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Health effects of living near mobile phone base transceiver station (BTS) antennae: A report from Isfahan, Iran

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Abstract

Background: In recent years, by tremendous use of mobile phone telecommunication, a growing concern about the possible health hazards has increased greatly among public and scientists. The mobile phone exposure has been shown to have many effects upon the immune functions, stimulating hormones, mammalian brain, sperm motility and morphology, and neurological pathologies syndrome. The aim of this study was to find out the psychological and psychobiological reactions of the people who are living near mobile phone base transceiver stations (BTS) antenna, in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study on 250 randomly selected inhabitants (133 women and 117 men) was performed in October 2012 till November 2012. The inhabitants were requested to complete a standardized questionnaire that focused on the relevant psychological and psychobiological reactions parameters. A computer program (SPSS version16.0, Chicago, IL) was used for statistical analysis using the Chi-square test with Yates correction. All the data were tested using a criterion level of p = 0.05. Results: The results showed that most of the symptoms such as nausea, headache, dizziness, irritability, discomfort, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss and lowering of libido were statistically significant in the inhabitants living near the BTS antenna (<300 m distances) compared to those living far from the BTS antenna (>300 m). Conclusion: It is suggested that cellular phone BTS antenna should not be sited closer than 300 m to populations to minimize exposure of neighbors.

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... A lthough the results of improvements in the technology of mobile phone are increasing every year, several recent reports about the teratogenic effects of radiation on growth and development processes cause a lot of concerns about the deleterious effects on human [1][2][3][4]. These radiations operate in various intensities and the microwave frequency ranges from 300 MHz to 300 GHz [4,5]. ...
... A lthough the results of improvements in the technology of mobile phone are increasing every year, several recent reports about the teratogenic effects of radiation on growth and development processes cause a lot of concerns about the deleterious effects on human [1][2][3][4]. These radiations operate in various intensities and the microwave frequency ranges from 300 MHz to 300 GHz [4,5]. Emitted electromag-netic radiations from radiofrequency waves are called Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMF). ...
... Emitted electromag-netic radiations from radiofrequency waves are called Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMF). The unit of measurement of radio-waves energy is Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) which is the amount of energy absorbed or the amount of heat generated in each kilogram of body tissues [4]. The radiofrequency energy of microwave radiations is non-ionizing radiations, and emitted frequency is not strong enough to cause ionization of atoms and molecules. ...
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Background: As the use of mobile phones is increasing, public concern about the harmful effects of radiation emitted by these devices is also growing. In addition, protecting questions and biological effects are among growing concerns that have remained largely unanswered. Stem cells are useful models to assess the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on other cell lines. Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells. Adipose tissue represents an abundant and accessible source of adult stem cells. The aim of this study is to investigate of the effects of GSM 900 MHz on growth and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue within the specific distance and intensity. Materials and methods: ADSCs were exposed to GSM mobile phones 900 MHz with intensity of 354.6 µW/cm2 square waves (217 Hz pulse frequency, 50% duty cycle), during different exposure times, ranging from 6 to 21 min/day for 5 days at 20 cm distance from the antenna. MTT assay was used to determine the growth and metabolism of cells and trypan blue test was also done for cell viability. Statistical analyses were carried out using analysis of one way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The proliferation rates of human ADSCs in all exposure groups were significantly lower than control groups (P<0.05) except in the group of 6 minutes /day that did not have significant difference with control groups. Conclusion: The results show that 900 MHz RF signal radiation from antenna can reduce cell viability and proliferation rates of the human ADSCs regarding the duration of exposure.
... [1][2][3][4] In recent years, using mobile phone has drastically increased the amount of human exposure from the microwaves radiation in everyday life. [5,6] The mobile phone exposure has been shown to have effects on the immune functions, stimulating hormones, mammalian brain, sperm motility and morphology, and neurological pathologies syndrome. [7][8][9] In addition, its protection questions and biological effects are reasons why too many researchers focused on work in this field. ...
... The inhabitants were requested to complete a standardized questionnaire which prepared by author and coworkers that focused on the relevant psychologically and psychobiologically reactions parameters. [6] The questionnaire was also consisted of age and sex of the individuals, distances from BTS antenna and their location in relation to the antennas and the length of time living near the BTS antenna. ...
... The results showed that most of the symptoms such as nausea, headache, dizziness, irritability, discomfort, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss, and lowering of libido were statistically significant in the inhabitants living near the BTS antenna (<300 m distances) compared to those living far from the BTS antenna (>300 m). [6] Results also showed that the mobile phone BTS antenna may have health effects on inhabitants living near the station (5300 m distances). ...
Article
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The effects of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields exposure on humans, due to its potential health hazards, become the focus of interest from several years ago. In recent years, using mobile phone has drastically increased the amount of human exposure from the microwaves radiation in everyday life. The mobile phone exposure has been shown to have effects on the immune functions, stimulating hormones, mammalian brain, sperm motility and morphology, and neurological pathologies syndrome. [5,6] In addition, its protection questions and biological effects are reasons why too many researchers focused on work in this field. However, still, no clear mechanism has been found to explain the correlation between base transceiver stations (BTS) RF radiation and health consequences. This letter is aimed to find out the psychological and psychobiological reactions of the people with respect to exposure conditions such as the distance and length of time living near the antenna. [1‑4] [7‑9]
... We used the GSM exposure (the measurement of RF EMF in the bedroom) as a continuous variable because it is well recognised that categorisation of continuous variables introduces major problems in the analysis and interpretation of models derived in a data-dependent fashion [28,29,30]. ...
... A study carried out in Egypt [28] revealed that exposure to EMF emitted either from mobile phones or BSs had significant effects on pituitary-adrenal axis. More recently, the work developed in Iran [29] indicated that symptoms such as nausea, headache, dizziness, irritability, discomfort, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss and lowering of libido were statistically significant in the inhabitants living near the BSs (<300m distances) compared to those living far from the BSs (>300m). ...
... A study carried out in Egypt [28] revealed that exposure to EMF emitted either from mobile phones or BSs had significant effects on the pituitary-adrenal axis. More recently, work developed in Iran [29] indicated that symptoms such as nausea, headache, dizziness, irritability, discomfort, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss and lowering of libido were statistically significant in people living near BSs (<300m distances) compared to those living far from the BSs (>300m). ...
... A lthough the results of improvements in the technology of mobile phone are increasing every year, several recent reports about the teratogenic effects of radiation on growth and development processes cause a lot of concerns about the deleterious effects on human [1][2][3][4]. These radiations operate in various intensities and the microwave frequency ranges from 300 MHz to 300 GHz [4,5]. ...
... A lthough the results of improvements in the technology of mobile phone are increasing every year, several recent reports about the teratogenic effects of radiation on growth and development processes cause a lot of concerns about the deleterious effects on human [1][2][3][4]. These radiations operate in various intensities and the microwave frequency ranges from 300 MHz to 300 GHz [4,5]. Emitted electromag-netic radiations from radiofrequency waves are called Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMF). ...
... Emitted electromag-netic radiations from radiofrequency waves are called Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMF). The unit of measurement of radio-waves energy is Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) which is the amount of energy absorbed or the amount of heat generated in each kilogram of body tissues [4]. The radiofrequency energy of microwave radiations is non-ionizing radiations, and emitted frequency is not strong enough to cause ionization of atoms and molecules. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background As the use of mobile phones is increasing, public concern about the harmful effects of radiation emitted by these devices is also growing. In addition, protection questions and biological effects are among growing concerns which have remained largely unanswered. Stem cells are useful models to assess the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on other cell lines. Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells. Adipose tissue represents an abundant and accessible source of adult stem cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of GSM 900 MHz on growth and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue within the specific distance and intensity. Materials and Methods ADSCs were exposed to GSM mobile phones 900 MHz with intensity of 354.6 µW/cm² square waves (217 Hz pulse frequency, 50% duty cycle), during different exposure times ranging from 6 to 21 min/day for 5 days at 20 cm distance from the antenna. MTT assay was used to determine the growth and metabolism of cells and trypan blue test was also done for cell viability. Statistical analyses were carried out using analysis of one way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The proliferation rates of human ADSCs in all exposure groups were significantly lower than control groups (P<0.05) except in the group of 6 minutes/day which did not show any significant difference with control groups. Conclusion The results show that 900 MHz RF signal radiation from antenna can reduce cell viability and proliferation rates of human ADSCs regarding the duration of exposure.
... After screening, the following seventeen studies were included in the quantitative meta-analysis: Abdel-Rassoul et al. (2007) Regel et al. (2006), Riddervold et al. (2008), Thomas et al. (2008), Wallace et al. (2010), Wallace et al. (2012), Gómez-Perretta et al. (2013) and Shahbazi- Gahrouei et al. (2014). Table 1 shows the main characteristics of these studies. ...
... (Again, the studies and the assessment instruments which were applied are found in Table 2.) Though some of them did not use the objective or subjective distance but the actual exposure (which is not directly observable by the participants, and unlikely to be measured), the presence of the source of EMF still cannot be assumed to be fully blinded. All authors except for (2009) and Gómez-Perretta et al. (2013) studies reach this level individually, Shahbazi-Gahrouei et al. (2014) not quite (p = 0.0014), while the Augner and Hacker (2009) article yields 0.044. Bortkiewicz et al. (2012) show a few single significant measures (headache, p = 0.013, impaired memory, p = 0.004, dermal changes, p = 0.006), but out of no less than 15 endpoints and, in part, after post-hoc selection of the groups to be compared, whereby the corresponding correction produces a non-significant value. ...
... [12,13] The mobile phone technology uses frequency range from 880 to 1800 Mega Hertz (MHz). [16,17] The magnetic field strength transmitted from the antenna of the majority of all cellular phones at about 7.5-10 cm distance from the antenna is well over 0.002 mT. However, at distances less than 2.5 cm from the phone antenna, it emits electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of up to 0.01 mT. ...
... EMI has been responsible for many life-support and critical care medical device malfunctions, which raises concerns about the safety of patients who depend on these devices. [17] Recently, several reports have been published about EMI problems attributed to the use of a mobile phone near a medical device. Moreover, regarding the serum analytical equipment, there was only evidence that the RF radiation does not affect these devices at a far distance (1.4 m). ...
