African American Men With Very Low-Risk Prostate Cancer Exhibit Adverse Oncologic Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy: Should Active Surveillance Still Be an Option for Them?

All authors: Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 18.43). 06/2013; 31(24). DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2012.47.0302
Source: PubMed


PURPOSEActive surveillance (AS) is a treatment option for men with very low-risk prostate cancer (PCa); however, favorable outcomes achieved for men in AS are based on cohorts that under-represent African American (AA) men. To explore whether race-based health disparities exist among men with very low-risk PCa, we evaluated oncologic outcomes of AA men with very low-risk PCa who were candidates for AS but elected to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP). PATIENTS AND METHODS
We studied 1,801 men (256 AA, 1,473 white men, and 72 others) who met National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for very low-risk PCa and underwent RP. Presenting characteristics, pathologic data, and cancer recurrence were compared among the groups. Multivariable modeling was performed to assess the association of race with upgrading and adverse pathologic features.ResultsAA men with very low-risk PCa had more adverse pathologic features at RP and poorer oncologic outcomes. AA men were more likely to experience disease upgrading at prostatectomy (27.3% v 14.4%; P < .001), positive surgical margins (9.8% v 5.9%; P = .02), and higher Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Post-Surgical scoring system (CAPRA-S) scores. On multivariable analysis, AA race was an independent predictor of adverse pathologic features (odds ratio, [OR], 3.23; P = .03) and pathologic upgrading (OR, 2.26; P = .03). CONCLUSIONAA men with very low-risk PCa who meet criteria for AS but undergo immediate surgery experience significantly higher rates of upgrading and adverse pathology than do white men and men of other races. AA men with very low-risk PCa should be counseled about increased oncologic risk when deciding among their disease management options.

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Available from: Debasish Sundi, Apr 11, 2014
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    • "The degree to which biologic/genetic differences, socioeconomic determinants, delayed diagnosis, access to care, and patterns of care contribute to poorer CaP outcomes for AA men is largely unknown [12]. Although efforts have been made to elucidate the effect of these factors on racial disparities in CaP outcomes [13] [14] [15] [16], there is a paucity of literature examining the relationship between insurance status and racial disparities and its association with cancer care patterns in the context of aggressive cancers. With the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and ongoing expansion of health insurance coverage, it is critically important to understand the influence health insurance may have on racial treatment patterns in cancer care [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Treating high-risk prostate cancer (CaP) with definitive therapy improves survival. We evaluated whether having health insurance reduces racial disparities in the use of definitive therapy for high-risk CaP. Materials and methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program was used to identify 70,006 men with localized high-risk CaP (prostate-specific antigen level > 20 ng/ml or Gleason score 8-10 or stage > cT3a) diagnosed from 2007 to 2010. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyze the 64,277 patients with complete data to determine the factors associated with receipt of definitive therapy. Results: Compared with white men, African American (AA) men were significantly less likely to receive definitive treatment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.56-0.64; P < 0.001) after adjusting for sociodemographics and known CaP prognostic factors. There was a significant interaction between race and insurance status (P interaction = 0.01) such that insurance coverage was associated with a reduction in racial disparity between AA and white patients regarding receipt of definitive therapy. Specifically, the AOR for definitive treatment for AA vs. white was 0.38 (95% CI: 0.27-0.54, P < 0.001) among uninsured men, whereas the AOR was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.57-0.66, P < 0.001) among insured men. Conclusions: AA men with high-risk CaP were significantly less likely to receive potentially life-saving definitive treatment when compared with white men. Having health insurance was associated with a reduction in this racial treatment disparity, suggesting that expansion of health insurance coverage may help reduce racial disparities in the management of aggressive cancers.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Urologic Oncology
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    • "In addition, we are wary of the extrapolation of results in studies with largely Caucasian populations to our high risk group. This fear was further strengthened by a recent report that suggested that African American men who had very low-risk prostate cancer and would have been eligible for active surveillance exhibited adverse pathologic features after radical prostatectomy [17]. A prospective trial investigating active surveillance in Jamaican men would be warranted to see the outcomes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in Jamaica as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. One report suggested that Jamaica has the highest incidence rate of prostate cancer in the world, with an age-standardised rate of 304/100,000 per year. The Caribbean region is reported to have the highest mortality rate of prostate cancer worldwide. Prostate cancer accounts for a large portion of the clinical practice for health-care practitioners in Jamaica. The Jamaica Urological Society is a professional body comprising 19 urologists in Jamaica who provide most of the care for men with prostate cancer in collaboration with medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and a palliative care physician. The health-care system is structured in two tiers in Jamaica: public and private. The urologist-to-patient ratio is high, and this limits adequate urological care. Screening for prostate cancer is not a national policy in Jamaica. However, the Jamaica Urological Society and the Jamaica Cancer Society work synergistically to promote screening as well as to provide patient education for prostate cancer. Adequate treatment for localised prostate cancer is available in Jamaica in the forms of active surveillance, nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy, external beam radiation, and brachytherapy. However, there is a geographic maldistribution of centres that provide prostate cancer treatment, which leads to treatment delays. Also, there is difficulty in affording some treatment options in the private health-care sectors. Androgen deprivation therapy is available for treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer and is subsidised through a programme called the National Health Fund. Second-line hormonal agents and chemotherapeutic agents are available but are costly to most of the population. The infrastructure for treatment of prostate cancer in Jamaica is good, but it requires additional technological advances as well as additional specialist services.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · ecancermedicalscience
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    • "AS is a promising option for PCa, to reduce active treatment related complications and to maintain quality of life, however there has been concern about delaying treatment [10], [11]. Therefore, the accurate selection of candidates for AS is very important, and numerous criteria have been introduced and validated [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Active surveillance (AS) is a promising option for patients with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa), however current criteria could not select the patients correctly, many patients who fulfilled recent AS criteria experienced pathological Gleason score upgrade (PGU) after radical prostatectomy (RP). In this study, we aimed to develop an accurate model for predicting PGU among low-risk PCa patients by using exome genotyping. Methods We genotyped 242,221 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)s on a custom HumanExome BeadChip v1.0 (Illuminam Inc.) in blood DNA from 257 low risk PCa patients (PSA <10 ng/ml, biopsy Gleason score (GS) ≤6 and clinical stage ≤T2a) who underwent radical prostatectomy. Genetic data were analyzed using an unconditional logistic regression to calculate an odds ratio as an estimate of relative risk of PGU, which defined pathologic GS above 7. Among them, we selected persistent SNPs after multiple testing using FDR method, and we compared accuracies from the multivariate logistic model incorporating clinical factors between included and excluded selected SNP information. Results After analysis of exome genotyping, 15 SNPs were significant to predict PGU in low risk PCa patients. Among them, one SNP – rs33999879 remained significant after multiple testing. When a multivariate model incorporating factors in Epstein definition – PSA density, biopsy GS, positive core number, tumor per core ratio and age was devised for the prediction of PGU, the predictive accuracy of the multivariate model was 78.4% (95%CI: 0.726–0.834). By addition the factor of rs33999879 in aforementioned multivariate model, the predictive accuracy was 82.9%, which was significantly increased (p = 0.0196). Conclusion The rs33999879 SNP is a predictor for PGU. The addition of genetic information from the exome sequencing effectively enhanced the predictive accuracy of the multivariate model to establish suitable active surveillance criteria.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · PLoS ONE
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