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Abstract

This special issue of Tropical Conservation Science provides a synopsis of nine of the eleven presentations on ungulates presented at the Symposium on Ecology and Conservation of Ungulates in Mexico during the Mexican Congress of Ecology held in November 2008 in Merida, Yucatan. Of the eleven species of wild ungulates in Mexico (Bairds tapir Tapirus bairdii, pronghorn antelope Antilocapra americana, American bison Bison bison, bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis, elk Cervus canadensis, red brocket deer Mazama temama, Yucatan brown brocket Mazama pandora, mule deer Odocoileus hemionus, white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari and collared peccary Pecari tajacu), studies which concern four of these species are presented: Baird's tapir and the white lipped peccary, which are tropical species in danger of extinction; the bighorn sheep, of high value for hunting in the north-west; and the white-tailed deer, the most studied ungulate in Mexico due to its wide distribution in the country and high hunting and cultural value. In addition, two studies of exotic species, wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus), are presented. Issues addressed in these studies are: population estimates, habitat use, evaluation of UMA (Spanish acronym for 'Wildlife Conservation, Management and Sustainable Utilization Units') and ANP (Spanish acronym for 'Natural Protected Areas') to sustain minimum viable populations, and the effect of alien species in protected areas and UMA, all of which allow an insight into ungulate conservation and management within the country.
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Special issue: introduction
Research on ecology, conservation and
management of wild ungulates in Mexico
Sonia Gallina
1
and Salvador Mandujano
1
1
DepartamentodeBiodiversidadyEcologíaAnimal,InstitutodeEcologíaA.C.,km.2.5Carret.Ant.
CoatepecNo.351,CongregacióndelHaya,Xalapa91070,Ver.México.Email:
<sonia.gallina@inecol.edu.mx
>;<salvador.mandujano@inecol.edu.mx>
Received: Received 6 February 2009; Accepted 15 February 2009, Published: 25 May, 2009
Copyright: © Sonia Gallina and Salvador Mandujano. This is an open access paper. We use the
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
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Cite this paper as: Galllina, S. and Mandujano, S. 2009. Research on ecology, conservation and
management of ungulates in Mexico. Tropical Conservation Science Vol. 2 (2):116-127. Available
online: www.tropicalconservationscience.org
Abstract
This special issue of Tropical Conservation Science provides a synopsis of nine of the eleven
presentations on ungulates presented at the Symposium on Ecology and Conservation of Ungulates
in Mexico during the Mexican Congress of Ecology held in November 2008 in Merida, Yucatan. Of the
eleven species of wild ungulates in Mexico (Baird´s tapir Tapirus bairdii, pronghorn antelope
Antilocapra americana, American bison Bison bison, bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis, elk Cervus
canadensis, red brocket deer Mazama temama, Yucatan brown brocket Mazama pandora, mule deer
Odocoileus hemionus, white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari
and collared peccary Pecari tajacu), studies which concern four of these species are presented:
Baird’s tapir and the white lipped peccary, which are tropical species in danger of extinction; the
bighorn sheep, of high value for hunting in the north-west; and the white-tailed deer, the most
studied ungulate in Mexico due to its wide distribution in the country and high hunting and cultural
value. In addition, two studies of exotic species, wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus
elaphus), are presented. Issues addressed in these studies are: population estimates, habitat use,
evaluation of UMA (Spanish acronym for ‘Wildlife Conservation, Management and Sustainable
Utilization Units’) and ANP (Spanish acronym for ‘Natural Protected Areas’) to sustain minimum
viable populations, and the effect of alien species in protected areas and UMA, all of which allow an
insight into ungulate conservation and management within the country.
Key words: wild ungulates, research needs, conservation, species extinction, Mexico.
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Introduction
Ungulates include the majority of large herbivores on the planet [1]. With the exception of
Antarctica, they are found in nearly all biomes and zoogeographical regions, with human
intervention allowing many species to expand their original geographical boundaries. The
actual number of species varies from author to author because the concept of species is
flexible and is constantly changing depending on the results of genetic and taxonomic
research. The most widely accepted list is that published by Wilson and Reeder [2]. In
general, the Smithsonian Institute recognizes 257 species of modern ungulates. Of these,
at least five species have gone extinct in the last 300 years due to anthropogenic
pressures, and many other species are of critical conservation concern [1].