Article
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Background: The increasing number of mobile phones can physically cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in medical environments; can also cause errors in immunoassays in laboratories. The ELISA readers are widely used as a useful diagnostic tool for Enzymun colorimetric assay in medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ELISA reader could be interfered by the exposure to the 900 MHz cell phones in the laboratory. Materials and methods: Human serum samples were collected from 14 healthy donors (9 women and 5 men) and each sample was divided into four aliquots and was placed into four batches for the in-vitro quantitative determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). During colorimetric reading of the first, second, and third batches, the ELISA reader (Stat Fax 2100, Awareness Technology, Inc., USA) was exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 W exposure of 900 MHz radiation, respectively. For the forth batch (control group), no radiation was applied. All experiments were performed comparing ELISA read out results of the I, II, and III batches with the control batch, using the Wilcoxon test with criterion level of P = 0.050. Results: The final scores in the exposed batches I, II, and III were not statistically significant relative to the control batch (P > 0.05). The results showed that 900 MHz radiation exposure did not alter the ELISA measured levels of hCG hormone in I (P = 0.219), II (P = 0.909), and III (P = 0.056) batches compared to the control batch. Conclusion: This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance). However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors.
... Sensations of burning or warmth around the ear, headache, disturbance of sleep, memory loss, immune functions, stimulating hormones, mammalian brain, sperm motility and morphology, cancer development and neurological pathology syndromes are some of the effects being reported as resulting from living in the vicinity of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) (Santini, Santini, Le Ruz, Danze, and Seigne. (2003), and Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Karbalae, Moradi, Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi (2014)). In consequence therefore, the need for citing telecommunication base transceiver station at appropriate distance according to the accepted standard for the control of electromagnetic radiation as developed by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) (Akintonwa, Busari, Awodele, and Olayemi, 2009;and Akinyemi, et., al., 2014) is important. ...
... The issue of telecommunication mast location within residential areas calls for attention as researchers have established that sitting of these (Onifade et al., 2011, Sewo, 2006. Findings on the radiation of the BTS was measured using gauss meter and power density of electromagnetic radiation on buildings around BTS were calculated. ...
Article
Full-text available
The enormous increase in the usage of mobile phone telecommunication has led to the growing number of telecommunication Base Transceiver stations (BTS) commonly located within residential areas, thereby exposing residents to their possible negative effects. These effects, especially on residents in Osogbo, Nigeria, have not been given adequate attention in the literature. Hence, the study set out to investigate perceived environmental effects of BTS on the residents in Osogbo, Nigeria. Both stratified and convenience sampling techniques were used in collecting data for the study. The study adopted the statutory stratification of the study area into three zones, such as the core, intermediate/transition zones and the periphery. Six neighbourhoods having TBS, comprising two from each zone, were purposively selected: Oja Oba and Gbemu in the Core, Kelebe and Uniosun area in the intermediate and GRA and Oroki Estate in the periphery. One BTS was purposively selected from each of the six selected communities. All buildings within 300 metre radius of the existing 34 telecommunication base transceiver stations in Osogbo were identified to be 1900. However, there were 355 residential buildings within 300m radius of the BTS in the selected communities. Therefore 150 residential buildings representing 42.3% were selected through systematic random sampling technique, from where household heads were purposively selected and sampled with the aid of a set of pre-tested questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency count, percentages, cross tabulation, Relative Impact Index (RII) and correlation. Findings revealed that t residents considered Noise emanating from the BTS generating plant (RII = 3.75 and MD = 1.00) and Vibration (RII = 3.61 and MD = 0.86) as the major environmental effect of BTS. The study also revealed a statistically significant correlation between BTS location and headache (r = 0.168** at p = 0.000 levels, and BTS location and sleeplessness (r = 0.063** and p = 0.000) indicate that the more the residents are closer to the BTS the higher the level of occurrence of headache and sleeplessness. The study concluded that BTS should not be located in areas less than 300 meters to residential buildings.
... A pathological syndrome on humans, initially reported by the German medical doctor Erwin Schliephake in 1932, then by Soviet researchers in the 1950's, and reappeared massively and rapidly increasing during the past 10-20 years, is called electro-hypersensitivity (EHS) or "microwave syndrome" and includes headaches, anxiety, sleep disorders, fatigue, etc. (Schliephake, 1932;Johnson-Liakouris, 1998;Santini et al., 2002;Navarro et al., 2003;Hutter et al., 2006;Abdel-Rassoul et al., 2007;Blettner et al., 2009;Kundi and Hutter, 2009;Gómez-Perretta et al., 2013;Shahbazi-Gahrouei et al., 2014;Belpomme et al., 2018). Similar effects that were previously categorized as medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are recently attributed to chronic stress and inflammation (Tsigos et al., 2015). ...
... In addition, people should avoid living close to any antennas, or high voltage power lines, where studies find that health problems become statistically significant (Santini et al., 2002;Hallberg and Johansson, 2002;Draper et al., 2005;Shahbazi-Gahrouei et al., 2014). If this is not possible and shielding remains as the last solution, it should be restricted to a minimum with intermittent shielding as described. ...
... Various biological effects of chronic exposure to RFR from BTS on human depend on frequency (Laakso et al. 2017), intensity (Yakymenko et al. 2016), type of modulation (Marjanovic et al. 2015), polarization (Panagopoulos et al. 2015), duration of exposure (Laakso et al. 2017), and distance from the source (Shahbazi-Gahrouei et al. 2014;Amraee et al. 2021). Chronic exposure to a radio-frequency electromagnetic field causes possible neurological effects, including circadian rhythm disruption and sleep problems, due to changes in brain electrical activity (Qin et al. 2012;Lewczuk et al. 2014). ...
Article
We evaluated the effects of the exposure to radio-frequency radiation emanating from the base transceiver station (BTS) on the characteristics of circadian rest-activity rhythm and behavioral sleep variables in humans. We performed this exploratory field study in a sample of 89 healthy subjects randomly chosen out of 1434 individuals surveyed for the purpose. We divided 89 subjects into five groups, including the control, as a function of distance from the BTS. The E-field strength was higher in the groups of the inter-tower region and between 0 and 150 m away from the BTS. The E-field (distance) did not significantly affect the circadian rhythm parameters and behavioral sleep variables, except a marginal delay in the peak timings of the rest-activity rhythm of subjects in the inter-tower and 300–500 m groups. Notable secondary effects of the factor gender were noticed on circadian amplitude, sleep efficiency, dichotomy index, and wake after sleep onset. We concluded that exposure to radiation from the BTS did not modulate actigraphy-based behavioral sleep variables of people residing around BTS installations. We recommend more extensive field-based studies with rigorous longitudinal designs to validate the effects of radiation from the BTS in humans.
... Among the emission sources, we highlight the mobile phone antennas due to their high number, which have been the object of numerous studies (Röösli et al., 2010). However, almost the majority of these studies, which have dealt with the potential effects of the emitted radiation on health, have focused on the location of the antennas and exclusively in the proximity of the cases of disease (Atzmon et al., 2012;Dode et al., 2011;Elliott et al., 2011Elliott et al., , 2010Shahbazi-Gahrouei et al., 2014;Stewart et al., 2012). Although the use of the distance to the antenna as an exposure indicator has been questioned in several work papers (Foster and Trottier, 2013), few alternatives have been presented for the execution of epidemiological studies on the potential effects of the RF-EMF generated by the telephone antennas. ...
Article
In recent years, numerous epidemiological studies, which deal with the potential effects of mobile phone antennas on health, have almost exclusively focused on their distance to mobile phone base stations. Although it is known that this is not the best approach to the problem, this situation occurs due to the numerous difficulties when determining the personal exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF).
... It has long been known that depression is an illness that diminishes the quality of people's life around the world [1,2]. In the past two decades, considerable evidence has come to light indicating that changes in serotonergic function in the central nervous system of patients causes acute depression [3][4][5]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of continuous extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) with a frequency of 10 Hz and an intensity of 690–720 μT on the level of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) in adult male Wistar rats. A total of 24 adult Wistar male rats were used, and after exposure with an ELF-MF for 15 successive days, all rats in each test were anesthetized with chloral hydrate. Then, they were placed in a stereotaxic frame for surgery and a microdialysis process. Dialysate samples were analyzed to measure the amount of 5-HIAA by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using electrochemical detection. Results showed that ELF-MF exposure for 15 days, 1 h daily, was not effective in altering the level of 5-HIAA. However, ELF-MF exposure for 15 days, 3 h daily, decreased the level of the 5-HIAA in the raphe nucleus. It can be concluded that ELF-MFs affect the serotonergic system and may be used to treat nervous system diseases. This study is an initial step towards helping cure depression using ELF-MFs.
... Moreover, during the past 20 years, statistical studies have found associations between exposure to MT base station antennas and devices, and reported symptoms of un-wellness referred to as 'microwave syndrome' or 'electro-hypersensitivity' (EHS). The symptoms include headaches, fatigue, sleep disorders, etc. (99)(100)(101)(102)(103)(104)(105)(106)(107). A high percentage (~80%) of EHS self-reporting patients were recently found with increased oxidative stress (OS) [intracellular increase in free radicals/reactive oxygen species (ROS)] in their peripheral blood (108). ...
Article
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Exposure of animals/biological samples to human‑made electromagnetic fields (EMFs), especially in the extremely low frequency (ELF) band, and the microwave/radio frequency (RF) band which is always combined with ELF, may lead to DNA damage. DNA damage is connected with cell death, infertility and other pathologies, including cancer. ELF exposure from high‑voltage power lines and complex RF exposure from wireless communication antennas/devices are linked to increased cancer risk. Almost all human‑made RF EMFs include ELF components in the form of modulation, pulsing and random variability. Thus, in addition to polarization and coherence, the existence of ELFs is a common feature of almost all human‑made EMFs. The present study reviews the DNA damage and related effects induced by human‑made EMFs. The ion forced‑oscillation mechanism for irregular gating of voltage‑gated ion channels on cell membranes by polarized/coherent EMFs is extensively described. Dysfunction of ion channels disrupts intracellular ionic concentrations, which determine the cell's electrochemical balance and homeostasis. The present study shows how this can result in DNA damage through reactive oxygen species/free radical overproduction. Thus, a complete picture is provided of how human‑made EMF exposure may indeed lead to DNA damage and related pathologies, including cancer. Moreover, it is suggested that the non‑thermal biological effects attributed to RF EMFs are actually due to their ELF components.
... As a consequence there are more and more people get electromagnetic radiated, particularly from the selected BTS location. [37], [38], [39] had made reports about the health effects for the people living near the BTS antenna. Therefore this paper concerns with more than just to design a topology of network configuration of cellular system, but also to include reducing the EMR impact. ...
