude to God is a core component of Christian liturgy; along with the countless hymns which express attitudes of thanks to God, Christian liturgy often includes acts of spoken gratitude, as well as prayers of thanksgiving. We argue that two aspects of liturgical gratitude distinguish it from gratitude more generally. First, liturgical gratitude is always scripted, leading to the worry that those who express gratitude do so disingenuously. Secondly, liturgical gratitude is always social in some way, as our gratitude is drawn into the worship of the community of the Church. The paper provides an account of liturgical gratitude that explores these two key distinctive features.
... Gratitude is a prominent construct within the framework of positive psychology. People's natural tendency to respond positively to another person's altruism is characterized by gratitude (Emmons and Stern, 2013). According to Sansone and Sansone (2010), gratitude is concerned with being thankful for those things that one values and that hold meaning for oneself. ...
... An individual who generally exhibits gratitude in their personal life may not necessarily do so at work (Cain et al., 2019). In the context of the organization, gratitude is seen as the act of being thankful for any work-related benefits and how they may positively impact one's life (Cain et al., 2019), an individual's predisposition to experience positive emotions in the context of their profession (Emmons and Stern, 2013), and feeling appreciative in response to their job (Cain et al., 2019). According to Youssef-Morgan et al. (2022), at work, gratitude is conceptualized and operationalized as (1) grateful appraisals of work, (2) gratitude toward colleagues, and (3) a purposeful attitude of gratitude. ...
Full-text available
Article
Gratitude or the appreciation of being given something of value, is an important element in positive emotions within positive psychology. Gratitude has been linked to wellbeing and gratitude in the workplace is positively associated with constructs such as performance and organizational citizenship behavior. The pandemic brought on many negative experiences but employees could still find things to be grateful for during this time. The purpose of the study was to understand what aspects of work and the organization employees were grateful for during the pandemic. A generic qualitative approach was used. Participants were sourced from various industries in South Africa using purposive sampling. Data were gathered through 21 semi-structured interviews of working people in South Africa. Braun and Clarke’s thematic analysis revealed five themes, namely, (1) gratitude for no negative work-life changes; (2) gratitude for a caring workplace; (3) gratitude for a new way of working; (4) gratitude for the ability to put oneself first; and (5) gratitude for having resilience, optimism and spirituality as a psychological buffer. Managers should deliberately engage in behaviors that will bring about gratitude from their employees. Employees should reflect on the positive things at work that they are thankful for as a way of enhancing gratitude and thereby, wellness, performance, and commitment. The study combines existing knowledge on gratitude during the pandemic with gratitude in the workplace.
... One intervention drawing from this literature, Shamiri, meaning "Thrive" in Kiswahili, is delivered in a group setting by near-peer high school graduate lay-providers, and is designed to change the way highschool-aged youths view themselves and the world [15,16]. Shamiri takes four hours to implement over the course of four weeks, and has three components: growth mindset [17] and strategies for growth, gratitude [18], and value affirmation [19]. ...
... To determine experience of gratitude, we will use the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6), a 6-item self-report questionnaire. This instrument has been established to measure grateful disposition-the characteristic of recognizing positive experiences, valuable support and actions from others in everyday life [18,40]. This questionnaire has been shown to have strong psychometric validity among adolescents [41] and has been used in RCTs with Kenyan adolescents [20,28]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Background Adolescents in low- and middle-income countries in need of mental health care often do not receive it due to stigma, cost, and lack of mental health professionals. Culturally appropriate, brief, and low-cost interventions delivered by lay-providers can help overcome these barriers and appear effective at reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety until several months post-intervention. However, little is known about whether these interventions may have long-term effects on health, mental health, social, or academic outcomes. Methods Three previous randomized controlled trials of the Shamiri intervention, a 4-week, group-delivered, lay-provider-led intervention, have been conducted in Kenyan high schools. Shamiri teaches positively focused intervention elements (i.e., growth mindset and strategies for growth, gratitude, and value affirmation) to target symptoms of depression and anxiety and to improve academic performance and social relationships, by fostering character strengths. In this long-term follow-up study, we will test whether these mental health, academic, social, and character-strength outcomes, along with related health outcomes (e.g., sleep quality, heart-rate variability and activity level measured via wearables, HIV risk behaviors, alcohol and substance use), differ between the intervention and control group at 3–4-year follow-up. For primary analyses (Nanticipated = 432), youths who participated in the three previous trials will be contacted again to assess whether outcomes at 3–4-year-follow-up differ for those in the Shamiri Intervention group compared to those in the study-skills active control group. Multi-level models will be used to model trajectories over time of primary outcomes and secondary outcomes that were collected in previous trials. For outcomes only collected at 3–4-year follow-up, tests of location difference (e.g., t-tests) will be used to assess group differences in metric outcomes and difference tests (e.g., odds ratios) will be used to assess differences in categorical outcomes. Finally, standardized effect sizes will be used to compare groups on all measures. Discussion This follow-up study of participants from three randomized controlled trials of the Shamiri intervention will provide evidence bearing on the long-term and health and mental health effects of brief, lay-provider-delivered character strength interventions for youth in low- and middle-income countries. Trial registration PACTR Trial ID: PACTR202201600200783. Approved on January 21, 2022.
... Another line of studies analyses character strengths structural characteristics and their effects on flourishing (Heintz and Ruch, 2020). These studies report that the strongest crosssectional associations of flourishing are with hope, curiosity, love, and gratitude (Emmons and Stern, 2013). Although extant longitudinal research reports that character strengths tend to be stable over time (Emmons and Stern, 2013;Wagner et al., 2020), other studies found that character strengths such as humor, spirituality, and prudence may be more susceptible to change . ...
... These studies report that the strongest crosssectional associations of flourishing are with hope, curiosity, love, and gratitude (Emmons and Stern, 2013). Although extant longitudinal research reports that character strengths tend to be stable over time (Emmons and Stern, 2013;Wagner et al., 2020), other studies found that character strengths such as humor, spirituality, and prudence may be more susceptible to change . ...
Full-text available
Article
The aim of this research was to delimit the predictive and mediational model of resilience between character strengths to predict flourishing, in a sample of undergraduate students. After signing their informed consent, 642 university students completed three validated scales (i.e., character strengths, resilience, and flourishing). Using an ex post facto design, regression, structural modeling, and mediation analyses were carried out, in order to construct a multi-causal predictive model. Results indicated a consistent predictive direct effect of character strengths on resilience and flourishing and of resilience on flourishing. As hypothesized, resilience also showed a mediating effect on the relationship between character strengths and flourishing. Additionally, results also revealed that the reactive and proactive factors of resilience were explained by different character strengths (e.g., emotional strength/cognitive, interpersonal strengths), reinforcing the idea that the two directions are complementary and necessary. Finally, several implications were established for the practice of positive psychology.
... Based on previous research, mental well-being can be improved with gratitude interventions (Carson et al., 2010;Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Emmons & Stern, 2013;Gabana et al., 2019;Jackowska et al., 2016;Killen & Macaskill, 2015;Rash et al., 2011;Seligman et al., 2005). There are two basic components in the definition of gratitude: (1) a positive personal outcome that is not necessarily deserved or earned and (2) the positive outcome is caused by external sources (e.g. ...
... Previous research provided evidence of the effectiveness and positive influence of gratitude interventions (Carson et al., 2010;Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Emmons & Stern, 2013;Gabana et al., 2019;Jackowska et al., 2016;Killen & Macaskill, 2015;Rash et al., 2011;Seligman et al., 2005). This study confirmed that a gratitude intervention effectively improves the mental well-being of university students during the COVID pandemic. ...
Full-text available
Article
Previous research suggest that gratitude interventions are effective in improving mental well‐being, which might be beneficial to university students during the COVID‐19 pandemic. This quasi‐experimental study sought to investigate if a gratitude intervention will lead to higher mental well‐being of university students during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Participants (N = 47) mental well‐being was assessed before and after 10 weekly gratitude reflection journals and statistically compared with a control group (N = 40). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the data. The treatment group showed significantly higher well‐being after the gratitude intervention compared with the control group (Cohen's d = 0.74). The treatment group significantly increased (Cohen's d = 0.35) and the control group significantly decreased (Cohen's d = −0.41). Gratitude interventions may be effective in improving the mental well‐being of university students even during a crisis such as the COVID‐19 pandemic. Gratitude interventions seem suitable for improving mental well‐being for temporary mental challenges of university students such as a pandemic or other forms of crisis.