There are 34 species of ungulates in The Americas (hereinafter America), which represents
13.2% of the ungulate species worldwide (Appendix 1). Of these 34 species, 91% belong
to the order Artiodactyla and the remainder to Perissodactyla. Cervidae is one of the most
represented families within the order Artiodactyla. This family includes 19 species which
correspond to 55.9% of American ungulates. Mazama is the most diverse cervid genus in
South America, represented by seven species [3,4], however, it is also one of the least
known. The families Antilocapridae and Tayassuidae are endemic to America and are
represented by one and three species respectively. Other families are the Camelidae and
Tapiridae. In America, these are represented by two of the four species found worldwide
and three of the four species found worldwide, respectively. Another notable aspect of
American ungulates is the near absence of the Bovidae, the most species diverse ungulate
family (137 species, most of which are found in Africa and Asia [2]). This family is
represented in America by five species, which are confined to North America. Of the 34
species of American ungulates, 10 species are restricted to the Nearctic zoogeographic
region, while 22 species inhabit the Neotropical region. The remaining two species, with
the largest geographical distribution in America are the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus
virginianus) and collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), which inhabit very different vegetation
types in the Nearctic and Neotropics [5,6].
Molecular dating suggests that the family Cervidae originated and radiated in central Asia
during the Late Miocene, and that Odocoileini dispersed to North America during the
Miocene/Pliocene boundary, and underwent an adaptive radiation in South America after
their Pliocene dispersal across the Isthmus of Panama [7]. According to the systematic
relationships and evolutionary history of Neotropical deer, at least eight ancestral forms of
deer invaded South America during the late Pliocene (2.5–3 MYA), and members of the
red brockets had an independent early explosive diversification soon after their ancestor
arrived there, giving rise to a number of morphologically cryptic species. Deer endemic to
the New World fall in two biogeographic lineages: the first one groups Odocoileus and
Mazama americana is distributed in North, Central, and South America, whereas the
second one is composed of South American species only and includes Mazama
gouazoubira. This implies that the genus Mazama is not a valid taxon [3]. Genetic analysis
revealed high levels of molecular and cytogenetic divergence between groups of
morphologically similar species of brockets (Mazama), and suggest a polyphyletic origin.
In particular, Mazama americana showed a striking relationship with several sequences of
Odocoileus i
n contrast to that expected, since this M. americana (now M. temama)
haplotype, from a Mexican origin, was not associated with several Bolivian Mazama
sequences analyzed. This could put forward that this genera is not monophyletic. On the
other hand, these Bolivian Mazama formed a clade with Pudu puda and Ozotoceros
bezoarticus. Likely, an Odocoileus virginianus sequence from the Central area of Colombia
showed a more strong relationship with a North American O. heminonus sequence than
with the other O. virginianus sequences of Colombian origin as well. This could be
explained by means of various different hypotheses. The first is the existence of common
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ancestral haplotypes between both species. Another one is the reiterative hybridization
among both Odocoileus species before the migration of O. virginianus from North America
to South America [8].
Ungulates in Mexico
Eleven ungulate species are found in Mexico (one Perissodactyl species and ten
Artiodactyls species) [9-19], which correspond to 32.4% and 4.3% of ungulate species in
America and worldwide, respectively. The Perissodactyl species is the Baird’s tapir Tapirus
bairdii (Gill, 1865), and the Artiodactyl species are: one species of Antilocapridae, the
pronghorn antelope Antilocapra americana (Ord, 1815); two species of Bovidae, the
American bison Bison bison (Linnaeus, 1758) and the bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis
(Shaw, 1804); five species of Cervidae, elk Cervus canadensis (Erxleben, 1777), the red
brocket Mazama temama (Kerr, 1792), the Yucatan brown brocket Mazama pandora
(Merriam, 1901), the mule deer Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque, 1817), and the white-
tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780); and two species of Tayassuidae,
the white lipped peccary Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795) and the collared peccary Pecari
tajacu (Linnaeus, 1758).
Baird’s tapir Tapirus bairdii (photo Eduardo Naranjo), Pronghorn antelope Antilocapra
americana (photo Sonia Gallina), American bison Bison bison (photo Sonia Gallina),
Bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis (photo Sergio Alvarez-Cárdenas).