... They found that the EMF intensity increased in the building and its surroundings after the MPBS installation. Shahbazi-Gahrouei [24] conducted a cross-sectional study on people living near the mobile phone base transceiver stations (BTS). The authors reported that discomfort, irritability, nausea, headache, dizziness, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss, and decreased libido were statistically significant among the people living near the BTS antenna (less than 300 m distant) compared to those living far from the BTS antenna (more than 300 m). ...
Article
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Abstract: Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2) were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12–16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12–17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5–6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was OPEN ACCESS Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12 14520 measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
... El análisis comparativo del insomnio por barrio evidenció una mayor proporción de personas que duermen mal en el barrio Nogales, en el cual hay muchas antenas de radio y telefonía móvil, que la encontrada en el barrio Modelo, expuesto en mucha menor medida (p<0,05), lo que sugiere la posible influencia de una mayor carga de campos magnéticos proveniente de esta fuente y coincide con la teoría que proclama la acción supresora de la producción de la hormona melatonina durante la noche, mediada por el incremento en los radicales libres, debida a la exposición crónica a dichos campos (18). Este hallazgo concuerda con lo reportado en otros estudios recientes de similar diseño en Alemania (19) e Irán (20), aunque en ellos la distancia entre la vivienda y las estaciones de telefonía móvil fue reportada por los propios participantes. ...
Article
Introduction: Insomnia, a sleep disorder that affects both individual and public health, has not been studied in Barranquilla. Prior studies about the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields on sleep disorders are controversial. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of insomnia symptoms in adults aged 18 to 60 years and its relation to the presence and intensity of electromagnetic fields in two neighborhoods of Barranquilla, Colombia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 220 households located in two neighborhoods of Barranquilla, one with high exposure to radio and cell phone antennas and the other one with low exposure. After informed consent, a survey was applied among adults residing in 220 households to investigate the presence of insomnia symptoms, socio-demographic data and intake of medicines. When it was allowed, electromagnetic fields were measured with teslameters in bedrooms. The database was created in Excel™ and the data analysis was done with SPSS™, version 18. Results: Insomnia, mainly of the mild type, was present in 74.5% of the total study population while 25.5% reported a normal sleep pattern. According to the sleeping test score we found a higher prevalence of insomnia in the neighborhood with greater exposure to radio antennas and cell towers (85.4%) than in the one with lower exposure (63.3%), prevalence ratio 1.34 (CI 95% 1.14-1.57). Conclusions: This study suggests a higher prevalence of insomnia among persons living in areas with higher exposure to electromagnetic fields where the number of radio antennas and cell towers was greater.
... El análisis comparativo del insomnio por barrio evidenció una mayor proporción de personas que duermen mal en el barrio Nogales, en el cual hay muchas antenas de radio y telefonía móvil, que la encontrada en el barrio Modelo, expuesto en mucha menor medida (p<0,05), lo que sugiere la posible influencia de una mayor carga de campos magnéticos proveniente de esta fuente y coincide con la teoría que proclama la acción supresora de la producción de la hormona melatonina durante la noche, mediada por el incremento en los radicales libres, debida a la exposición crónica a dichos campos (18). Este hallazgo concuerda con lo reportado en otros estudios recientes de similar diseño en Alemania (19) e Irán (20), aunque en ellos la distancia entre la vivienda y las estaciones de telefonía móvil fue reportada por los propios participantes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Insomnia is a sleep disorder that affects both individual and public health, which has not been studied in Barranquilla. Prior studies about the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields on sleep disorders are controversial. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of insomnia symptoms in adults aged 18-60 years, in relation to the presence and intensity of electromagnetic fields, in two neighborhoods of Barranquilla, Colombia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 220 households in two neighborhoods of Barranquilla, one with high exposure to radio and cell phone antennas and the other one with low exposure. After informed consent, a survey was applied among adults residing in 220 households to investigate the presence of insomnia symptoms, socio-demographic data and intake of medicines. When it was allowed, electromagnetic fields were measured with teslameters in bedrooms. The database was created in Excel and the data analysis was done in SPSSTM, version18. Results: Insomnia, mainly of mild type, was present in 74.5% of the total study population while 25.5% reported a normal sleep pattern. According to the sleeping test score we found a higher prevalence of insomnia in the neighborhood with greater exposure to broadcasting radio and cell towers (85.4%) than in the one with lower exposure (63.3%), prevalence ratio 1.34 (CI95% 1.14-1.57). Conclusions: This study suggests an elevated prevalence of insomnia among persons living in areas with higher exposure to electromagnetic fields, where the number of radio and cell towers was greater.
... Moreover, biochemical and physiological changes in the brain induced by RFR via oxidative stress and affected melatonin production 69 could directly contribute to psychological disturbance manifested as stress, anxiety, insomnia, depression, cognitive deficits and conditions such as schizophrenia 70,71 . These are common symptoms reported by people living near RFR transmitters such as mobile base stations [72][73][74][75][76][77][78] . In fact, RFR has been shown to induce stress and elevate salivary cortisol levels in healthy human volunteers under experimental conditions resembling living near mobile base stations 79 . ...
Article
Exposure to man-made non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the form of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) emitted by power lines and electrical appliances as well as high frequency radiowaves (including microwaves) emanating from modern wireless communication systems and devices has been investigated in light of its possible impact on human health. This article focuses on radio frequency radiation (RFR) - an environmental pollutant that has increased exponentially in most parts of the world over the last couple of decades due to a rapid expansion of mobile/wireless/satellite technologies. The WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified RFR as a 2B possible human carcinogen in 2011. A large number of cell culture (in vitro) studies and animal (in vivo) studies have so far shown increased levels of endogenous oxidative stress markers and affected antioxidant levels in various tissue/cell types upon exposure to RFR. Some studies have further demonstrated ameliorative effects upon supplementation with a range of antioxidant. These findings are complemented by a limited number of human studies where exposure to RFR has shown increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status. A review of the existing scientific literature indicates oxidative stress as a central mechanism underlying cytotoxic effects related to RFR exposure, such as DNA damage and micronuclei formation as well as induction of stress proteins. Existing literature provides evidence for altered in immune/nervous/endocrine and metabolic functions upon exposure. With multi-system effects, implications in public health are substantial.
... Moreover, biochemical and physiological changes in the brain induced by RFR via oxidative stress and affected melatonin production 69 could directly contribute to psychological disturbance manifested as stress, anxiety, insomnia, depression, cognitive deficits and conditions such as schizophrenia 70,71 . These are common symptoms reported by people living near RFR transmitters such as mobile base stations [72][73][74][75][76][77][78] . In fact, RFR has been shown to induce stress and elevate salivary cortisol levels in healthy human volunteers under experimental conditions resembling living near mobile base stations 79 . ...
Article
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Exposure to man-made non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the form of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) emitted by power lines and electrical appliances as well as high frequency radiowaves (including microwaves) emanating from modern wireless communication systems and devices has been investigated in light of its possible impact on human health. This article focuses on radio frequency radiation (RFR) - an environmental pollutant that has increased exponentially in most parts of the world over the last couple of decades due to a rapid expansion of mobile/wireless/satellite technologies. The WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified RFR as a 2B possible human carcinogen in 2011. A large number of cell culture (in vitro) studies and animal (in vivo) studies have so far shown increased levels of endogenous oxidative stress markers and affected antioxidant levels in various tissue/cell types upon exposure to RFR. Some studies have further demonstrated ameliorative effects upon supplementation with a range of antioxidant. These findings are complemented by a limited number of human studies where exposure to RFR has shown increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status. A review of the existing scientific literature indicates oxidative stress as a central mechanism underlying cytotoxic effects related to RFR exposure, such as DNA damage and micronuclei formation as well as induction of stress proteins. Existing literature provides evidence for altered in immune/nervous/endocrine and metabolic functions upon exposure. With multi-system effects, implications in public health are substantial.
... Moreover, biochemical and physiological changes in the brain induced by RFR via oxidative stress and affected melatonin production 69 could directly contribute to psychological disturbance manifested as stress, anxiety, insomnia, depression, cognitive deficits and conditions such as schizophrenia 70,71 . These are common symptoms reported by people living near RFR transmitters such as mobile base stations [72][73][74][75][76][77][78] . In fact, RFR has been shown to induce stress and elevate salivary cortisol levels in healthy human volunteers under experimental conditions resembling living near mobile base stations 79 . ...
Article
Impaired Public Health in the Wireless Age – a Challenge for Environmental and Dietary Medicine in the 21st Century. Priyanka Bandara Ayubowan Health & Lifestyle Education Service, Sydney, Australia and the Environmental Health Trust, Wyoming, USA Exposure to man-made non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the form of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) emitted by power lines and electrical appliances as well as high frequency radiowaves (including microwaves) emanating from modern wireless communication systems and devices has been investigated in light of its possible impact on human health. This article focuses on radio frequency radiation (RFR) - an environmental pollutant that has increased exponentially in most parts of the world over the last couple of decades due to a rapid expansion of mobile/wireless/satellite technologies. The WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified RFR as a 2B possible human carcinogen in 2011. A large number of cell culture (in vitro) studies and animal (in vivo) studies have so far shown increased levels of endogenous oxidative stress markers and affected antioxidant levels in various tissue/cell types upon exposure to RFR. Some studies have further demonstrated ameliorative effects upon supplementation with a range of antioxidant. These findings are complemented by a limited number of human studies where exposure to RFR has shown increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status. A review of the existing scientific literature indicates oxidative stress as a central mechanism underlying cytotoxic effects related to RFR exposure, such as DNA damage and micronuclei formation as well as induction of stress proteins. Existing literature provides evidence for altered in immune/nervous/endocrine and metabolic functions upon exposure. With multi-system effects, implications in public health are substantial.
... However, there are results indicating that active users of mobile phones and computers can show various symptoms including headaches, joint pain, anxiety, dizziness, and even insomnia [1]. Furthermore, these symptoms are significantly higher in people living near mobile phone base-stations (<300 m), compared to those who live further from these (>300 m) [2]. ...
Article
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In this article, we conducted a causal analysis of a system extracted from a database of current data in the telecommunications domain, namely the Eurobarometer 73.3 database arose from a survey of 26,602 citizens EU on the potential health effects that electromagnetic fields can produce. To determine the cause-effect relationships between variables, we represented these data by a directed graph that can be applied to a qualitative version of the theory of discrete chaos to highlight causal circuits and attractors, as these are basic elements of system behavior.