... Individuals with higher levels of gratitude experience better psychological well-being, including lower rates of depression, anxiety, and greater emotional functioning, including more positive affect, less negative affect, and higher life satisfaction (Datu & Mateo, 2015;Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Kong et al., 2015;Wood et al., 2010;Wood, Joseph, et al., 2008a, 2008b. Gratitude has also been associated with lower levels of stress (Wood et al., 2008a(Wood et al., , 2008b, stronger social relationships (Algoe, 2012;Algoe et al., 2020), better self-reported physical health (Hill et al., 2013;O'Connell & Killeen-Byrt, 2018), and better cardiovascular and immune health (Cousin et al., 2020;Emmons & Stern, 2013). Research has also shown that gratitude alleviates the negative psychological consequences of stressors such as chronic illness and COVID-19 (Jiang, 2020;Sirois & Wood, 2017), and studies directly testing the stress-buffering effects of gratitude have shown that gratitude reduces the impact of stress on negative health outcomes (Deichert et al., 2019). ...
... Such a focus may help promote a positive cognitive mindset by shifting focus from the negative to savoring more positive experiences and promoting the use of individuals' strengths (Seligman et al., 2006). It is also important to note that gratitude may have psychotherapeutic effects distinct from other positive emotions given gratitude's connection with social interactions (Emmons & Stern, 2013). ...
Full-text available
Article
Exploring ways to mitigate the stress of the COVID-19 pandemic is important for long-term health. Expressive and gratitude-focused writing are effective methods to help individuals process traumatic or stressful events. Gratitude-focused writing may yield additional benefits because it helps individuals appraise events positively. We hypothesized that an online gratitude writing intervention would yield greater benefits than an expressive writing intervention or control group. Participants were randomized to one of three groups and completed assessments one-week and one-month post-intervention. The gratitude writing group maintained gratitude levels and decreased stress and negative affect at one-month post-intervention. The expressive writing group decreased in gratitude and showed no changes in stress or negative affect at one-month post-intervention. The control group decreased in gratitude and negative affect and showed no changes in stress at one-month post-intervention. Gratitude writing may be a better resource for dealing with stress and negative affect than traditional expressive writing methods under extremely stressful situations with uncertain trajectories.
... Building on the promising research that has supported the effects of character strength interventions on adolescent mental-health outcomes, our team has focused on developing and testing a simple, scalable, lowstigma, and low-cost intervention called Shamiri (Kiswahili for "thrive") for Kenyan adolescents [20][21][22]. The Shamiri intervention includes three empirically supported brief character strength interventions: growth mindset [23][24][25][26][27], gratitude [28][29][30], and value affirmation [31,32], which were iteratively adapted through co-design with and feedback from local stakeholders [20,33] to be appropriate for use in Kenyan high schools. Shamiri is a group-based intervention delivered in naturalistic school settings by lay providers who are recent high school graduates without formal training in mental health [20,21]. ...
... Throughout the four 1-h small group (8-15 students) sessions, participants learn the concept of gratitude and apply the skills necessary for practicing gratitude in their interpersonal relations, academics, and other aspects of life. Meta-analyses have demonstrated that gratitude interventions can result in decreases in depressive symptoms and have benefits for wellbeing, mood, happiness, and life satisfaction [28,29]. Additionally, previous trials have shown positive relations between gratitude and wellbeing in early adolescence [30,37] and late adolescence [38]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Background Treatments for youth mental disorders are a public health priority, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where treatment options remain limited due to high cost, elevated stigma, and lack of trained mental health professionals. Brief, accessible, and non-stigmatizing community-based interventions delivered by lay providers may help address treatment needs in SSA. One such intervention, the Shamiri Intervention, consisting of three elements (growth mindset, gratitude, and value affirmation) has been tested in randomized controlled trials with school-going Kenyan adolescents. This three-element Shamiri Intervention has been shown to significantly reduce depression and anxiety symptoms and improve social support and academic performance relative to a control group. In this trial, we aim to investigate the effects of each element of the Shamiri Intervention. Methods In this five-arm randomized controlled trial, we will test each of the intervention components (growth mindset, gratitude, and value affirmation) against the full Shamiri Intervention and against a study skills control intervention. Students ( N planned = 1288) at participating secondary schools who are interested in participating in this universal intervention will be randomized in equal numbers into the five groups. The students will meet in groups of 8–15 students led by local high school graduate lay providers. These lay providers will receive a brief training, plus expert supervision once a week throughout the intervention delivery. Multi-level models will be used to compare trajectories over time of the primary outcomes (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, academic performance, and wellness) and secondary outcomes in each intervention group to the control group. Multi-level models will also be used to compare trajectories over time of the primary outcomes (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, academic performance, and wellness) and secondary outcomes of participants in the single-element interventions compared to the full Shamiri Intervention. Finally, effect sizes (calculated as mean gain scores) will be used to compare all groups on all measures. Discussion This trial will shed light on the mechanisms and outcomes targeted by each individual intervention, helping prioritize which mental health interventions are most important to disseminate. Trial registration PACTR Trial ID: PACTR202104716135752. Approved on 4/19/2021.
... In addition to testing theory-driven research questions, the present study also had a practical aim-namely, to contrast multiple gratitude intervention(s) to inform evidence-based recommendations, as gratitude interventions are already used in a variety of applied contexts, including schools (Renshaw & Olinger Steeves, 2016) and therapeutic settings (Emmons & Stern, 2013). In service of this practical aim, we included a comparison condition similar to the "counting blessings" (or "gratitude journal") intervention that is commonly used in research and practice. ...
Full-text available
Article
Gratitude activities have been shown to increase well-being and other positive outcomes in numerous experiments to date. The current study tested whether self-directed gratitude interventions that vary by type (i.e., social vs. nonsocial) and format (i.e., long-form letters vs. shorter lists) produce differential benefits. To that end, 958 Australian adults were assigned to one of six activities to complete each day for 1 week, including five gratitude activities that varied by type and format and an active control condition (i.e., keeping track of daily activities). Regressed change analyses revealed that, overall, long-form writing exercises (i.e., essays and letters) resulted in greater subjective well-being and other positive outcomes than lists. Indeed, those who were instructed to write social and nonsocial gratitude lists did not differ from controls on any outcomes. However, participants who wrote unconstrained gratitude lists—that is, those who wrote about any topics they wanted—reported greater feelings of gratitude and positive affect than did controls. Finally, relative to the other gratitude conditions, participants who wrote gratitude letters to particular individuals in their lives not only showed stronger feelings of gratitude, elevation, and other positive emotions but also reported feeling more indebted. This study demonstrates that not only does gratitude “work” to boost well-being relative to an active neutral activity, but that some forms of gratitude may be more effective than others. We hope these findings help scholars and practitioners to develop, tailor, implement, and scale future gratitude-based interventions.
... It is defined as a positive interpersonal emotion (188) which is experienced in situations where one perceives that one benefits from the positive intentions of others. It has a positive impact on several factors involved in suicidal behavior: stress management and resilience to negative life events (189) through active coping (190), better decision making in complex situations due to a broadening of intentional scope (191) and a sense of belonging (191). Given the shared neurobiological pathways between psychological and physical pain (192), it is interesting to note that positive psychology interventions based on gratitude have an impact in reducing physical pain (193). ...
Full-text available
Article
The risk of suicide in psychiatric hospitals is 50 times higher than in the general population, despite patient safety being a priority for any hospital. However, to date, due to the complexity of assessing suicide risk, there has been no consensus on the suicide prevention measures that should be in place in hospitals. The aim of this work is: To provide an overview of the progress that has been made in the field of inpatient suicide prevention in recent years; discuss the problems that remain; and suggest potential future developments. As new clinical dimensions (notably anhedonia, psychological pain and hopelessness) develop, they should become new therapeutic targets. Team training (like the Gatekeeper Training Program) and the latest advances in suicide risk assessment (such as the Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality) should be implemented in psychiatric wards. Suicide prevention plans (e.g., ASSIP, SAFE-T, etc.) represent easy-to-administer, low-cost interventions. The Mental Health Environment of Care Checklist has been proven effective to reduce suicide risk at hospitals. Furthermore, the types of psychotherapy recommended to reduce suicide risk are cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT). There are several pharmacological treatments for suicide risk, such as lithium and clozapine, which have been shown to be effective in the long term, as well as ketamine and esketamine, which are more effective in the short term. Following some encouraging recent results, buprenorphine may also be proposed to patients with a suicide risk. Triple chronotherapy rapidly improves depressive symptoms over 9 weeks. Regarding brain stimulation techniques, rTMS has proven to be effective in alleviating multiple dimensions of suicidality.
... Various exercises, such as gratitude journaling and writing gratitude letters, have been developed to promote gratitude (Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Emmons & Stern, 2013). Meta-analyses have shown that these gratitude interventions are effective in improving mental health, although effects are generally small to moderate, and inconsistent (Davis et al., 2016;Dickens, 2017). ...