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It is worthy of note that at in all States of Mexico, at least one species of ungulate is found
[5]. For example, five species (pronghorn antelope, bison, bighorn sheep, elk and mule
deer) inhabit the Nearctic region, four species (tapir, red brocket, Yucatan brown brocket
and white lipped peccary) inhabit the Neotropical region, and the remaining two species,
with the widest geographical and ecological distribution (white-tailed deer and collared
peccary), are found throughout almost the country. However, the areas of distribution of
Mexican ungulates have declined markedly and local populations have been eradicated in
some localities. The main causes are uncontrolled hunting, and the loss and
fragmentation of habitat [4]. This has led to the extinction of species like the American
bison and elk in Mexico [11,13], although populations of these have been reintroduced.
Meanwhile, species such as the tapir, bighorn sheep, white lipped peccary and pronghorn
antelope are considered in danger of extinction [9,10,12,18]. With regard to brocket deer,
there is insufficient information to discern their conservation status [14,15]. The deer
genus Odocoileus and collared peccary are not regarded as endangered and their
exploitation is possible under certain restrictions and within the framework of UMA
(Spanish acronym for ‘Wildlife Conservation, Management and Sustainable Utilization
Units’) [17,19]. While the number of studies with these species has increased notably
throughout the country in recent years, there are still significant gaps in our knowledge
[4,20,21].
Wapiti or elk Cervus canadensis (photo Sonia Gallina), Red brocket deer Mazama temama
(photo Rafael Reyna), Yucatan brocket deer Mazama pandora (photo Rosa María González
Marín), Mule deer Odocoileus hemionus (photo Carlos López González).
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Purpose of special issue
In November 2008 the Symposium on Ecology and Conservation of Ungulates in Mexico
was organized during the Mexican Congress of Ecology in Merida, Yucatan. The aim was
to bring together researchers who are working on different groups of ungulates in the
country in order to share recently gained knowledge and to define both the issues of
conservation affecting the different species, and the strategies necessary to address these
issues. During the event, there were eleven presentations concerning seven of the eleven
species of ungulates in Mexico, in addition to two presentations on wild boar and red deer.
As a result of this event, nine of the eleven presentations are extensively presented in this
special issue of the journal Tropical Conservation Science. These studies, carried out in
different parts of the country, address topical issues and allow readers interested in
conservation and management insight into the status of this important group of mammals
in Mexico.
Implications for conservation
Based on the results of these studies, the implications for conservation differ in some
aspects and agree in others, depending on the species in question. In the case of
endangered species such as Baird’s tapir and the white lipped peccary, Naranjo [22] and
Reyna-Hurtado [23] suggest that it is crucial to maintain areas of habitat as large as
possible, avoid fragmentation, increase connectivity between these areas, make plans for
land use involving surrounding communities, and implement actions to reduce the hunting
of these species. As for the bighorn sheep, which is a vulnerable species with permitted
exploitation in special cases, Alvarez-Cardenas et al. [24] emphasize the importance of
intermountain movement of individuals looking for suitable areas for breeding, rearing of
young, feeding, water and genetic exchange, and therefore it is important to maintain and
White-tailed deer Odocoileus
virginianus (photo Alberto González
Gallina), White-lipped peccary
Tayassu pecari (photo Alberto
González Romero) and Collared
peccary Pecari tajacu (photo Alberto
González Romero).
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restore habitat structural elements to enhance the connectivity between isolated
populations.
Regarding the white-tailed deer, Sanchez-Rojas et al. [25] emphasize the importance of
UMA as a complementary strategy for the conservation and sustainable use of this species
in forested areas in the center of the country. Delfin-Alfonso et al. [26] propose a model
for habitat assessment using geographic information systems in order to identify areas of
conservation, management and reintroduction of white-tailed deer in central Veracruz.
This model is also a methodological proposal to assess habitat in other regions of the
country with similar characteristics. On the other hand, Coronel-Arellano et al. [27]
propose to use the standardized vegetation index as a predictive variable of the density of
white-tailed deer in temperate habitat sites, and emphasize the importance of this
procedure as a potential tool for other areas focusing on the conservation and
reintroduction of large carnivores, for which the deer are prey. The work of Mandujano
and Gonzalez-Zamora [28] shows that most UMA do not have the critical size to support
minimum viable populations (MVP) of white-tailed deer, while the Biosphere Reserves,
Areas of Protection of Natural Resources, and Protected Areas of Flora and Fauna, are the
ANP (Spanish acronym for ‘Natural Protected Areas’) which could potentially support the
MVP of this species. They suggest a system of conservation at a regional level in which
ANP and UMA are incorporated, assuming source-sink and archipelago reserve models,
where connectivity can have an important role in the movement of individuals between
populations.