... Evidence of radiation damage was even found in potted plants inside patient homes (Waldmann-Selsam and Eger, 2013). Thus, this study is certainly complementary to the study by Eger and Jahn (2010) and other research that has shown effects on the health of people by phone masts located in their vicinity (Santini et al., 2002;Eger et al., 2004;Wolf and Wolf, 2004;Abdel-Rassoul et al., 2007;Khurana et al., 2010;Dode et al., 2011;Gómez-Perretta et al., 2013;Shahbazi-Gahrouei et al., 2014;Belyaev et al., 2015). ...
Article
In the last two decades, the deployment of phone masts around the world has taken place and, for many years, there has been a discussion in the scientific community about the possible environmental impact from mobile phone base stations. Trees have several advantages over animals as experimental subjects and the aim of this study was to verify whether there is a connection between unusual (generally unilateral) tree damage and radiofrequency exposure. To achieve this, a detailed long-term (2006-2015) field monitoring study was performed in the cities of Bamberg and Hallstadt (Germany). During monitoring, observations and photographic recordings of unusual or unexplainable tree damage were taken, alongside the measurement of electromagnetic radiation. In 2015 measurements of RF-EMF (Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields) were carried out. A polygon spanning both cities was chosen as the study site, where 144 measurements of the radiofrequency of electromagnetic fields were taken at a height of 1.5m in streets and parks at different locations. By interpolation of the 144 measurement points, we were able to compile an electromagnetic map of the power flux density in Bamberg and Hallstadt. We selected 60 damaged trees, in addition to 30 randomly selected trees and 30 trees in low radiation areas (n=120) in this polygon. The measurements of all trees revealed significant differences between the damaged side facing a phone mast and the opposite side, as well as differences between the exposed side of damaged trees and all other groups of trees in both sides. Thus, we found that side differences in measured values of power flux density corresponded to side differences in damage. The 30 selected trees in low radiation areas (no visual contact to any phone mast and power flux density under 50μW/m(2)) showed no damage. Statistical analysis demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone masts is harmful for trees. These results are consistent with the fact that damage afflicted on trees by mobile phone towers usually start on one side, extending to the whole tree over time. Paper in: http://media.withtank.com/592b5448ab/waldmann-selsam_2016_scitotenv572p554-569_rf__trees.pdf http://kompetenzinitiative.net/KIT/KIT/baeume-in-bamberg/ http://kompetenzinitiative.net/KIT/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Trees-in-Bamberg-and-Hallstadt-Documentation-2006-2016.pdf https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/mobilfunk_newsletter/5r37cJ-EqPI
... Consales et al. 2012;Feychting and Forssen, 2006;Gaestel, 2010;Merhi 2012;Sommer et al. 2009). One trend is clear, however --the number of recently published, peer--reviewed scientific studies that link EMF exposure to health risks is expanding rapidly and appearing in extremely well--respected journals; see, for example, (Foliart et al. 2006;Green at al. 1999;Lowenthal et al. 2007) for ELF effects; (Aldad et al., 2012;Aslan et al. 2013;Christ et al. 2010;Gutschi et al. 2011;Hardell et al. 2005 (Aldad et al., 2012;Divan et al. 2008;Li et al., 2012), on increased risk of childhood leukaemia, adult brain tumours and acoustic neuromas (Hardell et al. 2005(Hardell et al. , 2013Kheifets et al. 2010;Levis et al. 2011), on breast cancer (Chen et al. 2013;Erren 2001), and on neurodegenerative diseases (Hug et al. 2006); EMF exposure has also been linked to sleep disturbance (Abelin et al. 2005;Shahbazi--Gahrouei et al. 2013) headaches, memory changes, and depressive symptoms (Abdel--Rassoul et al. 2007;Hagström et al. 2013); numerous effects on plants and animals have also been reported (Cucurachi et al. 2013). Although more studies report effects on human health due to mobile phone use rather than proximity to BTS radiation, scientists indicate that 'the two kinds of radiation are very similar and effects produced by mobile phones at certain distances, can be extrapolated to represent effects from base station antennas, of the same type of radiation, at about 100 times longer distances' (Panagopoulos 2011, 12). ...
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As the progress of mobile phone technology accelerates throughout Europe, the regulatory framework necessary for its safe and extended use has been slow to develop. This article analyses the relationship between scientific knowledge and regulation concerning the heath effects of increasing emissions of electromagnetic fields (EMF). From a conservationist perspective, no other example of industrial impact on the natural environment has achieved such extended penetration so quickly. From a theoretical standpoint, stakeholders are faced with a difficult choice between comprehensive risk assessment versus immediate application of the precautionary principle. By exploring the interaction between citizens, governments, and international bodies, we first analyze the challenges faced by regulators in the presence of uncertain scientific knowledge and standards of measurement. We then highlight the inadequacy of current risk assessment parameters. Lastly, within the context of State and European regulation of EMF exposure, we expand scholarship on the human rights framework to protect vulnerable populations from environmental pollution. We conclude that, because scientific knowledge is incomplete, a precautionary approach is better suited to State obligations under international human rights law.
... Nonetheless, the study's main difficulty is the rare number of cases due to the reduced incidence of the disease; therefore in future studies it is intended to apply other alternative methods of analysis, for example, Application of the Double Kernel Density Approach (Davarashvili et al., 2016). The obtained results would question the studies which, if any type of correlation were found, would be exclusively based in the location of the emission sources (Atzmon et al., 2012;Dode et al., 2011;Elliott and Savitz, 2008;Shahbazi-Gahrouei et al., 2014;Stewart et al., 2012). However, since this deals with the first epidemiological study which analyzes the incidence of the RF-EMF on specific tumors (gliomas, meningiomas and lymphomas) in a city, it is not possible to compare the results with other research papers. ...
Article
Simultaneously with the increase of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMF) in recent decades, there has been increasing concern about their potential relation with the etiology of several tumors. At this time, the techniques of spatial data analysis jointly with the study of the personal exposure to these fields offer a new approach to the problem. This paper presents the results of a preliminary epidemiological study, combining Epidemiology, Statistics and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), in which we analyzed the correlation between exposure to RF-EMF in the city of Albacete (166,000 inhabitants, southeast Spain) and the incidence of several cancers with unspecific causes (lymphomas, and brain tumors). We used statistical tools to analyze the spatial point patterns and aggregate data with the aim to study the spatial randomness and to determine the zones with the highest incidence from 95 tumors studied (65 lymphomas, 12 gliomas and 18 meningiomas). We also perform a correlation (Spearman) study between the personal exposure to RF-EMF in 14 frequency bands, recorded by an EME Spy 140 (Satimo) exposimeter in the city's administrative regions, and the incidence of the tumors registered from January 2012 to May 2015. The studied cancer cases have a random spatial distribution inside the city. On the other hand, and by means of an ecological study, we verified that the exposure to RF-EMF registered in the city of Albacete shows little correlation with the incidence of the studied tumors (gliomas (ρ=0.15), meningiomas (ρ=0.19) and lymphomas (ρ=-0.03)). The proposed methodology inaugurates an unexplored analysis path in this field.
... The value in the formula is an adjustment to ensure that the weights add up to 1. If parameter =1 then the formula is given below (6.4) [65]. When the mobile density map is examined, it is seen that people are concentrated in the central library, the central classrooms, the stadium and the nearby area. ...
Thesis
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Electromagnetic signals are described as waves with particular frequencies. The electromagnetic signals may be generated by natural causes as well as by man-made wireless communication systems. The level of the electromagnetic signal exposure increases as the technological developments require the higher usage of electronic devices as well as Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) and Global System for Mobile (GSM) services. Especially in recent years, the transition to 2nd Genetration (2G), 3rd Generation (3G) mobile technologies and the investments on the new generation 4th Generation (4G) and 4.5th Generation (4.5G) technologies cause rapid developments in Turkey in terms of GSM services. The rapid development in the field of the GSM services and the consequent electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure to the human body generated the debate on the potential dangers of the services on the human health. A lot of research studies focused on the subject however there are no certain evidences about the consequences of the EMF exposure. On the other hand, there are still views suggesting such exposure might affect the human body in different ways. To reduce such effects to minimum, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) declared boundary values for the base stations, which are the main source of the electromagnetic fields, and those values are accepted by many European countries as well as some other countries all over the World in 1998. In this study, within the boundaries of the Istanbul Technical University (ITU), using pre-specified 29 stations, the power densities of the electromagnetic signals having frequencies of 900 and 1800 MHz are measured in V/m unit by using the Spectra HF-6065 device. The results are geographically analyzed and the measurements taken for each frequency are shown on a heat map. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial interpolation techniques are used for performing electromagnetic field intensity maps. 3 different spatial interpolation methods are used for creating maps and results are compared with each other. Considering the minimum mean square error, Radial Basis and Empirical Bayesian Krigging methods are selected. In addition to electromagnetic field intensity data, social media location data are used as a supportive data for analysing mobile and 3G technologies. Within the study area, location data from Twitter are collected during one month with using Twitter Application Programming Interface (API). After collecting the location data, a heatmap has been created for visualizing mobile density. In the final step of the study, EMF intensity results are comparedwith mobile density map, which is created by using social media location data and the relation between the two data sets are composed. Based on the results, a methodology has been suggested for identifying spatial relation between mobile density and EMF intensity xx values. At the same time, it is introduced that the social media location data can be used for prediction of EMF intensity values. Furthermore, the EMF intensity values are compared with the ICNIRP standards. Results showed that the exposure levels of the electromagnetic field intensities are within the limits of the ICNIRP. However, since the EMF intensity level for the human health is not known, it is not possible to confirm if the measured levels are safe for human health. The aim of this study is to create electromagnetic field intensity maps of ITU and find potential risky areas against threats in the future.
... The effects of nonionizing radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure on biological systems, due to its potential health hazards, have become the focus of interest since many years ago. [1,2] In recent years, with the development of microwave (frequencies ranging from 300 MHz to 300 GHz) devices including mobile phones, its harmful effects are causing great concern with human. [3][4][5][6] Specific absorption rate (SAR) is the quantity of the rate at which energy is absorbed by the human body when exposed to an RF-EMF indicated the amount of heat generated in each kilogram of body tissues. ...