Full-text available
Article
The Covid-19 pandemic has had many negative consequences on the general public mental health. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of and satisfaction with an app with gratitude exercises to improve the mental health of people with reduced mental well-being due to the Covid-19 pandemic, as well as potential mechanisms of well-being change and dose–response relationships. A two-armed randomized controlled trial design was used, with two groups receiving the 6-week gratitude intervention app either immediately (intervention group, n = 424) or after 6 weeks (waiting list control group, n = 425). Assessments took place online at baseline (T0), six weeks later (T1) and at 12 weeks (T2), measuring outcomes (i.e., mental well-being, anxiety, depression, stress), and potential explanatory variables (i.e., gratitude, positive reframing, rumination). Linear mixed models analyses showed that when controlled for baseline measures, the intervention group scored better on all outcome measures compared to the control group at T1 (d = .24–.49). These effects were maintained at T2. The control group scored equally well on all outcome measures at T2 after following the intervention. Effects of the intervention on well-being were partially explained by gratitude, positive reframing, and rumination, and finishing a greater number of modules was weakly related to better outcomes. The intervention was generally appealing, with some room for improvement. The results suggest that a mobile gratitude intervention app is a satisfactory and effective way to improve the mental health of the general population during the difficult times of a pandemic.
... Similarly, research on downward counterfactual thinking, which is the reflection of an alternative to reality that is more negative than the actual situation (Roese & Olson, 1995), suggests that people may feel a general sense of gratitude to not be in fictional alternatives of either having failed to overcome a focal obstacle or still amidst said obstacle. In support of this, an intervention asking participants to share what they are grateful for in life found that people frequently mentioned overcoming obstacles (Emmons & Stern, 2013). ...
Article
The limited organizational scholarship on past adversity has characterized it as something to cope with, positing that how past adversity is perceived is key to employees’ coping effectiveness (Nurmohamed et al., 2021; Stephens et al., 2015; Vogel & Bolino, 2020). Conversely, lay theory suggests that “what does not kill you makes you stronger.” Through this dissertation, I aim to provide empirical evidence for this claim in an organizational setting. To do so, I draw on positive identity growth theorizing (Maitlis, 2009; 2020) to empirically examine the organizational benefits of identity growth after experiences of overcoming adversity. In doing so, I introduce a new concept to the organizational behavior literature, an “overcoming adversity identity,” which is when an experience of hardship, whether singular or continuous, has been redeemed in the eyes of the person with that experience, thereby becoming a positive part of that person’s identity. Through two longitudinal studies and one randomized experimental intervention, I find promising evidence that having a stronger overcoming adversity identity is associated with interpersonal, intrapersonal, and intellectual character enrichment (the tripartite model of character; Park et al., 2017). I also find some evidence that suggests that this character enrichment, in turn, is positively related to extra-role performance and in-role performance, and negatively related to burnout. Implications and future directions are discussed. In conclusion, this dissertation provides preliminary empirical evidence to suggest that indeed, what does not kill you can make you stronger.
... The relevance of gratitude in clinical setups has been demonstrated by Kerr et al., 2014). Emmons and Stern (2013) also discuss how gratitude has one of the strongest links to mental health and satisfaction with life of any personality trait-more so than even optimism, hope, or compassion. ...
Article
The use of Positive Psychology Interventions is rapidly increasing in the world of psychology, as it focuses on a more wholesome and holistic approach to wellbeing and mental health. The current intervention study tries to understand the impact of Expressing Gratitude over social media on the participant’s Psychological Wellbeing, Peer Relationship Satisfaction, Life Satisfaction, and Positive and Negative affect. The intervention was conducted for two weeks on social media platforms and the control group had to just note the conversations they had. With a total of 32 participants in the experimental group and 38 participants in the control group, the study used paired t-tests to see the impact of intervention through pre-test and post-test scores. The results show that Peer Relationship Satisfaction, Life Satisfaction, and Positive and Negative affect did improve after the intervention, while there was no significant impact on psychological well-being. The currently ongoing pandemic must be kept in mind while understanding the implication of the results. The discussion section elaborates on that topic. Keywords: Gratitude, Intervention, Positive Psychology, Pandemic, Resilience
... Evidence suggests that the causal relationship between the two, however, is unidirectional with gratitude causing well-being but not the reverse (Wood et al. 2010). For example, many studies have shown that gratitude-based interventions (e.g., gratitude journaling) directly increase subsequent well-being (Emmons and Stern 2013). ...
Full-text available
Article
How do individuals manage to maintain strong emotional and personal relationships with God, despite the physical (and metaphysical) challenges posed by that task? Past studies show that individuals relate to God in characteristic ways based in part on their God concepts, the ways they internally represent the nature of God. The current manuscript summarizes research suggesting that these concepts arise in part through mapping processes involving metaphor and analogy. This review suggests these cognitive processes influence the content of God concepts that ultimately determine how individuals relate to God. Future research would benefit from considering the important role that basic cognitive mapping plays in far-reaching emotional and behavioral outcomes.
... Gratitude involves an orientation toward a rming the goodness in one's life, accompanied by a recognition that the source of this goodness lies outside the self (e.g., Emmons & Stern, 2013). In philosophical and religious traditions, gratitude is often singled out as a chief virtue to be promoted for the good of society (see Harpham, 2004 for a review of this history). ...
Full-text available
Preprint
Gratitude interventions are often promoted as self-help exercises. However, expressing gratitude to benefit oneself may paradoxically undermine well-being, as this mindset shifts the focus away from the recipient of gratitude. Across two studies (N = 475), participants were randomly assigned to compose a gratitude letter using three rationales: self-focused (emphasizing benefits to the self), other-focused (emphasizing benefits to the recipient), and neutral (no rationale). The neutral group reported lower well-being than the two experimental groups (self-focused and other-focused) on a variety of outcomes. However, the experimental groups did not differ on main study outcomes, thus failing to support the hypothesis that self-focused reasons for expressing gratitude result in poorer well-being than other-focused reasons. However, text analyses revealed that the compositions of the letters differed between the self-focused and other-focused conditions. Individuals in the self-focused condition tended to write letters that were more self-referential, longer, less positive, and that used more insight/cognitive processing language, whereas individuals in the other-focused condition tended to write letters that were more other-referential, shorter, and more positive. Our results suggest that inclusion of a rationale enhances the effectiveness of a gratitude intervention, and the emphasis of the rationale can alter the way in which a gratitude letter is written. Implications for future research are discussed in light of these findings.
... Les interventions basées sur la compassion, provenant initialement de la tradition bouddhiste, consistent à s'engager dans des activités spécifiques utilisées pour identifier, comprendre et essayer de prévenir la souffrance pour soi-même ou pour les autres (Gilbert, 2014). Les interventions basées sur la gratitude consistent, quant à elles, à la réalisation d'activités destinées à affirmer la valeur et la bonté des choses de la vie, tout en entrainant les patients à attribuer une cause externe à celles-ci (Emmons & Stern, 2013). Les activités mises en oeuvre au cours de ces interventions, en groupe ou en format individuel, peuvent prendre différentes formes telles que la psychoéducation, l'écriture de texte, la méditation, etc. La durée de ces interventions varie également selon les études, d'une séance unique de quelques heures à plusieurs séances hebdomadaires. ...
Full-text available
Thesis
Self-esteem is recognized as an essential psychological resource. Low self-esteem is a trans-diagnostic symptom of many psychological disorders. Considering its association with coping skills and psychological adjustment strategies, the preservation of self-esteem appears to be an important clinical issue in oncology care as it would allow patients to better cope with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This thesis, through a meta-analysis of the interventions proposed to increase self-esteem in adults, has highlighted some of their characteristics that limit their efficacy and clinical applicability. Then, seven randomized controlled studies were conducted and allowed the development of a new short and self-administered technique for self-esteem increase, easily applicable to cancer patients. The lexical association technique aims at improving self-esteem by reinforcing the associative links between the Self and positive concepts stored in memory, through the activation of semantic and episodic forms of self-knowledge. This reinforcement is based on a reading and mental visualization exercise. In this thesis, the efficacy of the lexical association technique on global self-esteem was highlighted in students and breast cancer patients. Various studies aiming to simplifying and increasing the clinical applicability of the technique have demonstrated the need for retrieval of detailed memory traces, as well as the importance of contact with the experimenter in the efficacy of our technique. These results enabled us to develop and test a second format of the lexical association technique on global self-esteem, optimizing the activation of episodic self-perceptions, and proposing personalized and engaging exercises. Self-perceptions, on which self-esteem is based, are rooted in the individual's memory system. This thesis has contributed to highlighting that their reinforcement requires a combined activation of the different forms of self-knowledge that constitute them. However, the clinical applications of the lexical association technique as a transdiagnostic intervention have yet to be defined.
... Objects of gratitude are usually directed to people, or impersonal (nature) and or non-human sources (God). This can affect an individual's level of subjective well-being because the more they draw closer to God they can survive facing every trial and can think positively [22,67]. ...