Gallina and Escobedo-Morales [29] suggest connecting UMAs to preserve regional
biodiversity and maintain the viability of wildlife populations. The introduction of exotic
species, such as red deer, is an important alternative at production level but has not
contributed to the conservation of native species and in many cases may have serious
negative consequences. Therefore, strict control of these exotic species is necessary, as
the encouragement of the use and conservation of native wildlife and the revision of the
main conservation objectives of UMA. Finally, Breceda et al. [30] report on wild boar, an
exotic species, and emphasize the potential impacts this animal may have on native
species of ungulates, as they may compete for food and space and cause changes in
habitat and the regeneration processes of endemic plants. Moreover, they constitute a
potential threat to the biodiversity of Biosphere Reserves, which contain a significant
number of endemic species. For these reasons continuous population control is necessary.
Species and research topics not included in this special number
In Mexico, the bison is under special protection and the only wild population is found in a
region that is under evaluation to be protected as a reserve [31]. The pronghorn antelope
is an endangered species in our country but there are some stable populations in different
localities [32]. Mule deer is not an endangered species but some subspecies (O. h.
cerrocensis, O. h. peninsulae y O. h. sheldoni) have severe conservation problems [16].
There are population studies in Durango and Baja California [33-35]. The brocket deer
species are not in danger but are considered fragile [14,15], there are some studies in the
southeast states as Campeche, Quintana Roo, Chiapas and Tabasco [36-38]. Nevertheless
there is a need to do more efforts in order to increase the knowledge of these species
including their systematic, because the phylogenetic origin is not yet clear [3,7,8]. The
other species not treated in this special number is the collared peccary, with a widest
geographical distribution and exploited in Mexico, but with very few ecological studies
[39]. Most of the information we have, has been obtained as a prey in studies related with
felids [40-42].
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Some topics about management and conservation of ungulates that need research efforts
in a short time are:
Analyze the use and sustainable hunting of ungulates in indigenous communities
in areas with high and low hunting pressure [38,43].
Assessing the effectiveness of the UMA for conservation and sustainable use of
ungulates [44,45]. In particular, in tropical forest there is a need to look for
different management strategies [46,47].
Studies on fragmentation, sink-source models and metapopulations from a
landscape perspective [48,49].
Know about the role of ungulates in tropical habitats as structural agents on
vegetation and the consequences of their absence [50].
Genetic and distribution studies of white-tailed deer [51], mule deer [S. Ayala,
personal communication] and brocket deer subspecies [3,7,8].
Analyze the relationship about human population growing, agriculture
technology, cattle ranching, habitat transformation and their effect on
distribution areas of ungulate populations [52-54].
Acknowledgments
We gratefully acknowledge the Mexican Ecological Society for allowing the organization of
the Symposium on Ecology and Conservation of Ungulates in Mexico. Many thanks also go
to Alejandro Estrada, editor of the journal Tropical Conservation Science, for his patience
and interest in this special edition. Finally, thanks go to all the reviewers who kindly
reviewed and helped improved each of the papers in this special issue.
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Appendix 1. Wild ungulates living in the American continent, according to Wilson and
Reeder [2]. * Indicates species in Mexico.