Article
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Background Today, using cellular phone and its harmful effects in human life is growing. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the global system for mobile communication (GSM) 900 MHz cellular phone radiofrequency waves on growth, morphology, and proliferation rate of mesenchymal stem cells and Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF-7) cells within the specific distance and intensity. Methods MCF-7 and human adipose-derived stem cells (HADSCs) were exposed to GSM cellular phones 900 MHz frequency with intensity of 354.6 μW/cm² during different exposure times 6, 21, 51, and 101 min/day with an interval of 10 min for each subsequent radiation exposure for 3 and 5 days at 10 and 20 cm distances from antenna. 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol- 2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and trypan blue test were used to determine the growth of cells and cell viability, respectively. Statistical analyses were carried out using three-way ANOVA. Differences were significant when P < 0.05. Results The proliferation rates of both MCF-7 and HADSCs cells in all exposure groups were significantly lower than controls (P < 0.05). There was a significant effect on the percentage of cell survival with increase the period of time from 3 to 5 days for MCF-7 (P < 0.01) and HADSCs (P = 0.02), respectively. Variations in distance had no significant effect on the percentage of cell survival (P = 0.35) on MCF-7 (P = 0.02) and HADSCs (P = 0.09) cells, respectively. Conclusions The results showed that radiation of GSM 900 MHz cellular phone may be reduced cell viability and proliferation rates of both cells. It is recommended to reduce exposure time, increase distance from antenna, and reserve the use of cell phones for shorter conversations to prevent its biological and harmful effects. Further studies with other intensities and frequencies on different cells are recommended.
... greatly among public, even on those who do not use such phones (Shahbazi-Gahrouei,Karbalae, Moradi, & Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, 2014). Now, millions of people around the world use form of cell phones that so called mobile phones. ...
Thesis
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Several recent studies have indicated that global system mobile communications (GSM) radiation have an adverse health effect on cells of human beings. As there is a significant increasing growth in the use of mobile telecommunications services in the Gaza Strip, which leads to increase in the number of base station locations. The purpose of this thesis is to study the effect of microwave frequency emitted from mobile phones base stations antennas on children blood. We studied the effect of the radiation emitted on the blood, liver, kidney and thyroid stimulated tissue by simulation electromagnetic waves using Finite-difference time domain method (FDTD) by MATLAB software program. Electric and magnetic fields, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and power density have been drawn with respect to time steps and evaluate experimentally the biochemical parameters and the blood picture in these tissues of the chlidren and therapeutic role of Olive oil. Total of 120 children (6-12 years) were divided to three groups. The first group served as control group. The second group exposed to electromagnetic field (E.M.F), the third group exposed to E.M.F of and given 2.5 ml/day Olive oil supplementation for 5 weeks. The second and the third groups lived nearby mobile phone base station (100-150 m). Electromagnetic field exposure increased the concentrations of serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, albumin, urea, uric acid and creatinine but total protein, globulin and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) were decreased. Activities of serum aspartate a minotransferase (AST), alanine a minotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin were increased. Concerning hematological parameters, the more obvious changes were observed in the increment of WBC, lymphocyte, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and decrease in hematocrit, Hb, RBC, and PLT count in response to the exposure to E.M.F. Improvement after supplementation suggests that Olive oil can ameliorate hazards of such radiation on hematological and biochemical indices.
... nın yaptığı çalışmaya göre radyo istasyonları, mesleki alandan ve dijital televizyon antenlerinden kaynaklı EM dalgaların nöropsikiyatrik bozukluklara neden olabileceği belirtilmiştir. EM dalgaların neden olduğu en yaygın bulguların uyku bozukluğu, uykusuzluk, baş ağrısı, baş dönmesi, depresyon, depresif belirtiler, kaygı, yorgunluk, dikkat dağınıklığı, bellek değişiklikleri, huzursuzluk, iştahsızlık, kilo kaybı, mide bulantısı, dizestezi, deri yanıkları, dermografizm ve EEG değişiklikleri olduğu belirtilmiştir (23). Cep telefonu istasyonlarından kaynaklanan EM dalgaların maruz kalma süresi ile ilişkili olarak genel endişe, kaygı, depresyon ve strese neden olacağı ile ilgili çalışmalar mevcuttur (24). ...
... A cross-sectional study on 15 non-specific symptoms of ill health was conducted with 250 randomly selected inhabitants living near a mobile phone base station in Isfahan, Iran (Shahbazi-Gahrouei et al., 2013). Various symptoms were correlated with self-estimated distance to the closest mobile phone base station according to chi-square tests without consideration of covariates. ...
... The antennas had the task of receiving and sending waves. This lead that installing and using this antenna have become popular in different places including residential areas [1]. Humans are exposed to radiofrequency produced from mobile phones and this has created a need to study its possible ill on health [2]. ...
Article
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According to the spread and raised of using mobile phones in recent year and has become necessary in our modern life, Many research studied the effect of electromagnetic mobile radiation on life tissue. this study aims to investigate the effects of mobile base station radiation with global system mobile frequency 900 MHz on children blood and protective role of olive oil supplementation. The study included three groups. The first group (20 children) as normal control. The second group (30 children) exposed to electromagnetic field, the third group (30 children) exposed to mobile radiation, this group was given 2.5 ml/day olive oil supplementation for 5 weeks. All of them participate filled questionnaire including detailed about health, Behavior, and Physical conditions. Blood samples were measured to investigate CBC. In the results, Concerning hematological parameters, the more obvious changes were observed in the increment of WBC, lymphocyte, Mean corpuscular volum (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and decrease in hematocrit, Hemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), and platelet count (PLT) in response to the exposure to mobile radiation alone. Signs of improvements in the previous hematological parameters were noticed during treatments with electromagnetic field in addition to olive oil supplementation.
Article
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We performed a re-analysis of the data from Navarro et al (2003) in which health symptoms related to microwave exposure from mobile phone base stations (BSs) were explored, including data obtained in a retrospective inquiry about fear of exposure from BSs. Cross-sectional study. La Ñora (Murcia), Spain. Participants with known illness in 2003 were subsequently disregarded: 88 participants instead of 101 (in 2003) were analysed. Since weather circumstances can influence exposure, we restricted data to measurements made under similar weather conditions. A statistical method indifferent to the assumption of normality was employed: namely, binary logistic regression for modelling a binary response (eg, suffering fatigue (1) or not (0)), and so exposure was introduced as a predictor variable. This analysis was carried out on a regular basis and bootstrapping (95% percentile method) was used to provide more accurate CIs. The symptoms most related to exposure were lack of appetite (OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.03); lack of concentration (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.89); irritability (OR=1.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.85); and trouble sleeping (OR=1.49, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.84). Changes in -2 log likelihood showed similar results. Concerns about the BSs were strongly related with trouble sleeping (OR =3.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 8.86). The exposure variable remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. The bootstrapped values were similar to asymptotic CIs. This study confirms our preliminary results. We observed that the incidence of most of the symptoms was related to exposure levels-independently of the demographic variables and some possible risk factors. Concerns about adverse effects from exposure, despite being strongly related with sleep disturbances, do not influence the direct association between exposure and sleep.
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Trace elements play a significant role in biological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trace elements of interest in kidney disease in commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran. Six kinds of greenhouse vegetables namely; Raphanus sativus (Radish), Cucumis sativus (Cucamber), Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato), green Capsicum annuum (Green bell pepper), yellow Capsicum annuum (Yellow bell pepper) and red Capsicum annuum (Red bell pepper) were collected from Isfahan greenhouses, between December 2012 to March 2013. The vegetables were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of trace elements and trace minerals using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results of INAA showed that, the concentrations of Fe (Iron), Mn (Manganese) and Zn (Zinc) were varied from <10-50.0 mgkg(-1), 6.8-15.0 mgkg(-1) and 10.0-23.0 mgkg(-1), respectively. The elemental concentration of Fe, Mn and Zn in all of the samples were less than the defined tolerable Upper Intake Level (UIL). The results of this study revealed that, considering the measured trace elements and mineral content levels, Isfahan greenhouse vegetables do not impose any serious health harmful effects for individuals in the studied area due to their meal consumptions.
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In recent years, a growing concern about the possible health hazards of mobile phones radiofrequency radiation has increased considerably among almost everyone in the world, even on those who do not have such phones. Moreover, new technologies, which use the spectrum of high frequency emissions, are incorporated in many aspects of telecommunications. As a consequence, there is a lot of interest about the possible effects of the radiation emitted from the cell phones which are engaged in the telephony. This paper presents a review on recent findings of our research team on the effects of cell phones radiation on human serum chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), ferritin and triiodothronine (T3) levels.
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Background: Todays, using of mobile phones has a an important role in human life and public concern about the harmful effects of radiation emitted by these devices is also growing. In addition, protecting questions and biological effects are among growing concerns that have remained largely unanswered. Stem cells are useful models to assess the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on other cell lines. Adipose tissue represents an abundant and accessible source of adult stem cells. Therefore, this study was performed on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Materials and Methods: ADSCs were exposed to GSM mobile phones 900 MHz with intensity of 354.6 µW/cm2 square waves (217 Hz pulse frequency, 50% duty cycle), during different exposure times, ranging from 6 to 21 min/day for 5 days at 20 cm distance from the antenna. MTT assay was used to determine the growth and metabolism of cells and trypan blue test was also done for cell viability. Statistical analyses were carried out using analysis of one way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The proliferation rates of human ADSCs in all exposure groups were significantly lower than control groups (P<0.05) except in the group of 6 minutes /day that did not have significant difference with control groups. Conclusion: The results show that 900 MHz RF signal radiation from antenna can reduce cell viability and proliferation rates of the human ADSCs regarding the duration of exposure.
Article
Previously, preliminary results of our researches showed that, mobile phone radiofrequency radiation does not affect human serum in an in vitro immunoenzymometric assay. However, we stated that the results should be confirmed in a larger series and employing different exposure doses on a specific hormone. Considering this statement, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the exposure from a 900MHz cell phone can affect the thyroid Triiodothronine (T3) levels in human serum. In addition, a review of the recent patents in radiation and immunoenzymometric assays is also presented. Human serum samples from 63 healthy donors were placed into two groups, and the well heads in the first group were exposed to 900MHz exposure emitted from a GSM mobile phone (Nokia, Model 1202, India) with 1.09Watt per kilogram (W/kg) of the tissue locally in the head specific absorption rate for 30 minute. Unexposed group was served as the control sample under identical conditions and was compared with the exposed one in quantitative determination of T3 using the Wilcoxon test with criterion level of P = 0.050. There was no significant difference in serum T3 in the exposed group compared to the control group (P > 0.05). According to this study, mobile phone radiation at frequency of 900MHz does not affect human T3 hormone in an in vitro immunoassay under the conditions used.
