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Central American Migration to Mexico and the United States: The Influence of Gender on Destinations and Destinies

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... Aunque escasamente, la trata de personas también ha sido un tema abordado (Casillas, 2006) lo mismo que aristas diversas relacionadas con el trabajo sexual en esta región (Bronfman, 2004;Fernández, 2009). Existen estadísticas publicadas anualmente por la Emif Guamex, hoy Emif 6 La idea de un "centro" y una "periferia" surge de la teoría del sistema mundo, desarrollada por Wallerstein (1974). ...
... Asimismo, exponen que son los periodos o las situaciones de cambio, de urgencia, los que quizá propiciarán la expansión de la capacidad agencial para responder de manera imaginativa, examinada y/o reflexionada. Dentro del análisis de la relación entre estructura y agencia, es importante considerar también que las estructuras a distintos niveles no presentan las mismas formas, oportunidades y barreras a hombres que a mujeres inmigrantes durante el proceso de (in)migración y, por tanto, la agencia de inmigrantes no es ajena al género (Fernández, 2009(Fernández, y 2010. A partir de ello, el estudio de la integración, vista como un proceso de estructuración, sería incompleto sin considerar al género como un eje trasversal y no sólo como una variable que divide mujeres de hombres (véase Moch, 2005;Pessar y Mahler, 2003;Donato et al., 2006). ...
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El libro estudia el proceso de inmigración de personas hondureñas que residen en las ciudades de Tapachula y Huixtla, de la región del Soconusco en el fronterizo estado de Chiapas, México: una movilidad a un destino del ‘sur global’, que al igual que el lugar expulsor, es también ‘periférico’ y un territorio considerado de tránsito más que de recepción migratoria. Su objetivo es analizar la manera en que estas mujeres y hombres, a partir de la interacción social con actores situados dentro y fuera del Soconusco — familiares, paisanos, otros centroamericanos, población local, agentes del Estado—, desarrollan su capacidad creativa para sobrevivir, mejorar condiciones de vida e integrarse a la sociedad receptora mediante una lucha por pertenecer a diferentes espacios.
... As a whole, the relationship between proficiency in English, economic mobility and social visibility are by now acquired notions, as is the relationship between gender and migration (Casanueva 2009). In relation to men, Latina women play a foreground role in everyday social interactions in health, religious, and educational settings, in monolingual US institutions (not to mention shopping and the use of public and private financial support and socio-community activities): yet, not infrequently, they do not get an education because of their 'patriarchal' families' views on the role of women in society. ...
... For reasons of space no further examples are provided of how differently such issues are dealt with both in legal and in non-legalistic settings. Another relevant factor in these stories of abuse in ethnic minorities is the influence of gender on migration trajectories destinations and outcomes, which also entails issues of Latinas' identity as mothers(Casanueva 2009). ...
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Against the background of momentous societal changes, including the emergence of the Hispanic (or Latino) minority that is transforming the landscape of the United States’ population, the present study aims at investigating the outcomes of phenomena of bilingual and bicultural encounters in US institutional settings, where the victim-survivors of domestic violence narrate their experience of abuse either in (non-standard) English, or with the help of a Spanish-English interpreter. A qualitative selection of sanitized interviews, both from socio-legal protection order interviews1* (Trinch 2006, 2007), and from non-legalistic interviews for socio-psychological research (Brabeck and Gunzman 2008) was analysed with a focus both on the communication accommodation strategies enacted and on the interplay of bilingual/cultural aspects from a lingua-cultural perspective (Riesager 2014. See infra 2.2.1). In particular, the Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) allowed for a more accurate identification of the use of strategic forms of behaviour (convergence, divergence and maintenance) enacted by Latina interviewees in the two different settings – the protection order interview (POI) being the more face-threatening setting – to contrastively highlight their context-sensitive specificity. Issues of language contact and cultural hurdles were considered in an attempt to describe and interpret aspects of the multifaceted scenario of Latinos’ lingua-cultural interactions in the US, whose richness of cultural information – often transmitted through non-standard English varieties/accents – is often lost or ineffective in institutional settings. Such issues entail the coexistence of elements of societal patriarchal conservatism, gender-based and ethnic discrimination, abuse-coping strategies, as well as efforts for self-empowerment and innovation. A major role appears to be played by the Catholic Church, which is rapidly changing its attitude towards gender roles. Research outcomes both from field investigations and from a discourse analytical reframing of such data can be practically relevant for socio-legal professional practice in those circumstances of engagement, e.g. by helping professionals to focus on the protection order (PO) applicants’ needs for special support and empathic advocacy in those bicultural and virtually bilingual settings.
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This article examines the different factors which may explain gender-selectivity among Filipino labor migrants in Rome, where women are around 70 percent of this nationality group. Following the analysis of labor demand in the domestic service sector, it explores 'supply aspects, ranging from economic conditions within the Philippine labor market to noneconomic constraints, such as ideologies and expectations of gender. The research findings show chat migrant women's commitments and obligations toward their households in home areas are generally stronger than those of their male counterparts. However er, spacial distance and increased financial independence may provide some women with the opportunity-to pursue 'self-interested' goals while at the same time keeping within the 'altruistic' role dictated by normative gender roles. Important elements affecting women's increased autonomy are life course paths, households' developmental cycle, class and migration form.
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Also CSST Working Paper #29. http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/51160/1/392.pdf
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Despite much research on migration in the South Pacific, there is almost no information relating either to the migration of women (either internally or internationally) or to the impact of migration on women (either those who move or those who stay) or on the societies of emigration. This article attempts to draw restricted conclusions from the limited data available, indicate some implications of these conclusions and point to the problems of lack of information in an area where migration is of major significance for social and economic change. The nature of available information results in some bias towards Melanesia and especially Papua New Guinea.
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An editorial overview of a special double issue of this journal devoted to Women in migration, each article of which is abstracted separately. The extent of and studies of women's migration are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the integration of independent long-distance migrants into the labour force of advanced capitalist countries, and the gains and losses to women that arise are assessed. -W.T.S.Gould Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France.