Orden Perissodactyla Owen, 1848
Familia Tapiridae Gray, 1821
Tapirus Brisson, 1762
1. * Tapirus bairdii (Gill, 1865) Baird's tapir, Central American tapir
2. Tapirus pinchaque (Roulin, 1829) Mountain tapir
3. Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) South America tapir, Brazilian tapir,
lowland tapir
Orden Artiodactyla Owen, 1848
Familia Tayassuidae Palmer, 1897
Catagonus Ameghino, 1904
4. Catagonus wagneri (Rusconi, 1930) Chacoan peccary
Pecari Reinchenbach, 1835
5. * Pecari tajacu (Linnaeus, 1758) Collared peccary, javelina
Tayassu G. Fisher [von Waldheim], 1814
6. * Tayassu pecari G. Fisher [von Waldheim], 1814 White-lipped peccary
Familia Camelidae Gray, 1821
Lama G. Cuvier, 1800
7. Lama glama (Linnaeus, 1758) Llama, guanaco
Vicugna Lesson, 1842
8. Vicugna vicugna (Molina, 1782) Vicuña
Familia Cervidae Goldfuss, 1820
Subfamilia Capreolinae Brookes, 1828
Alces Gray, 1821
9. Alces americanus (Clinton, 1822) American moose
Blastocerus Wagner, 1844
10. Blastocerus dichotomus (Illiger, 1815) Marsh deer
Hippocamelus Leuckart, 1816
11. Hippocamelus antisensis (d’Orbigny, 1834) Peruvian guemal, taruca
12. Hippocamelus bisulcus (Molina, 1782) Patagonian huemul, South Andean
huemul
Mazama Rafinesque, 1817
13. Mazama americana (Erxleben, 1777) South American Red brocket
14. Mazama bororo Duarte, 1996 Sao Paulo Bororo, small red brocket
15. Mazama bricenii Thomas, 1908 Merida Brocket, Grey dwarf brocket
16. Mazama chunyi Hershkovitz, 1959, Dwarf brocket
17. Mazama gouazoubira G. Fisher [von Waldheim], 1814, Brown brocket
18. Mazama nana (Hensel, 1872) Lesser brocket
19. * Mazama pandora Merriam, 1901 Yucatan brown brocket
20. Mazama rufina (Pucheran, 1851) Ecuator, Little red brocket
21. * Mazama temama (Kerr, 1792) Central American, Mexican red brocket
Odocoileus Rafinesque, 1832
22. * Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque, 1817) Mule deer
23. * Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780) White-tailed deer
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Ozotoceros Ameghino, 1891
Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Pampas deer
Pudu Gray, 1852
25. Pudu mephistophiles (de Winton, 1896) Northern pudu
26. Pudu puda (Molina, 1782) Southern pudu
Rangifer C. H. Smith, 1872
27. Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) Caribou, reindeer
Subfamilia Cervinae Goldfuss, 1820
Cervus Linnaeus, 1758
28. * Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 Red deer, wapiti, American elk
Familia Antilocapridae Gray, 1866
Antilocapra Ord, 1818
29. * Antilocapra americana (Ord, 1815) Pronghorn
Familia Bovidae Gray, 1821
Subfamilia Bovinae Gray, 1821
Bison H. Smith, 1827
30. * Bison bison (Linnaeus, 1758) American bison
Subfamilia Caprinae Gray, 1821
Oreamnos Rafinesque, 1817
31. Oreamnos americanus (de Blainville, 1816) Rocky Mountain goat
Ovibos de Blainville, 1816
32. Ovibos moschatus (Zimmermann, 1780) Muskox
Ovis Linnaeus, 1758
33. * Ovis canadensis Shaw, 1804 Bighorn sheep
34. Ovis dalli Nelson, 1884 Dall's sheep
Cervus canadensis (Erxleben, 1777) according to other authors. For a discussion in this
aspect, see Gallina and Escobedo-Morales [29] in this number.
Reproduction of artistic painting “Deer”. Mixed
technique on canvas, 110 x 90 cm, by Salvador
Mandujano Rodríguez, 2007.
... The Central American Red Brocket, Mazama temama (Erxleben, 1777) is a deer species that has been targeted by illegal hunters for local commercial purposes or as a source of protein (Leopold 1959;Gallina and Mandujano 2009), as well as for its habitat (Gallina and Mandujano 2009;Bello-Gutiérrez et al. 2010). Even so, this deer species is considered Data Deficient by IUCN (Bello et al. 2016). ...