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Background: Nowadays, investigation the biological effects of mobile phones is important due to increases using of these devices. This study aimed to assess the effects of exposure with 900 MHz mobile telephone radiation on survival and proliferation rate of breast cancer (MCF-7, Michigan cancer foundation-7) cells. Methods: Breast cancer (MCF-7) cells was used and divided into 3 radiation groups which located at 10 and 20 cm from GSM antenna signal simulator that is able to produce electromagnetic waves with a frequency of 900 MHz. The cells were exposed at 6, 15 and 30 minutes per day with an interval of 10 minutes during exposure time of 3 and 5 days, respectively. After 3 and 5 days, MTT )thiazolyl tetrazolium( assay was used to evaluate the growth and viability. Trypan blue test was done to assess the rate of cells proliferation. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-20 software. Findings: Irradiation times and periods of 3 and 5 days has a significant impact on viability of MCF-7 cells (P <0.05), but radiation intervals at distances 10 and 20 cm on viability of MCF-7 cells no showed significant effect (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that 900 MHz RF-EMF signal radiation may be reduced cell viability and proliferation rates of the MCF-7 cells regarding to the duration of exposure.
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Abstraks Tulisan ini menganalisis penyebaran tegangan langkah disekitar sebuah struktur menara Base Transceiver Station (BTS) pascasambaran petir di puncaknya. Tegangan langkah diinvestigasi terhadap setiap perubahan komposisi tahanan-jenis (resistivity) tanah yang diakibatkan oleh musim kemarau dan hujan. Perhitungan dikerjakan dengan menggunakan perangkat (pemogram) Matlab dengan menyele saikan model persamaannya. Analisis ini menggambarkan bahwa besaran tegangan langkah bervariasi dengan perubahan nilai ‘tahanan jenis’ tanah ketika musim kemarau dan selama musim hujan terjadi. Pada musim hujan dan di akhir musim hujan tegangan langkah yang muncul relativ sangat kecil diban dingkan dengan pemunculan tegangan langkah saat di penghujung musim kemarau dimana terjadi hujan pertama kali. Hasilnya sangat penting bagi negara seperti Indonesia di mana tingkat presipitasi (curah hujan) umumnya tinggi di sebagian besar negara. Kata Kunci : Menara-BTS, Tegangan-Langkah, Petir.
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Both traditional and modern medicine share the same objective, which is to cure diseases and illnesses through its own way and concept. Similar to other traditional societies, the Siamese community also depends on traditional medicine to overcome health-related problems. The penetration of the modern medicinal elements into the Siamese community, however, does not diminish their knowledge and belief of the traditional medicine system completely. This is partly because traditional medicinal practices are still in much demand and the Siamese people believe that such practices are able to cure and treat diseases that could not be treated through modern medicine and treatment. This article seeks to provide insights into the use of plants in traditional medicine among the Siamese community in the state of Kedah. Discussion will focus on the types of plants used, the treatment methods employed, and the types of diseases treated through the use of traditional medicine by the studied community. Information for this research was obtained through field work, chiefly in the forms of interviews and participant observation, and archive research. In most cases, the plant-based medicine used by the Siamese community has two main functions. Firstly, to cure diseases and secondly, to defend self from being infected/affected by diseases. The research shows that the beliefs, customs, values, knowledge, experiences, and skills inherited from their ancestors have led the Siamese community to the practices of using plants in their traditional medicine until today. The Siamese community’s values, beliefs and heritage, where traditional medicine is concerned, are viewed as relevant and enduring irrespective of today’s modern lifestyle. The Siamese community medicinal practice is a national cultural heritage that continues to be of great value to the Siamese community. © 2018, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
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The effects of mobile phone exposure on humans, due to its potential health hazards, become the focus of interest since many years ago. To assess the effect of global system for mobile communications )GSM 900 MHz( on growth and proliferation rate of mesenchymal stem cells was performed. Setting up methods with the different distances and intensities of radiation was designed at the Department of Medical Physics, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. This system is connected to GSM by SIM (subscriber identity module) card to irradiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) during different exposure times (6, 15, 30, 50 with interval time of 10 min) at different distances from the antenna. Two tests (MTT assay and trypan blue) were performed to investigate the proliferation rate and cell viability. Findings showed that the proliferation rates and cell viability of hADSCs was significantly lower than control but, no mechanism has been proposed to explain the effects of this radiation. Further investigations with other intensities and frequencies are suggested.
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MTT assay is widely used to determine the response of cells to ionizing radiation. This method has several advantages such as relative low cost, short time to assess the samples and the possibility of acquiring the results semi-automatically. However, for this method, there are some restrictions/limitations and some important factors that should be considered. This paper is focused to discuss a standard procedure in using MTT assay for calculating the cell survival after irradiation.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of medical care and the status of radiological practice and equipment performance according to the protocols established by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in mammography divisions of Shiraz, Iran. In addition, a review of the literature is also presented. Five diagnostic mammography divisions, namely; Namazi, Faghihi, Hafez, Zeinabieh, and MRI were studied. Protocol related to staff and health physicist duties was investigated by arranging a standard questionnaire. Results showed that, approximately 47% of the staff had not passed necessary training in radiation protection and quality assurance radiation program in the beginning of their work. Moreover, about 80% of them had not their licenses renewed by attending the training classes again. More attention should be given to training and protection of the staff and quality control of the mammography machines and equipments.
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The effects of EMFs exposure on the biological systems and human body, due to its potential health hazards, have become the focus of interest since many years ago. The aim of this review is to investigate the biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human body and biological systems on the basis of recent findings. In the recent years, application of electrical devices as an artificial source of EMFs has drastically increased the amount of human exposure in daily life. In addition, protection questions and biological effects are among growing concerns which have remained largely unanswered. Among of the different spectra of EMFs, long waves or low energies EMFs named non-ionizing can influence cells process and cells proliferation. Overall, in the literature the biological effects of this kind of EMFs is a main challenge and is controversy among researchers. It was suggested that more follow-up studies with larger samples are needed for the evaluation of the effects of the EMFs. These influences in some cases are therapeutic and sometimes are destructive.
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Background: The role of ion channels and ion concentrations in cell cycle events is noted in recent years. Investigation of the role of ion channels during different cell cycle phases tend to discover a relationship between the potential of cell membrane and cell proliferation ability. A variable electric field is produced due to changes in cell membrane potential that plays role in cell division. In this study, inducing external fields with similar intensity and frequency proportion to those fields in cell membrane, the effects of low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFs) on viability and proliferation ability of MCF-7 cancer cells was evaluated. Methods: Electromagnetic fields with three different intensities and frequencies were produced using an alternative wave generator and an amplifier. MCF-7 cells were exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) for 24, 48 and 72 hour. Along with each treated cell group, a control group was considered. The influence of electromagnetic fields on cells viability and proliferation was examined using MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] assay. Findings: The relative frequency of cell growth inhibition for constant frequency of 125 kHz, for intensities of 1.00, 1.75 and 2.50 microtesla and exposure time of 24 hours was 2.40, 6.04 and 9.28 percent, respectively. For the exposure time of 48 hours and the same frequency and intensities, the relative frequency was 5.61, 8.66 and 11.95 percent, respectively. Under the same conditions and for the exposure time of 72 hours, the relative frequency was 11.15, 23.26 and 31.82 percent, respectively. For constant intensity of 2.5 microtesla and frequencies of 175 and 225 kHz, the relative frequency of cell growth inhibition for 24 hours was 6.58 and 6.79 percent, respectively. Conclusion: The relative frequency of cell proliferation rate reduced with increase of exposure time as well as intensity of electromagnetic fields. However, it does not notably change with increasing frequency. According to finding of this study, it can be concluded that electromagnetic fields with frequency and intensity in this range can disturb the division cycle of MCF-7 cells.
Article
Conjugated polymers composites are advanced materials for electrically conducting application because of high aspect ratio and improved properties with low amount of filler in the polymer. The present paper, reports the genesis of poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on the layers of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) via insitu chemical oxidative polymerization using dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) as surfactant. In low temperature polymerization, PEDOT has been allowed to grow on RGO results in core shell type composites as revealed by Scanning electron microscope images which provide good electromagnetic shielding properties in 12.4–18 GHz frequency range. Dielectric and shielding properties reveals that as prepared composites have high affinity for the absorption of microwaves with absorption value (SEA) of 34.7 dB (∼99.97% attenuation) with broad bandwidth has been achieved. Higher absorption value is due to the lossy nature with dielectric loss (ε′′/ε′ = ∼3.1) which results from the laminar morphology of the composites and found to increase with the thickness of material and the concentration of RGO.
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As the progress of mobile phone technology accelerates worldwide, the regulatory framework necessary for its safe and extended use has been slow to develop. The hardware delivery of wireless phone technology poses new challenges to our understanding of human rights. This chapter analyses the relationship between scientific knowledge and regulation concerning the health effects of increasing electromagnetic field emissions from mobile phone towers (base transceiver stations). From a conservationist perspective, no other example of industrial impact on the natural environment has achieved such extended penetration so quickly. This presents an ethical conundrum: stakeholders are faced with the difficult choice between waiting for a comprehensive, long-term assessment of health impacts from electromagnetic exposure and immediate application of the precautionary principle. By exploring examples of interaction between citizens, governments, and international bodies, we first analyse the challenges faced by regulators in the presence of uncertain scientific knowledge and standards of measurement. We then highlight the inadequacy of current parameters. Lastly, we expand the debate on how we may use a human rights framework to protect vulnerable populations from digital pollution. We conclude that, because scientific knowledge on the health effects of wireless technology delivery is incomplete, a precautionary approach is better suited to State obligations under international human rights law.
Article
The location of telecommunication towers is of particular public concern due to the dread of potential health peril from the electromagnetic field (EMFs) emitted by these devices. This paper outlines the results of a case study to determine residents’ perceptions towards living near telecommunication towers in Malaysia, and how they evaluate the health impacts of these structures. The results provide initial evidence that telecommunication towers have little influence on residents’ perception on health symptoms and that it would not be a reason for them to move away. Furthermore, the results show that more than half of the respondents feel that it is safe to live near a telecommunication tower but it raises aesthetic concern. The outcome provides a potential source of information for related government agencies in assessing increasing health concern for residents living near telecommunication towers.