Full-text available
Article
This research aimed to analyze the correlation between three variables (gratitude, optimism, and religiosity) and subjective well-being among asthma patients. The subjects of this research were 160 Muslim asthma patients aged 18-39 years-old in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data were collected using researcher-administered questionnaires consisting of five scales. Subjective well-being was measured using two scales: Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Gratitude was measured using the Psychological Measure of Islamic Gratitude (PMIG) scale. Optimism was measured using the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) concept. Religiosity was measured using five dimensions: belief, religious practices, religious experiences, religious knowledge, and practicing and consequence. The result showed a positive correlation between three variables (gratitude, optimism, and religiosity) and subjective well-being among asthma patients. Furthermore, the results also showed that there was no significant difference of subjective well-being between male and female subjects, between adolescent and adult subjects, and between groups of subjects based on duration of being diagnosed with asthma.
... Es por ello que las personas agradecidas experimentan niveles más altos de emociones positivas como alegría, entusiasmo, amor, felicidad y optimismo, y la gratitud como disciplina que protege de los impulsos destructivos de la envidia, el resentimiento, la codicia y la amargura. Las personas que experimentan gratitud pueden hacer frente de manera más efectiva al estrés diario, mostrar una mayor capacidad de recuperación frente al estrés, recuperarse más rápidamente de la enfermedad o adicción y disfrutar de una salud física más sólida (Emmons y Stern, 2013). Por ello, , desde una visión antropológica cristiana, y más en concreto, desde Tomás de Aquino, sería relevante considerar trabajar la gratitud en la psicoterapia no como una técnica más, añadida a todo el conjunto de terapias, sino considerarla desde una psicoterapia integral que permita: (1) fortalecer la relación psicoterapéutica desde una relación de confianza, (2) tener conciencia del momento en el que se encuentra el paciente, para valorar cuál es el objetivo más adecuada a seguir, (3) plantear (siendo conscientes de la lucha interna en la que se encuentra el paciente) de cómo ayudar a iluminar aquellas inclinaciones naturales que todavía tienen fuerza en el paciente para ayudarlo a salir adelante a través del agradecimiento, es decir, del conocimiento que aquellos aspectos de la vida que vistos como dones aportan sentido a lo que somos y hacemos, y no dependen de nuestro control, sino que justamente nos abren a cambiar de actitud ante la vida, y por último (4) permitir en el espacio psicoterapéutico que el paciente se abra a esa realidad en la que se le dispone al reconocimiento de los dones recibidos para sacar lo mejor de la persona en aquellos momentos que se percibe que uno no puede hacer nada. ...
... We provided the hint that 'small things count' and written examples of what constituted a 'good thing,' such as the weather, a moment with nature, and spending time with loved ones. The Things that I am grateful for prompt invited participants to express appreciation (Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Emmons & Stern, 2013). We instructed participants to make a bullet-pointed list of all the things they were grateful or thankful for today. ...
Article
Recovery from substance use disorders can be an arduous, lengthy process, yet there exist few interventions specifically designed to make recovery more reinforcing. This single-group mixed-methods study describes the development, feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a novel journaling intervention that combines aspects of positive psychology and behavioral activation to make recovery more reinforcing. We taught the journaling to women in residential treatment for substance use disorders during eight group sessions, after which participants journaled independently for 2 weeks. The journaling practice was found to be feasible and acceptable. Quantitative data showed improvement in a range of well-being, recovery, and mental health–related factors. Qualitative data showed that the intervention helped participants to recognize what was positive about recovery, to achieve meaningful short-term goals, and to experience a sense of optimism and pride in their accomplishments.
... 39 While the changed experiences of pregnancy during the pandemic represented a loss to some participants, others viewed the changes through a lens of gratitude and acceptance, which are both adaptive coping skills for adversity. 40 Although transitions in life can represent a vulnerable time, they can also be a time of growth and connection. Our data reveal that many participants approached pandemic-associated social changes with a psychological flexibility and adaptability, embracing the positive aspects of the change. ...
Article
Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic may have a unique emotional impact on pregnant people. This qualitative study aimed to characterize the emotional effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant and recently pregnant patients who had either suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection during the initial 6 months of the pandemic. Methods: Pregnant and recently pregnant participants (n = 20) from Massachusetts General Hospital Obstetrics and Gynecology clinical sites with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection were interviewed about their experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interviews were transcribed and coded using NVivo 12 software. Using data display matrices, thematic analysis was performed to identify emergent, crosscutting themes. Results: Twenty pregnant and postpartum patients participated of whom 12 had confirmed COVID-19 infection and 8 had suspected infection. The most frequently described emotions were anxiety (90%), uncertainty (80%), fear (70%), relief (65%), and sadness (60%). The following three crosscutting themes were identified: risk, protection, and change. The ways in which participants articulated their emotional reactions to the themes of risk, protection, and change were complex and varied. Conclusions: There was a broad range of negative and positive emotional experiences of pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period during the first 4 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. A better understanding of pregnant people's emotional experiences may lead to changes in clinical practice and institutional policies that are more supportive of their needs and congruent with their values.
... Other studies have pointed to factors that shield individuals from psychological distress and are associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety [19][20][21]. One of the main protective factors to emerge from this literature is social support [22]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between attachment style, social support, and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) during the COVID-19 lockdown of the third wave in Israel. Specifically, we examined whether social support mediates the well-documented relationship between attachment style and psychological distress. Methods: An online survey was administered from 3 January to 6 February, 2021, while a strict lockdown was in place. The sample included 288 Israelis ranging between the ages of 18-78, recruited by snowball sampling. Psychological distress was evaluated by Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (GAD-7); attachment style by the Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR-36), and social support by the Multi-dimensional Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). A mediation model was applied with social support mediating the association between attachment style and depression and anxiety. Results: Significant correlations were found between attachment style and psychological distress, and between social support and psychological distress. Social support partially mediated the associations between attachment style and psychological distress (Depression: p < 0.001, confidence interval [CI] = 0.4018, 1.7468; Anxiety: p < 0.001, confidence interval [CI] = 0.0493, 0.9822). These results remained the same while controlling for age. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the secure attachment style serves as a protective factor against psychological distress and vice versa; insecure attachment style serves as a risk factor for developing psychological distress during a peak period of COVID-19. Nevertheless, social support played a central role in the association between attachment style and psychological distress, thus, individuals with an insecure attachment may thus be helped by offering them social support during a crisis, which in turn may increase their well-being.
... Such interventions may promote higher selfesteem among school children (Kong et al., 2015) and student's success (Mofidi et al., 2014). Gratitude interventions are also useful in clinical therapies (e.g., Emmons & Stern, 2013). ...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on positive adolescent development and the role of gratitude in particular in promoting adolescent well-being. A global view on the subject is offered, with a specific focus on the Indian cultural context. The chapter consists of three main sections. The first section offers various perspectives on adolescent development, emphasizing a strengths-based approach. It highlights empirical findings on how gratitude benefits adolescents. This section also presents the cross-cultural and indigenous Indian aspects of gratitude. The second part describes an empirical study involving gratitude journaling among Indian adolescents. Study findings and implications are discussed. The third and final section of this chapter presents both Indian and international scenarios towards positive adolescent development and concludes by proposing future recommendations.
... Notably, purpose in life, dispositional gratitude, and conscientiousness tend to be stable, trait-like factors (Allemand et al., 2021;Steger and Kashdan, 2007). However, research suggests that they are amenable to modification (Emmons and Stern, 2013;Javaras et al., 2019;Lapierre et al., 2007), and may therefore reflect potential targets of interventions to promote remission from STBs. For example, preliminary findings for interventions to enhance purpose in life suggest that these interventions help mitigate suicide risk in older adults (Heisel and Flett, 2014). ...
Article
Suicide is a major public health problem in U.S. military veterans, but little is known about factors associated with remission from suicide attempts in this population. We aimed to identify risk and protective correlates of remission from suicidal thoughts and behavior (STB) in U.S. veterans with a prior suicide attempt. Data were analyzed from the 2019-2020 National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study survey. A broad range of sociodemographic, military, physical and mental health, and psychosocial variable were assessed. Purpose in life, dispositional gratitude, and conscientiousness emerged as independent correlates of STB remission (24.3%-40.3% of explained variance), even after accounting for other relevant risk and protective factors. While the cross-sectional nature of the study precludes the ability to determine whether the identified protective factors are causally related to STB remission, results suggest three potentially modifiable targets for suicide prevention efforts in veterans. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the role of purpose in life, dispositional gratitude, and conscientiousness in promoting remission from STBs in veterans and other populations at risk for suicide.
... Furthermore, mindful employees can deliberately participate in the work environment (i.e. awareness in the present moment; self-regulation of attention) to recognize and be grateful for the positive facets of work-life that might otherwise go unappreciated (Emmons & Stern, 2013). ...