... The Central American Red Brocket, Mazama temama (Erxleben, 1777) is a deer species that has been targeted by illegal hunters for local commercial purposes or as a source of protein (Leopold 1959;Gallina and Mandujano 2009), as well as for its habitat (Gallina and Mandujano 2009;Bello-Gutiérrez et al. 2010). Even so, this deer species is considered Data Deficient by IUCN (Bello et al. 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic threats have increasingly isolated the populations of Mazama temama (Erxleben, 1777) and limited the gene flow in this species. Knowledge of the phylogeographic structure of this species is therefore essential for its conservation. Thus, in this study, we describe the phylogeographic structure of two M. temama populations of Veracruz and Oaxaca, Mexico. We sequenced the D-Loop region of the mitochondrial DNA of 16 individuals, in order to estimate the diversity and genetic differentiation ( F ST ), Tajima’s D index, "Mismatch distribution" test; a phylogram and a haplotype network was constructed and we performed multidimensional scaling analysis to test the hypothesis of association between geographic distance and genetic diversity. The haplotypic and nucleotide diversity was high, indicating divergent populations ( F ST = 0.223), while the Tajima’s D index (-1,03300; P > 0.10) determined disequilibrium in the D-Loop region, derived from a population expansion that was evidenced in the "Mismatch distribution" test and confirmed with the haplotype network in the form of a star. Four lineages were identified in the phylogram (Veracruz n = 3, Oaxaca n = 1), evidencing geographic and reproductive isolation between the two populations. This was confirmed by the multidimensional scaling analysis, which evidenced recent evolutionary divergence between the populations analyzed, which are considered evolutionary units of conservation.
... The Central American Red Brocket, Mazama temama (Erxleben, 1777) is a deer species that has been targeted by illegal hunters for local commercial purposes or as a source of protein (Leopold 1959;Gallina and Mandujano 2009), as well as for its habitat (Gallina and Mandujano 2009;Bello-Gutiérrez et al. 2010). Even so, this deer species is considered Data Deficient by IUCN (Bello et al. 2016). ...
... The Central American Red Brocket, Mazama temama (Erxleben, 1777) is a deer species that has been targeted by illegal hunters for local commercial purposes or as a source of protein (Leopold 1959;Gallina and Mandujano 2009), as well as for its habitat (Gallina and Mandujano 2009;Bello-Gutiérrez et al. 2010). Even so, this deer species is considered Data Deficient by IUCN (Bello et al. 2016). ...
Preprint
Citation: Serna-Lagunes R, Romero-Ramos DK, Delfín-Alfonso CA, Salazar-Ortiz J (2021) Phylogeography of the Central American red brocket, Mazama temama (Artiodactyla, Cervidae) in southeastern Mexico. Neotropical Biology and Conservation @(@): 1-@. https://doi. Abstract Anthropogenic threats have increasingly isolated the populations of Mazama temama (Erxleben 1777) and limited the gene flow in this species. Knowledge of the phylogeographic structure of this species is therefore essential for its conservation. Thus, in this study, we describe the phylogeographic structure of two M. temama populations of Veracruz and Oaxaca, Mexico. We sequenced the D-Loop region of the mitochondrial DNA of 16 individuals, in order to estimate the diversity and genetic differentiation (F ST), Tajima's D index, Mismatch distribution test; a phylogram and a haplotype network was constructed and we performed multidimensional scaling analysis to test the hypothesis of association between geographic distance and genetic diversity. The haplotypic and nucleotide diversity was high, indicating divergent populations (F ST = 0.223), while the Tajima's D index (-1,03300; P > 0.10) determined disequilibrium in the D-Loop region, derived from a population expansion that was evidenced in the Mismatch distribution test and confirmed with the haplotype network in the form of a star. Four lineages were identified in the phylogram (Veracruz n = 3, Oaxaca n = 1), evidencing geographic Neotropical Biology and Conservation @(@): 1-@ (2021) Ricardo Serna-Lagunes et al. 2 and reproductive isolation between the two populations. This was confirmed by the multidimensional scaling analysis, which evidenced recent evolutionary divergence between the populations analyzed, which are considered evolutionary units of conservation.
... En México, la mayoría de las subespecies de venado cola blanca se distribuye en regiones tropicales, aunque sujetas a alguna modalidad de aprovechamiento; situación que obliga al desarrollo de planes de manejo específicos para cada eco-región. Esta necesidad también obliga a prestar atención a la deficiencia de conocimiento biológico de venados en zonas tropicales, como el patrón reproductivo, uso de hábitat y dieta, entre otros (Vaughan 1994;Gallina y Mandujano 2009; Vishnu-Savanth y Saseendran 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Reproductive period of white-tailed deer (O. v. Veraecrucis) was determined through analysis of the relationship between testosterone level in feces and antler cycle in the Huasteca region of Veracruz and San Luis Potosí, Mexico.