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Ferritin is a macromolecule and is responsible for the long term iron storage function in human serum and plasma. Recent studies have highlighted the role of cell phone exposure on central nervous system, immune function and reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the human serum ferritin level could be interfered by the exposure to the 900 MHz GSM cell phones. Fifty human serum wells from 25 normal healthy donors were labeled with ruthenium to form a sandwich complex based on an immunoassay technique. All of them were placed into two batches, and the well heads in the first batch were exposed to 900 MHz exposure emitted from a speech mode cell phone (Nokia, Model 1202, India) for 30 min. Unexposed batch was served as the control sample under identical conditions and was compared with the exposed one in quantitative determination of ferritin using the Wilcoxon test with criterion level of P = 0.050. Human serum wells in the exposed batch showed a significant decrease in serum ferritin relative to the control batch (P = 0.029). The average ± SD ferritin level in the exposed batch was 84.94 ± 1.04 μg/L while it was 87.25 ± 0.83 μg/L for the unexposed batch. Radiofrequency electromagnetic waves emitted from cell phones may lead to oxidative stress and rapid diffusion of the human ferritin level in an in vitro enzymun assay. Also, the enzyme activity can be affected. Effects of exposure from mobile phones must be considered further.
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The radiofrequency radiation is of concern in hospital laboratories as the microwaves have many health effects even on immune functions. The aim of this study was, however, to evaluate the effects of cell phone radiation on chorionic gonadotropin immunoassays of human serum. Two cell phones with 0.69 and 1.09W/kg (head SAR) emitting 900MHz radiation were used. Sixty wells with five human serum concentrations (0, 10, 100, 250, 500mIU/mL) were used in three batches. The well heads in each batch were exposed to 900MHz emitted from these phones, and the 0.69, 1.09W/kg exposed batches were compared with the unexposed controls. Radiation exposure from mobile phones altered the measured serum levels especially in the wells with 100, 250, 500mIU/mL hormone concentrations. Exposure at 1.09W/kg SAR caused a significant loss compared to 0.69W/kg SAR exposure. In conclusion, the microwave exposures may require attention in laboratories using immunoassays
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Previous epidemiologic studies have suggested that exposure to electric or magnetic fields in occupational and residential environments may cause cancer. Recent experimental findings provide some support for the hypothesis that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields reduces the pineal gland's nocturnal production of the hormone melatonin, thereby increasing susceptibility to sex hormone-related cancers such as breast cancer. Our purpose was to assess the evidence that cancer of the female breast might be associated with exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Records of women who had breast cancer as the underlying cause of their death (ICD-9 174) and control subjects (four per case) were selected from computer files of U.S. mortality data for the years 1985-1989. Women 20 years and older at the time of their death were eligible for inclusion if they were residents of and died in one of the 24 states that provided death certification records with occupation and industry codes to the National Center for Health Statistics for at least 1 year during the study interval. Data from death certificates were used to classify the case and control subjects with regard to potential occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields. Control subjects were a random sample of women who died of any other underlying cause, excluding leukemia and brain cancer. The data analysis contrasted 68 women with breast cancer and 199 controls, all with electrical occupations, with 27,814 women with breast cancer and 110,750 controls, all of whom had other occupations. Electrical workers had excess mortality from breast cancer relative to other employed women [odds ratio (OR) = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.82]). Adjusted ORs for specific electrical occupations were 1.73 (95% CI = 0.92-3.25) for electrical engineers, 1.28 (95% CI = 0.79-2.07) for electrical technicians, and 2.17 (95% CI = 1.17-4.02) for telephone installers, repairers, and line workers. There was no excess of breast cancer, however, in seven other occupations held more frequently by women and also involving potentially elevated electrical exposures, including telephone operators, data keyers, and computer operators and programmers. In light of the limitations inherent in death certification data and the design of this study, any conclusions regarding the hypothesis that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields causes breast cancer among women must be limited. Nevertheless, our findings are broadly consistent with that hypothesis and encourage further investigation with improvements in study design and data quality.
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The debate regarding the health effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from sources such as power lines, base stations, and cell phones has recently been reignited. In the present review, the authors attempt to address the following question: is there epidemiologic evidence for an association between long-term cell phone usage and the risk of developing a brain tumor? Included with this meta-analysis of the long-term epidemiologic data are a brief overview of cell phone technology and discussion of laboratory data, biological mechanisms, and brain tumor incidence. In order to be included in the present meta-analysis, studies were required to have met all of the following criteria: (i) publication in a peer-reviewed journal; (ii) inclusion of participants using cell phones for > or = 10 years (ie, minimum 10-year "latency"); and (iii) incorporation of a "laterality" analysis of long-term users (ie, analysis of the side of the brain tumor relative to the side of the head preferred for cell phone usage). This is a meta-analysis incorporating all 11 long-term epidemiologic studies in this field. The results indicate that using a cell phone for > or = 10 years approximately doubles the risk of being diagnosed with a brain tumor on the same ("ipsilateral") side of the head as that preferred for cell phone use. The data achieve statistical significance for glioma and acoustic neuroma but not for meningioma. The authors conclude that there is adequate epidemiologic evidence to suggest a link between prolonged cell phone usage and the development of an ipsilateral brain tumor.
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Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the air waves--wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephone (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephone systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephone and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health.
Article
Event-related potentials have been largely employed to test effects of GSM emissions on human brain. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of initial contingent negative variation (iCNV) changes, induced by 900 MHz GSM exposure, in a double blind design in healthy volunteers, subjected to a threefold experimental condition, EXPOSED (A), a real GSM phone emitting electromagnetic power, SHAM (B), a real phone where the electromagnetic power was dissipated on an internal load and OFF (C), a phone completely switched-off. Ten healthy right-handed volunteers were evaluated. The CNV was recorded during a 10 min time interval in each of the three experimental conditions A, B, and C, in order to assess the iCNV amplitude and habituation. The iCNV amplitude decreased and habituation increased during both A and B conditions, compared with condition C. This effect was diffuse over the scalp, and there was no significant prevalence of iCNV amplitude reduction on the left side, were the phones were located. Mobile Phones exposures A and B seemed to act on brain electrical activity, reducing the arousal and expectation of warning stimulus. This evidence, limited by the low number of subjects investigated, could be explained in terms of an effect induced by both the GSM signal and the extremely low frequency magnetic field produced by battery and internal circuits.
Article
Microwaves were for the first time produced by humans in 1886 when radio waves were broadcasted and received. Until then microwaves had only existed as a part of the cosmic background radiation since the birth of universe. By the following utilization of microwaves in telegraph communication, radars, television and above all, in the modern mobile phone technology, mankind is today exposed to microwaves at a level up to 10(20) times the original background radiation since the birth of universe. Our group has earlier shown that the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones alters the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in albumin extravasation immediately and 14 days after 2h of exposure. In the background section of this report, we present a thorough review of the literature on the demonstrated effects (or lack of effects) of microwave exposure upon the BBB. Furthermore, we have continued our own studies by investigating the effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood-brain barrier permeability of rats 7 days after one occasion of 2h of exposure. Forty-eight rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0mW/kg, 0.12mW/kg, 1.2mW/kg, 12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. Albumin extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period (Fisher's exact probability test, p=0.04 and Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.012), at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg (Mann-Whitney, p=0.007) and with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (r(s)=0.33; p=0.04). The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after exposure. We here discuss the present findings as well as the previous results of altered BBB permeability from our and other laboratories.
Article
To evaluate effects of cellular phone radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) during talk mode on unprocessed (neat) ejaculated human semen. Prospective pilot study. Center for reproductive medicine laboratory in tertiary hospital setting. Neat semen samples from normal healthy donors (n = 23) and infertile patients (n = 9). After liquefaction, neat semen samples were divided into two aliquots. One aliquot (experimental) from each patient was exposed to cellular phone radiation (in talk mode) for 1 h, and the second aliquot (unexposed) served as the control sample under identical conditions. Evaluation of sperm parameters (motility, viability), reactive oxygen species (ROS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of semen, ROS-TAC score, and sperm DNA damage. Samples exposed to RF-EMW showed a significant decrease in sperm motility and viability, increase in ROS level, and decrease in ROS-TAC score. Levels of TAC and DNA damage showed no significant differences from the unexposed group. Radiofrequency electromagnetic waves emitted from cell phones may lead to oxidative stress in human semen. We speculate that keeping the cell phone in a trouser pocket in talk mode may negatively affect spermatozoa and impair male fertility.
Article
Because of a heightened public awareness of issues pertaining to the use of electromagnetic energy, concurrent with a rapid growth of the cellular telephone industry, a study was initiated to characterize the electromagnetic environment associated with typical cell-site antennas. In particular, the radio-frequency electromagnetic (RF) fields in the vicinity of several antenna towers, ranging in height from 46-82 m, were characterized by measurement. In all cases, the antennas were omnidirectional co-linear arrays. The maximal power densities considered representative of public exposure were found to be less than 100 microW/m2 (10 nW/cm2) per radio channel. Comparison of measured values with the corresponding values that were calculated from the free-space transmission formula indicated that the analytical technique is conservative (i.e., overestimates field levels). The measured and corresponding analytical values were found to be well below accepted exposure limits even when extrapolated to simultaneous and continuous operation of the maximal number of transmitters that would be expected to be installed at a cell-site. Additional measurements were made in the near field of the same antenna type in a roof-mounted configuration. At a distance of 0.7 m from the antenna, the maximal power density in the main beam was found to be less than 30 W/m2 (3 mW/cm2) when normalized to sixteen radio channels (the maximal number used on a single antenna) and less than 30 mW/m2 (3 microW/m2) at 70 m. In all cases, the effective radiated power (ERP) by each radio channel was 100 W referenced to a half-wave dipole. This paper describes the instrumentation and measurement techniques used for this study and provides a summary of the results.
Article
Digital cellular telephones using the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) transmit information in bursts of microwaves. This pulsed transmitting mode causes the battery current and currents in the electronics of the apparatus to be pulsed. These pulsed currents produce corresponding pulsed magnetic fields near the phones. A study to determine the magnitude of these fields involved two models of digital telephones. The highest value of the magnetic flux density was 1.8 μT (rms). Bioelectromagnetics 18:184–186, 1997.
Article
There is a controversy among professionals regarding whether radiofrequency radiation sickness syndrome is a medical entity. In this study, this controversy was evaluated with a methodology adapted from case studies. The author reviewed U.S. literature, which revealed that research results are sufficiently consistent to warrant further inquiry. A review of statistically significant health effects noted in the Lilienfeld Study provided evidence that the disregarded health conditions match the cluster attributed to the radiofrequency sickness syndrome, thus establishing a possible correlation between health effects and chronic exposure to low-intensity, modulated microwave radiation. The author discusses these health effects relative to (a) exposure parameters recorded at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow and (b) the Soviet 10-microwatt safety standard for the public. Given the evidence, new research-with current knowledge and technology-is proposed.