Article
Mindfulness has recently attracted more attention from service scholars due to its positive effect on various job outcomes. Yet, the linkage between mindfulness and service employees’ creativity is still not well understood. This study aims to bridge this gap by examining how emotions might influence the mindfulness and creativity relationship from different cultural perspectives. Frontline service employees from three countries, the Philippines, Turkey, and the United States, were sampled to form a cross-border dataset. PLS multigroup results show that creativity positively influences service recovery performance and error reporting across the three nations. Furthermore, the mindfulness-creativity link is mediated by gratitude as a positive emotion in the United States, but by envy as a negative emotion in the Philippines and Turkey. This suggests that the link between mindfulness and creativity may be culturally contextual. These results might provide insights for mindfulness practices within the service work environment.
... The 6-weeks gratitude intervention consisted of psychoeducation and evidence-based gratitude exercises which were send by email each week (Emmons and Mccullough, 2003;Emmons and Stern, 2013). Throughout the weeks, participants practiced with counting your blessings, taking another perspective, expressing gratitude (e.g., writing a gratitude letter), grateful memories, writing about gratitude in times of misfortune and gratitude as an attitude in life. ...
Full-text available
Article
There is a gap of knowledge about the extent to which gratitude is indeed the working mechanism of change in gratitude interventions aiming to promote mental well-being. This study explores the mediational role of gratitude as mood in the context of a recently conducted randomized controlled trial on the effects of a 6-week gratitude intervention on mental well-being in comparison with a waitlist control group. Gratitude as mood was measured at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Both simple and multiple mediation models were conducted as well as various sensitivity analyses. Results showed a gradual increase of gratitude as mood during the intervention. The effects of the 6-week gratitude intervention on mental well-being were mediated by increases of gratitude as mood at 4 weeks but not at 2 weeks. These findings suggest a dose-response relationship for gratitude interventions, but more research is warranted.
... Je stejně elementární jako život sám. V mnoha světových etických systémech je vděčnost formující a přesvědčující silou, která stojí za projevy soucitu, protože život je vnímán jako rozsáhlá síť vzájemné závislosti, prolínání a vzájemnosti, která tvoří bytí (Emmons, Stern 2013). ...
... Fostering the development of trait gratitude to nature appears to be a reasonable educational goal. Educators may couple place-based activities (e.g., nature tours) with such gratitude interventions as "thank you letter" (e.g., Watkins et al., 2003) or gratitude journal-keeping (e.g., Emmons & Stern, 2013). It is expected that over time, both trait gratitude to nature and environmentally responsible behavior can be fostered. ...
Full-text available
Article
Feeling grateful to nature for its bountiful benefits to humans and wanting to give thanks to nature is a familiar theme in personal stories and cultural rituals, but this emotional experience has rarely been understood scientifically. The present research fills this gap by presenting a theory of gratitude to nature. Findings from four correlational studies and two experiments show some support for its propositions. Gratitude to nature can be conceptualized as a form of benefit-triggered gratitude. The distinction between trait and state gratitude to nature was found to be valid, and both forms of gratitude can be reliably measured. Trait gratitude to nature was associated with some constructs relevant to the human-nature relationship (e.g., experience with nature, connectedness to nature, anthropomorphism of nature) and interpersonal gratitude. Also, trait gratitude to nature was associated with not only intention to perform pro-environmental behavior but also actual donation to environmental causes. Experimental manipulation of gratitude to nature had some behavioral effect, but this effect was not robust. The theory offers novel insights into the understanding of humans’ relations with nature and responses to environmental problems. It also suggests potential directions for environmental education and communication.
Chapter
Gratitude is important for social and emotional health. Research suggests that there is a relation between experiencing and expressing gratitude and happiness. The aim of this chapter is to review current research regarding gratitude development and happiness, adolescent gratitude development, and to discuss future recommendations. This chapter also discusses a study examining adolescent perspectives on the meaning of being thankful. To obtain adolescent perspectives on the meaning of being thankful, adolescents (N = 1,098) wrote essays describing what being thankful meant to them. Thematic analysis was used to identify and analyze themes within the essays. Percentiles were calculated for the most recurrent themes across essays (Appreciation = 54.07%, Family = 31.42%, Positive Emotions = 28.81%, Assistance/Support from Others = 25.99%, Friendship = 21.18%, and Downward Comparison = 16.60%). Understanding gratitude development in adolescents can aid in creating effective interventions, potentially increasing adolescent well-being and happiness.
Full-text available
Article
Group psychotherapy has been shown to be equivalent to individual therapy for many disorders, including anxiety, depression, grief, eating disorders, and schizophrenia (Burlingame & Strauss, 2021). In addition to effectiveness in reducing symptoms, group offers members a sense of belonging, purpose, hope, altruism, and meaning throughout treatment (Yalom & Leszcz, 2020). These additional outcomes are especially important considering the COVID-19 pandemic and national/international conflicts, given the trauma, disruptions, and losses people have experienced. Applying recent developments in positive psychology to group therapy can enhance treatment. A practice-friendly review examined recent advances in the positive psychology literature, demonstrating how group therapy offers members unique growth opportunities in addition to reducing symptoms. Key findings from studies applying positive psychological constructs to group therapy outcomes are synthesized. Our review sheds light on the relevance of third wave positive psychology to enrich group therapy (Lomas et al., 2021). Specifically, group therapy can facilitate the development of vitalizing psychological virtues, and these can be used to assess treatment outcome: humanity, wisdom, transcendence, courage, temperance, and justice. Interrelatedly, we present support for including attachment theory and mentalization within a positive psychological group framework. Implications are explored for group therapy research, clinical work, and training.
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Lernziel: Ziel des Workshops ist es, den Austausch zwischen verschiedenen Akteuren im Bereich der digitalen Lehre anzuregen und Lösungen für die aktuellen Herausforderungen der digitalen Transformation der Lehre zu finden. Ablauf der Veranstaltung mit Zeitplan inkl. eingesetzter didaktischer Methoden: Im Rahmen des Workshops sollen zwei aktuelle Fragestellungen der digitalen Transformation der Lehre bearbeitet werden: Welche Herausforderungen müssen bei digitalen Prüfungen beachtet werden und wie kann die Lehre in den Gesundheitsberufen in Zukunft gestaltet werden („New Normal“)? Hintergrund: Durch die COVID-19-Pandemie kam es an Hochschulen zu einem sogenannten Digitalisierungs-Schub, in dem sich in kürzester Zeit eine Vielzahl von neuen und unterschiedlichen digitalen Lehr- und Lernmethoden entwickelt haben [1]. Die schnelle Umgestaltung der digitalen Lehre führte allerdings vielerorts zu dem was von Hodge mit dem Begriff des „Emergency Remote Teachings“ prägte [2]. Einige dieser entwickelten Lehr-Lernmethoden bieten allerdings auch das Potential auch in Zukunft in der „regulären“ Lehre implementiert zu werden [3]. In diesem Zusammenhang können ein institutions- und disziplinenübergreifender Austausch und das Lernen voneinander gewinnbringend für die (Weiter-)Entwicklung künftiger Lehr-Lernformate sein. Methode: In zwei kurzen Impuls-Vorträgen von je 10 Minuten werden die aktuellen Entwicklungen in den beiden Themenbereichen vorgestellt. Anschließend werden die Teilnehmer*innen auf zwei BarCamps-Session aufgeteilt. Ein Barcamp ist eine offene Veranstaltung, die als Weiterentwicklung der Open Space Methode vor allem Interaktion und Partizipation der Teilnehmer*innen fördert. Inhalte und Ablauf werden von den Teilnehmer*innen zu Beginn selbst entwickelt und im weiteren Verlauf gestaltet. Barcamps dienen dem inhaltlichen Austausch auf Augenhöhe, unabhängig von Vorerfahrungen und Expertise und der Diskussion, können aber auch bereits am Ende der Veranstaltung konkrete Ergebnisse vorweisen. In diesem Fall handelt es sich um eine modifizierte BarCamp-Variante, in der Impuls-Vorträge zu den zwei genannten Themen den jeweiligen Elevator-Pitches der Teilnehmenden vorausgehen. Zeitplan: • 10 Min. Begrüßung und Vorstellung des Ablaufs • 20 Min. Impuls-Vorträge • 100 Min. Arbeit in den BarCamps-Sessions (inkl. Pausen) • 10 Min. Pitches • 90 Min. Arbeit in selbstorganisierten Kleingruppen, je nach Interesse • 30 Min. Vorstellung der Ergebnisse und Abschlussdiskussion Ergebnisse: Im Rahmen des Workshops sollen die Teilnehmer*innen die Herausforderungen und Lösungen für die dringenden Themen im Feld der digitalen Transformation der Lehre herausarbeiten. Zielgruppe & Vorbereitung: Alle an der digitalen Transformation der Lehre interessierte Personen mit Lehrerfahrung. Teilnehmer*innen sollten mit dem grundsätzlichen Ablauf von BarCamps vertraut sein. https://www.egms.de/static/de/meetings/gma2022/22gma221.shtml
Chapter
Spirituality and Psychiatry addresses the crucial but often overlooked relevance of spirituality to mental well-being and psychiatric care. This updated and expanded second edition explores the nature of spirituality, its relationship to religion, and the reasons for its importance in clinical practice. Contributors discuss the prevention and management of illness, and the maintenance of recovery. Different chapters focus on the subspecialties of psychiatry, including psychotherapy, child and adolescent psychiatry, intellectual disability, forensic psychiatry, substance misuse, and old age psychiatry. The book provides a critical review of the literature and a response to the questions posed by researchers, service users and clinicians, concerning the importance of spirituality in mental healthcare. With contributions from psychiatrists, psychologists, psychotherapists, nurses, mental healthcare chaplains and neuroscientists, and a patient perspective, this book is an invaluable clinical handbook for anyone interested in the place of spirituality in psychiatric practice.
Article
How can gratitude interventions be designed to produce meaningful and enduring effects on people’s well-being? To address this question, the author proposes the Catalyst Model of Change—this novel, practical, and empirically testable model posits five socially oriented behavioral pathways that channel the long-term effects of gratitude interventions as well as how to augment gratitude experiences in interventions to boost treatment effects and catalyze these behavioral pathways. Specifically, interventions that enhance the frequency, skills, intensity, temporal span, and variety of gratitude experiences are likely to catalyze the following post-intervention socially oriented behaviors: (a) social support–seeking behaviors, (b) prosocial behaviors, (c) relationship initiation and enhancement behaviors, (d) participation in mastery-oriented social activities, and (e) reduced maladaptive interpersonal behaviors, which, in turn, produce long-term psychological well-being. A unique feature of the Catalyst Model of Change is that gratitude experiences are broadly conceptualized to include not just gratitude emotions, cognitions, and disclosures, but also expressing, receiving, witnessing, and responding to interpersonal gratitude. To this end, gratitude interventions that provide multiple opportunities for social experiences of gratitude (e.g., members expressing gratitude to each other in a group) might offer the greatest promise for fostering durable, positive effects on people’s psychological well-being.
Chapter
Gratitude has been recognized as virtuous for centuries, but steady psychological research only emerged in the last few decades. Ample evidence has accumulated in a short time that gratitude is associated with better mental health outcomes—in terms of less mental illness and more psychological well-being. This article opens with a broad view of gratitude in terms of its implications for human development. Then we summarize empirical findings on gratitude's advantages to the functioning and well-being of youth and adults. We propose that gratitude fosters mental health and well-being because it is linked to many aspects of positive functioning and because it engages various mechanisms to benefit well-being. In conclusion, gratitude may instill many positive habits for people of various ages to be happy and flourish.
Article
Young adults (ages 18-25) experience the highest levels of mental health problems of any adult age group, but have the lowest mental health treatment rates. Text messages are the most used feature on the mobile phone and provide an opportunity to reach non-treatment engaged users throughout the day in a conversational manner. We present the design of an automated text message-based intervention for symptom self-management. The intervention comprises: (1) psychological strategies (i.e., types of evidence-based techniques leveraged to achieve symptom reduction) and (2) interaction types or the form that intervention content takes as it is delivered to and elicited from users.
Article
Self‐transcendent emotions are positive emotions that arise out of other‐focused appraisals. These emotions shift attention from the self to the needs and concerns of others. Limited work, however, focuses on self‐transcendent emotions and the underlying cognitive and behavioural mechanisms by which they benefit organizations. We review the disparate streams of research on self‐transcendent emotions and detail the thought‐action repertoires of four self‐transcendent emotions (compassion, gratitude, inspiration, and awe), explaining how each contributes to effective organizational functioning. Central to achieving this aim is the broaden‐and‐build theory. We show how the four self‐transcendent emotions broaden cognitive processes and build the necessary resources leading to specific positive organizational outcomes. We conclude our review with four themes: (a) the importance of delineating levels of analysis in self‐transcendent emotion research, (b) acknowledging contextual and cross‐cultural differences shaping the experience of self‐transcendent emotions, (c) addressing measurement concerns, and (d) the examination of other self‐transcendent emotions. In effect, we synthesize the positive psychology and organizational behaviour literature, generating a framework that prompts theoretical and practical considerations for the role of self‐transcendent emotions in organizations.
Article
Research has shown that promoting gratitude among nurses can positively impact nurse well-being and job satisfaction. Findings from this study, in which graduate nurses from a residency program at a Level I trauma center reflected and wrote about gratitude, suggest that gratitude journaling enhances job retention.
Article
The article analyzes discussions about whether gratitude is an experience or a personal trait and part of the worldview. It is shown that the researchers focused on two components of gratitude: cognitive one (rational assessment of the actions usefulness of other or certain events) and affective one (experiencing a set of positive emotions: joy, admiration). Recently, the idea that gratitude is a personality trait has become widespread. In our opinion, gratitude is a basic life guideline, which is manifested in the cognitive aspect – assessing what a person has, awareness of the time perspective of life, understanding the manifestations of positivity (implicit theory of the positive world), in the affective aspect – experiencing specific emotions, reverence, admiration, affection) during the meeting with certain objects, which, in fact, chooses the person himself, in the behavioral aspect – control of their own attention to focus on the positive in the current moment, as well as choosing more optimal response strategies. Researches of the gratitude impact on the experience of well-being and its individual aspects have shown that there are complex interrelationships between gratitude and the parameters of personal well-being. On the one hand, gratitude contributes to the formation of positive relationships, because the person encourages others to justify his hopes. On the other hand, gratitude reduces hedonistic adaptation and encourages the individual not to take the positive aspects of his life for granted, and thus becomes a personal resource when experiencing stress. There are formalized social practices of gratitude – certain rituals of expression of gratitude on clearly defined “holidays”. The actual implementation of the act of gratitude has a relatively low effect. The most effective personal practices of gratitude are considered to be cognitive – the actualization of the experience of gratitude by increasing attention to small details and awareness of their importance while reducing the focus on fair exchange with the world. In particular, making various forms of lists of things and phenomena for which a person is grateful, solving hypothetical situations, writing letters of gratefulness, and so on. When applying such practices, their diversity is important to maintain the motivation of an individual to use them. Key words: gratitude, well-being personality, positive emotion, gratitude practice, optimal functioning.
Article
Stress causes serious illnesses and damages employee well-being. The mutual gains human resource management (HRM) framework places HRM practices as the custodian of employee well-being in an organisation. This study presents a mutual gains HRM framework which has three components. First, employees can perceive that their organisation enacts HRM practices from two benevolent intentions (a) to help employees perform better and b) to improve their well-being. Second, these benevolent HRM attributions invoke gratitude among employees. Third, gratitude reduces employees’ perceived stress and improves their engagement levels. Fourth, gratitude mediates the relationship between both benevolent HRM attributions, employee stress and engagement levels. Purposive sampling technique was deployed for the collection of data using structured questionnaire from 294 respondents, working in the telecommunications sector of Pakistan. Measurement and structural model validity were tested through structural equation modelling (SEM) using Mplus 7.0. The findings confirmed theoretical connotations among the constructs. The study contributes to the literature by introducing a new HRM framework mediated by gratitude to reduce employee stress levels and improve their engagement.
Full-text available
Article
Penelitian menyebutkan bahwa anak dari orang tua yang bercerai memiliki harga diri yang lebih rendah dari pada orang tua yang tidak bercerai. Terapi kebersyukuran diprediksikan dapat membantu mengubah persepsi negatif remaja tentang dirinya menjadi persepsi yang positif sehingga evaluasi dirinya menjadi baik, dengan demikian harga dirinya akan meningkat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keefektifan terapi kebersyukuran dengan pendekatan cognitive behavior therapy (G-CBT) untuk meningkatkan harga diri pada remaja korban perceraian. Metode pada penelitian ini adalah menggunakan kuasi eksperimen dengan desain penelitian single case A-B-A-B Penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis data secara kuantitatif dengan melihat perubahan skor hasil pengukuran berdasarkan waktu pengukuran. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa skor harga diri partisipan meningkat setelah diberikan terapi Gratitude Cognitive Behavior Therapy (G-CBT) dan pengaruh dari terapi ini masih berdampak selama 2 minggu setelah diberi perlakuan. Setelah terapi dihentikan skor harga diri tidak mengalami penurunan atau kembali seperti pada pengukuran awal.