Article
Widespread concerns have been raised about the possibility that exposure to the radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile telephones or their base stations could affect people's health. Such has been the rapid growth of mobile telecommunications that there will be about one billion mobile phone users before 2005. Already there are more mobile than fixed-line users. Developing countries are establishing mobile telecommunications rather than the more expensive fixed-line systems. Thus, if there is any impact on health from mobile telephones, it will affect everyone in the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) established the International EMF Project in 1996 to evaluate the science, recommend research to fill any gaps in knowledge and to conduct formal health risk assessments of RF exposure once recommended research had been completed. In addition, the UK government established an independent expert group to review all the issues concerning health effects of mobile telephones and siting of base stations. Cancer has been suggested as an outcome of exposure to mobile telephones by some scientific reports. This paper reviews the status of the science and WHO's programme to address the key issues. In addition, the main conclusions and recommendations of the UK expert group will be summarised.
Article
We have examined whether non-thermal exposures of cultures of the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone microwave radiation could activate stress response. Results obtained demonstrate that 1-hour non-thermal exposure of EA.hy926 cells changes the phosphorylation status of numerous, yet largely unidentified, proteins. One of the affected proteins was identified as heat shock protein-27 (hsp27). Mobile phone exposure caused a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, an effect which was prevented by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Also, mobile phone exposure caused transient changes in the protein expression levels of hsp27 and p38MAPK. All these changes were non-thermal effects because, as determined using temperature probes, irradiation did not alter the temperature of cell cultures, which remained throughout the irradiation period at 37 +/- 0.3 degrees C. Changes in the overall pattern of protein phosphorylation suggest that mobile phone radiation activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway. Based on the known functions of hsp27, we put forward the hypothesis that mobile phone radiation-induced activation of hsp27 may (i) facilitate the development of brain cancer by inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3 apoptotic pathway and (ii) cause an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability through stabilization of endothelial cell stress fibers. We postulate that these events, when occurring repeatedly over a long period of time, might become a health hazard because of the possible accumulation of brain tissue damage. Furthermore, our hypothesis suggests that other brain damaging factors may co-participate in mobile phone radiation-induced effects.
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from cellular phones on the lipid composition, malondialdehyde concentration, p53 immune reactivity, sperm count, morphology, histological structure of testes, and on rectal temperature of rats exposed to microwave radiation emitted from cellular phones. Sixteen Spraque-Dawley rats were separated into two groups of eight, sham exposed (control) and experimental. The rats were confined in plexiglas cages specially designed for this study, and cellular phones were placed 0.5 cm under the cages. For the experimental group, cellular phones were activated 20 min per day (7 days a week) for 1 month. For the control group, the cellular phones were placed beneath the cages for 20 min a day, but the phones were turned off. Rectal temperatures were measured weekly. For 250 mW radiated power, the whole body average SAR (rms) is 0.52 W/kg and 1 g averaged peak SAR (rms) is 3.13 W/kg. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used for statistical comparisons of groups. No statistically significant alteration in any of the endpoints was noted. This study found no evidence suggesting an adverse effect of cell phone exposure on measures of testicular function or structure.
Article
Cultured human diploid fibroblasts and cultured rat granulosa cells were exposed to intermittent and continuous radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) used in mobile phones, with different specific absorption rates (SAR) and different mobile-phone modulations. DNA strand breaks were determined by means of the alkaline and neutral comet assay. RF-EMF exposure (1800 MHz; SAR 1.2 or 2 W/kg; different modulations; during 4, 16 and 24h; intermittent 5 min on/10 min off or continuous wave) induced DNA single- and double-strand breaks. Effects occurred after 16 h exposure in both cell types and after different mobile-phone modulations. The intermittent exposure showed a stronger effect in the comet assay than continuous exposure. Therefore we conclude that the induced DNA damage cannot be based on thermal effects.
Article
There is some evidence to suggest that exposure to mobile phones (MPs) can affect neural activity, particularly in response to auditory stimuli. The current investigation (n = 120) aimed to test recent findings in this area, namely that N100 amplitude and latency would decrease, and that P300 latency and reaction time (RT) would increase under active relative to sham exposure during an auditory task. Visual measures were also explored. A double blind, counterbalanced, crossover design was employed where subjects attended two sessions 1 week apart. In both sessions participants (1) performed auditory and visual oddball tasks while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded with a MP set to sham exposure mounted over the temporal region, and (2) performed the same tasks while the handset was set to active/sham. When active, the MP transmitted for 30 min at 895 MHz (average power 250 mW, pulse modulated at 217 Hz, average SAR 0.11 W/kg). Paired t-tests compared difference scores from the sham/sham session to those from the sham/active condition. The study was designed to detect differences of 1\4 of a standard deviation with a power of 0.80. There was no significant difference between exposure conditions for any auditory or visual event related potential (ERP) component or RT. As previous positive findings were not replicated, it was concluded that there is currently no evidence that acute MP exposure affects these indices of brain activity.
Article
To investigate whether the pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field (pulsed EMF) emitted by a mobile phone for 30 min has short-term effects on human somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). We studied somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in 12 normal volunteers before and after exposure to the electromagnetic field emitted by a mobile phone for 30 min compared with sham exposure. In 7 out of the subjects we also measured the recovery function of the SEP. Neither SEPs nor their recovery function was affected by exposure to pulsed EMF emitted by a mobile phone or sham phone use. As far as the present methods are concerned, 30 min mobile phone use has no short-term effects on the human sensory cortex. This is the first study of SEPs after electromagnetic exposure by the mobile phone. Our results support the safety of the mobile phone.
Article
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are rapidly induced by a variety of stressors, including heat shock, ethanol, heavy metals, UV, and gamma-radiation. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are also involved in the stress transduction pathways in all eukaryotes. In this study, we attempted to determine whether radiofrequency (RF) radiation is able to induce a non-thermal stress response. Human T-lymphocyte Jurkat cells and rat primary astrocytes were exposed to 1763 MHz of RF radiation at an average specific absorption rate (SAR) of either 2 W/kg or 20 W/kg, for 30 min or 1 h. Temperature was completely controlled at 37 +/- 0.2 degrees C throughout the exposure period. The sham exposures were performed under exactly identical experimental conditions without exposure to RF radiation. We assessed alterations in the expression of HSPs and the activation of MAPKs in the RF-exposed cells. No detectable difference was observed in the expression levels of HSP90, HSP70, and HSP27. The phosphorylation status of MAPKs, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal protein kinases (JNK1/2), or p38, did not change significantly. In order to determine whether RF radiation can promote the effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) on stress response, cells were exposed to RF radiation coupled with TPA treatment. When TPA alone was applied, the MAPKs were found to be phosphorylated in a dose-dependent manner. However, RF radiation did not result in any enhancement of TPA-induced MAPK phosphorylation. Neither TPA nor RF radiation exerted any detectable effect on the induction of HSPs. These results indicate that 1763 MHz RF radiation alone did not elicit any stress response, nor did it have any effect on TPA-induced MAPK phosphorylation, under our experimental conditions.
Article
The use of mobile phones is increasing, which also increases the population's exposure to global system of mobile communications (GSM) signals. Questions of safety and possible biological effects are of concern and to date, remain largely unanswered. In order to examine possible biological effects of a GSM-like signal at a cellular level, we exposed two human cell lines (one of neuronal (SK-N-SH) and the other of monocytoid (U937) origin) to a 900 MHz RF signal, pulsed at 217 Hz, producing a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.2 W/kg. Putative effects were assessed by comparing radiofrequency-exposed cells to sham-exposed cells using a variety of assay techniques. For the cell line SK-N-SH, effects were specifically assessed by gene microarray, followed by real-time PCR of the genes of interest, Western blot analysis was used to measure heat shock protein levels, and flow cytometry to measure cell cycle distributions and apoptosis. Effects of radiofrequency on the cell line U937 were assessed by cell viability and cell cycle analysis. From our study of these two cell lines, we found no significant difference between sham-exposed versus radiofrequency-exposed cells in any of the assays or conditions examined.
Article
Some people report symptoms associated with mobile phone use. A minority also report "electrosensitivity," experiencing symptoms following exposure to other electrical devices. Research suggests that electromagnetic fields do not trigger these symptoms. In this study, we examined the differences between these two "sensitive" groups and healthy controls. Fifty-two people who reported sensitivity to mobile phones, 19 people who reported sensitivity to mobile phones and "electrosensitivity," and 60 nonsensitive controls completed a questionnaire assessing the following: primary reason for using a mobile phone, psychological health, symptoms of depression, modern health worries (MHW), general health status, symptom severity, and the presence of other medically unexplained syndromes. Perceived sensitivity was associated with an increased likelihood of using a mobile phone predominantly for work (3% of controls, 13% of those sensitive to mobile phones, and 21% of those reporting "electrosensitivity") and greater MHW concerning radiation [mean (S.D.) on a scale of 1-5: 2.0 (1.0), 2.7 (0.9), and 4.0 (0.8), respectively]. Participants who reported "electrosensitivity" also experienced greater depression, greater worries about tainted food and toxic interventions, worse general health on almost every measure, and a greater number of other medically unexplained syndromes compared to participants from the other two groups. No group differences were observed with regards to psychiatric cases. The data illustrate that patients reporting "electrosensitivity" experience substantially worse health than either healthy individuals or people who report sensitivity to mobile phones but who do not adopt the label "electrosensitivity." Clinicians and researchers would be wise to pay greater attention to this subdivision.
Article
This article is a systematic review of whether everyday exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) causes symptoms, and whether some individuals are able to detect low-level RF-EMF (below the ICNIRP [International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection] guidelines). Peer-reviewed articles published before August 2007 were identified by means of a systematic literature search. Meta-analytic techniques were used to pool the results from studies investigating the ability to discriminate active from sham RF-EMF exposure. RF-EMF discrimination was investigated in seven studies including a total of 182 self-declared electromagnetic hypersensitive (EHS) individuals and 332 non-EHS individuals. The pooled correct field detection rate was 4.2% better than expected by chance (95% CI: -2.1 to 10.5). There was no evidence that EHS individuals could detect presence or absence of RF-EMF better than other persons. There was little evidence that short-term exposure to a mobile phone or base station causes symptoms based on the results of eight randomized trials investigating 194 EHS and 346 non-EHS individuals in a laboratory. Some of the trials provided evidence for the occurrence of nocebo effects. In population based studies an association between symptoms and exposure to RF-EMF in the everyday environment was repeatedly observed. This review showed that the large majority of individuals who claims to be able to detect low level RF-EMF are not able to do so under double-blind conditions. If such individuals exist, they represent a small minority and have not been identified yet. The available observational studies do not allow differentiating between biophysical from EMF and nocebo effects.
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