Article
Although organizational crises, particularly the COVID-19 pandemic, are shocks for employees, their expression of gratitude can be viewed as a silver lining. Drawing on social exchange theory and the social functions of emotion perspective, we develop a model that elucidates why and when benefactors who receive gratitude expression can perform better in the COVID-19 crisis. We propose that receiving gratitude expression as a potential consequence of providing crisis-related help to coworkers enhances one’s crisis self-efficacy and perceived social impact, which, in turn, positively relates to adaptation to a crisis, task performance, and helping behaviors toward leaders. The perceived novelty of the COVID-19 crisis strengthens the positive effect of receiving gratitude expression on crisis self-efficacy, and the perceived criticality of the crisis strengthens the positive effect of receiving gratitude expression on perceived social impact. A scenario-based experiment and five-wave field survey with Eastern and Western employees generally support our hypotheses.
Full-text available
Article
Gratitude is the act of expressing our feelings for others and for ourselves. We not only make others happy with simple words of love and praise, but we also feel a lot better about ourselves and our lives. Gratitude is about having the right feelings at the right time about the right things. It's inextricably linked to self-control and motivation. It may not provide immediate relief from pain and stress, but it restores our sense of control. Gratitude is a tool for increasing happiness in the context of positive psychology. The benefits of gratitude are not linked to any sort of pathology or religion, but rather to a desire to create healthy and thriving people and societies. As the preceding paragraphs demonstrated, there are numerous ways to express gratitude. Maybe it's a gratitude journal, or maybe it's treating a stranger with kindness because someone did something nice for you. Try practising gratitude the next time you have some free time. You might be surprised by the advantages it provides. Please share your thoughts and experiences with this important emotion, as always.
Article
Resident physician burnout and well-being are increasingly important and salient topics in medical training. Unfortunately, limited research exists regarding the efficacy of various burnout and wellness interventions for resident physicians. Better characterization of the causes of burnout and the components of well-being must necessarily precede implementation and evaluation of interventions. The authors advocate for an increased role for technology in implementing and studying wellness programming for resident physicians. In addition, they describe an intervention under development at the University of Colorado School of Medicine that uses a "Gratitude Journal" smartphone app to support trainee wellness.
Article
Purpose The aim of the current study was to examine the previously unexplored relationship between positive reframing as a mediator between gratitude and technostress in Indian students. By examining this relationship, the authors aim to expand the theoretical domain of gratitude research by examining its potential influence on technology-induced stress. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional survey was used to collect and analyze data from 552 Indian college students who participated in graduate and postgraduate programs across various educational institutions in India. Regression and mediation analyses were performed with both IBM SPSS 25 and AMOS. Findings This study’s data suggest that positive reframing plays an important mediating role between gratitude and technostress. Gratitude also encourages positive reframing, which reduced technostress among the students. Taken together, our data showed that gratitude induces positive reframing, which in turn reduces techno-stress among Indian students in the current study. Research limitations/implications The sample size in this study is relatively small in relation to the student population in India. The current study relied primarily on quantitative data and analysis and further research could use a mixed-method approach to better understand the underlying mechanisms between positive reframing, gratitude and technostress. The results are derived under an extreme coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic situation; therefore, the results cannot be generalized to normal times. Practical implications The paper includes implications for teachers, academic leaders, parents and civil society. Originality/value Overall, the relationship between positive reframing, gratitude and technostress has not been thoroughly explored. To the best of the authors' understanding, this is the first study to examine the influence of gratitude on technology-induced stress and the role of reframing.
Article
Background Over a third of people with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS) struggle with poor mental health, which exacerbates physical symptoms and complicates clinical treatment. To address this, we tested the efficacy of an interpersonal emotion regulation intervention: this intervention seeks to improve mental health by teaching participants to use emotion regulation strategies which leverage social support (e.g., reaching out to others for comfort when experiencing a stressful event). Method Nineteen PwMS completed this prospective, blinded randomized controlled trial (intervention n=10; control n=9). Intervention participants met with an interventionist over six weeks to discuss their emotional challenges and develop goals to use interpersonal emotion regulation strategies. Participants in the control condition met with the interventionist on the same schedule but their emotion regulation strategies were only measured and not manipulated. Pre-registered primary outcomes were self-reported depression, stress, and quality of life (QoL). The pre-registered secondary outcome was self-reported social support. Results Intervention participants’ depression scores improved from time 1 to time 2 (mean difference=3.60, 95% CI [0.44-6.76]), yet remained unchanged for the control group (mean difference=-1.67, 95% CI [-5.00-1.67], overall interaction, F(1,17)=5.84, p=.027, ηp²=.256). The remaining primary (stress and QoL) and secondary (social support) outcomes did not show a significant effect of the intervention (stress: p=.601, ηp²=.016; QoL: p=.179, ηp²=.104; social support: p=.140, ηp²=.124). Conclusion Interpersonal emotion regulation is beneficial in improving depression in PwMS. Consequently, these strategies can be implemented in conjunction with existing mental health treatments in a holistic approach to improving well-being.
Full-text available
Article
ABSTRAK Pengelolaan sampah di Kota Bandung dikelola dengan membuat beberapa tempat penampungan sementara (TPS) dan tempat pembuangan akhir (TPA). Dari sekian banyak TPS yang dinilai kinerjanya menurun adalah TPS Gedebage. Penelitian ini adalah hasil pengembangan dari pengabdian kepada masyarakat yang dilaksanakan untuk menanggulangi tingkat stress kinerja petugas lapangan pengangkut sampah. Adapun jenis penelitian adalah kuantitatif, dengan menelaah peran pelatihan penanggulangan stres kerja pada peningkatan kinerja petugas lapangan di TPA Gedebage, Bandung. Kumpulan Subyek penelitian yang ditelaah adalah petugas kebersihan lapangan di Kelurahan Cisaranteun Kidul, dengan menggunakan teknik sampel sampling jenuh diperoleh sebanyak 37 orang sampel. Dalam menganalisis data yang diperoleh, dibutuhkan data yang mempunyai tingkat akurasi yang baik dan dapat dipercaya agar hasil penelitian mampu mengambarkan kondisi yang sebenarnya terjadi pada objek penelitian, adapun penelaahan data dalam penelitian ini menggunakan teknik deskriptif dan verifikatif. Temuan dalam penelaahan yaitu pelatihan penanggulangan stres kerja yang diikuti oleh petugas lapangan angkutan sampah Perusahaan Daerah (PD) Kebersihan Kota Bandung UPT Gedebage dapat dinyatakan menurunkan tingkat stress kerja. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian secara parsial menunjukan bahwa pelatihan penanggulangan stress kerja berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kinerja petugas pada bagian pengangkutan sampah (pengemudi Triseda) yang bertugas di Kelurahan Cisaranteun Kidul, Bandung. Kata kunci: pelatihan, stress kerja, kinerja pegawai. ABSTRACT Waste management in the city of Bandung is managed by making several temporary shelters (TPS) and final disposal sites (TPA). One of the polling stations whose performance has decreased is the Gedebage TPS. This exploration is the consequence of the advancement of community service which is carried out to overcome the stress level of the performance of the waste transporter field officers. To complete this research, the method used is a quantitative method, where the object to be studied is the role of work stress management training in improving the performance of field officers at Gedebage TPA, Bandung. The populace that will be utilized in this review is the waste transportation officer (Triseda driver) on duty in Cisaranteun Kidul Village, using a saturated sampling technique, 37 samples were obtained. In analyzing the data obtained, it takes data that has a good level of accuracy and can be trusted so that the research results are able to depict the real conditions that happen in the object of research, while the data analysis techniques in this study are descriptive and verification analysis. The findings in this study are that the training for dealing with work stress, which was attended by field officers of the Regional Cleanliness Company (PD) of Bandung City, UPT Gedebage, can be stated to reduce the level of work stress. Based on the results of the partial study, it showed that the training to overcome work stress had a significant effect on the performance of officers in the waste transportation section (Triseda drivers) who served in Cisaranteun Kidul Village, Bandung. Keywords: training, job stress, employee performance.
Article
Several lines of research document various relational and personal benefits of gratitude and its key behavioral manifestation, expressed gratitude. Integrating these lines, we propose the three-factorial interpersonal emotions (TIE) analytical framework, using two directions of gratitude behavior-expression and receipt of the expression-perspectives of both individuals reporting those behaviors-the acting self and the observing partner-and two temporal scopes to examine gratitude-the dispositional and the situational (operationalized as one's 2-week average thanking behavior and daily variations around the average, respectively). These describe eight (2 × 2 × 2) prototypical aspects of behavioral manifestations of interpersonal emotions such as expressed gratitude. We demonstrate the TIE model using a well-powered dyadic daily-diary dataset of naturally emerging gratitude interactions within romantic couples. Results show all aspects of situational gratitude behavior uniquely forecast daily increases in relationship satisfaction; these effects mediate contemporaneous daily increases in life satisfaction, and are not attributable to self-disclosure, fairness, politeness, or general positivity. Alternatively, although they each show a zero-order effect, many aspects of dispositional gratitude behavior do not exert independent effects on relationship or life satisfaction, nor do they hold against the four nongratitude constructs. Exemplifying the utility of the TIE model, we conclude behavioral gratitude is an everyday phenomenon; it comprises related yet distinguishable interpersonal acts, and can be understood from the different perspectives of the actors involved. Methodologically, our work shows the value of bringing relationship-science techniques to study the social functions of emotions, and generates new questions about gratitude in everyday life. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
Full-text available
Article
We assessed transgressors’ (20 male, 20 female) subjective emotions and physiological responses in two complementary within-subjects imagery studies. In Study I, participants ruminated about a real-life transgression and imagined seeking forgiveness from the victim. In Study II, participants imagined their victims responding with a grudge, with genuine forgiveness, and with reconciliation. Imagery of forgiveness-seeking behaviors (Study I) and merciful responses from victims (forgiveness and reconciliation in Study II) prompted greater perceived interpersonal forgiveness, improved basic emotions (e.g., sadness, anger, fear) and moral emotions (e.g., guilt, shame, gratitude, empathy, hope), as well as less furrowing of the brow muscle (corrugator) compared to ruminations about one’s real-life transgression (Study I) or an unforgiving response from the victim (Study II). Autonomic nervous system measures (heart rate, skin conductance levels) were largely unaffected by imagery. In Study II, smiling activity (zygomatic EMG) increased more when imagining victims’ merciful versus begrudging responses. In Study I, participants reported higher self-forgiveness during forgiveness-seeking imagery, but perceived greater divine forgiveness during transgression-focused imagery.
Full-text available
Article
Forgiveness and gratitude represent positive psychological responses to interpersonal harms and benefits that individuals have experienced. In the present article we first provide a brief review of the research that has shown forgiveness and gratitude to be related to various measures of physical and psychological well-being. We then review the empirical findings regarding the cognitive and affective substrates of forgiveness and gratitude. We also offer a selective review of some of the interventions that appear to be effective in encouraging forgiveness and gratitude. To conclude, we suggest some ways in which the insights from the basic research on promoting forgiveness and gratitude might be meaningfully integrated into cognitive psychotherapy.
Full-text available
Article
Recent scientific work has established both a theoretical basis and strong empirical evidence for a causal impact of social relationships on health. Prospective studies, which control for baseline health status, consistently show increased risk of death among persons with a low quantity, and sometimes low quality, of social relationships. Experimental and quasi-experimental studies of humans and animals also suggest that social isolation is a major risk factor for mortality from widely varying causes. The mechanisms through which social relationships affect health and the factors that promote or inhibit the development and maintenance of social relationships remain to be explored.
Full-text available
Article
In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study I revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being, prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies I and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity. Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
Full-text available
Article
The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
Full-text available
Article
Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (e. g., American Psychiatric Association, 1994), and present some cross-cultural findings that suggest a surprising ubiquity of strengths and virtues. Finally, the authors focus on psychological interventions that increase individual happiness. In a 6-group, random-assignment, placebo-controlled Internet study, the authors tested 5 purported happiness interventions and 1 plausible control exercise. They found that 3 of the interventions lastingly increased happiness and decreased depressive symptoms. Positive interventions can supplement traditional interventions that relieve suffering and may someday be the practical legacy of positive psychology.
Article
The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
Article
In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
Chapter
This introductory chapter explains the coverage of this book, which is about the psychological aspects of gratitude. It discusses the reasons behind the increased interest in gratitude. These include the focus of the positive psychology movement on human strength and virtues, renewed interest of social scientists in people's religious and spiritual lives and resurgent interest in virtue ethics, a subfield of moral philosophy. This book examines the prosocial contours of gratitude, its origin and its manifestations and development in modern life.
Article
Positive affects in the context of positive dyadic interactions are fundamental to mental health and the development of the self; the authors consider them from within accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (AEDP), an attachment and emotion model of psychotherapy. The authors explore 3 phenomenological, affective, and behavioral sets of positive affects--mastery affects, healing affects, and core state--and understand their adaptive value by referencing the realms of attachment, intersubjectivity, and affective neuroscience. In the context of a positive coordinated therapeutic relationship, the authors detail an experiential process in which the dyadic regulation of painful emotion naturally culminates in the emergence of positive affects and positive emotional states, which, in turn, are vehicles for accessing the emotional resources associated with resilient functioning and emotional flourishing. Detailed transcripts from 2 videotaped sessions are microanalyzed to delineate the moment-to-moment phenomenology and dynamics of the AEDP therapeutic process and to document the spontaneous emergence of these positive affective phenomena in a context designed to make the most of their therapeutic effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Morita and Naikan therapies from Japan are being introduced into the US, though some cultural modifications have been required. These therapies are summarized, and their indigenous psychological roots are explored. The utilization of Western therapies, particularly psychoanalysis, in Japan is examined for fit in Japanese culture. A comparison of the indigenous Japanese therapies with Western therapies highlights differences and similarities. Cultural differences emerge from this comparison and demonstrate some of the difficulties in importing psychotherapies from other countries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Lays out the basic components of hopeful thought. In brief, hope is a type of goal-directed thinking in which the protagonists perceive themselves as being capable of producing routes to desired goals, along with the motivations to initiate and sustain usage of those routes. Thus, hope is about pathways and agency. This chapter traces how hope theory developed, and contrasts it with other theories of hope that emerged during the general period from 1960 to 2000. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Mental health, similar to physical health, has been defined in terms of illness. In the 1960's, interest shifted toward exploring positive mental health. One result was the introduction of the Eastern practice of meditation into Western scientific study. One of the main goals of meditation, to uncover the positive and to catalyze our internal potential for healing and development, has been largely ignored. We focus on the positive aspects of meditation in this chapter. The aim of positive psychology is to catalyze change in psychology from a preoccupation only with repairing the worst things in life to also building the best qualities in life. The field of positive psychology at the subjective level is about positive subjective experience: well-being and satisfaction (past); flow, joy, the sensual pleasures, and happiness (present); and constructive cognitions about the future--optimism, hope, and faith. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The handbook, woven around the hope theory that has received the most attention in the 1990s, is divided into 6 sections. Two chapters describe the rise and fall of hope—that is, how hope develops normally in children and how it tragically can die for some people in their childhood or adult years. A chapter gives an overview of the various instruments for and approaches to measuring hope. Five chapters deal with how hope theory relates directly to the processes of helping people in general. 11 chapters cover hope theory applied to benefit various people: from children to adolescents to the elderly, minorities, athletes and others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
114 participants in four groups practiced 25 minutes of progressive muscle relaxation, yoga stretching, imagery, or a control task. Before and after training, participants took state versions of the Smith Quick Stress Test (which measures Somatic Stress, Negative Affect, and Worry) and the Smith R-State Inventory (which measures relaxation-related states Disengagement, Physical Relaxation, Mental Relaxation, Strength and Awareness, Joy, Love and Thankfulness, and Prayerfulness). After training, all took both the Verbal and Figural forms of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. At posttest, groups' scores did not differ on Creativity; however, when compared with yoga stretching, imagery trainees had lower posttest scores on Negative Affect. Both yoga stretching and imagery trainees displayed higher scores on self-reported Physical Relaxation than did controls. Progressive muscle relaxation trainees had lower scores on Somatic Stress than controls. Paradoxically, for all relaxation trainees, Disengagement (feeling "distant, far away, indifferent") correlated positively with both Negative Affect and Physical Relaxation, suggesting that disengagement in relaxation may not lead to relaxation-induced anxiety but may help one cope with such anxiety.
Gratitude like other positive emotions, broaden and builds The psychology of gratitude (pp.145–166) Morita and Naikan therapies: American applications
  • B L Fredrickson
Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). Gratitude like other positive emotions, broaden and builds. In R. A. Emmons & M. E. McCullough (Eds.), The psychology of gratitude (pp.145–166). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Hedstrom, L. J. (1994). Morita and Naikan therapies: American applications. Psychotherapy, 31, 154–160.
The return of the prodigal son
  • Nouwen
Nouwen, (H). (1992). The return of the prodigal son. New York, NY: Doubleday.
Thanks! How the new science of gratitude can make you happier
  • R A Emmons
Emmons, R. A. (2007). Thanks! How the new science of gratitude can make you happier. New York, NY: Houghton-Mifflin.
Naikan psychotherapy: Meditation for self-development
  • D K Reynolds
Reynolds, D. K. (1983). Naikan psychotherapy: Meditation for self-development. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Gratitude works! A twenty-one day program for creating emotional prosperity
  • R A Emmons