... En México, la mayoría de las subespecies de venado cola blanca se distribuye en regiones tropicales, aunque sujetas a alguna modalidad de aprovechamiento; situación que obliga al desarrollo de planes de manejo específicos para cada eco-región. Esta necesidad también obliga a prestar atención a la deficiencia de conocimiento biológico de venados en zonas tropicales, como el patrón reproductivo, uso de hábitat y dieta, entre otros (Vaughan 1994;Gallina y Mandujano 2009; Vishnu-Savanth y Saseendran 2012). ...
... Our results show that the studied sample of O. virginianus presents a genetic diversity that has not been modified by historical demographic processes such as population expansions (Rogers and Harpending 1992;Rogers et al. 1996). However, the pressure of clandestine hunting and legal hunting of the specie in Mexico (SEMARNAT 2013), its ecology and management (Gallina and Mandujano 2009), habitat fragmentation, poaching, consumption by local communities, and predators (Mandujano 2011;Gallina-Tessaro et al. 2019) are constant pressures on the populations of this species. This decreases the effective size of the mating population in wild populations (Mandujano and González-Zamora 2009), thus only a few lineages go on to the next generation while other lineages go extinct or are less frequent within the population (Rogers et al. 1996;Vázquez-Domínguez 2002). ...
Book
Although all living beings modify their environment, human beings have acquired the ability to do so on a superlative space-time scale. As a result of industrialization and the use of new technologies, the anthropogenic impact has been increasing in the last centuries, causing reductions in the sizes or the extinction of numerous wild populations. In this sense, from the field of conservation genetics, various efforts have been made in recent decades to provide new knowledge that contributes to the conservation of populations, species, and habitats. In this book, we summarize the concrete contributions of researchers to the conservation of the Neotropical mammals using Molecular Ecology techniques. The book is divided into three major sections. The first section provides an up-to-date review of the conservation status of Neotropical mammals, the applications of the molecular markers in its conservation, and the use of non-invasive and forensic genetic techniques. The second and third sections present, respectively, a series of case studies in various species or taxonomic groups of Neotropical mammals.
... Our results show that the studied sample of O. virginianus presents a genetic diversity that has not been modified by historical demographic processes such as population expansions (Rogers and Harpending 1992;Rogers et al. 1996). However, the pressure of clandestine hunting and legal hunting of the specie in Mexico (SEMARNAT 2013), its ecology and management (Gallina and Mandujano 2009), habitat fragmentation, poaching, consumption by local communities, and predators (Mandujano 2011;Gallina-Tessaro et al. 2019) are constant pressures on the populations of this species. This decreases the effective size of the mating population in wild populations (Mandujano and González-Zamora 2009), thus only a few lineages go on to the next generation while other lineages go extinct or are less frequent within the population (Rogers et al. 1996;Vázquez-Domínguez 2002). ...
Chapter
The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. Among mammals, rodents comprise more than half of all Neotropical mammal species, and South America is home to about a quarter of the entire world’s rodent species. However, the economic growth of the region still depends strongly on natural resource exploitation and has high rates of environmental degradation and biodiversity loss. In this context, conservation genetics offers means to help reducing current extinction rates and to preserve biodiversity. In this chapter, we discuss conservation genetics using examples from studies developed in the Neotropical region with rodents from the Sigmodontinae sub-family and rodents from the genus Ctenomys (Caviomorpha). Although some species are well studied and present a large amount of data based on different approaches, long-term genetic studies are needed to understand better the combined impacts of all ‘non-genetic’ and genetic threats faced by populations. Such studies are important because understanding these issues is still far from being accomplished for caviomorphs and sigmodontines in the Neotropical region. Moreover, conservation genetics is essential because it also addresses the conservation of processes like speciation and hybridization.
... Our results show that the studied sample of O. virginianus presents a genetic diversity that has not been modified by historical demographic processes such as population expansions (Rogers and Harpending 1992;Rogers et al. 1996). However, the pressure of clandestine hunting and legal hunting of the specie in Mexico (SEMARNAT 2013), its ecology and management (Gallina and Mandujano 2009), habitat fragmentation, poaching, consumption by local communities, and predators (Mandujano 2011;Gallina-Tessaro et al. 2019) are constant pressures on the populations of this species. This decreases the effective size of the mating population in wild populations (Mandujano and González-Zamora 2009), thus only a few lineages go on to the next generation while other lineages go extinct or are less frequent within the population (Rogers et al. 1996;Vázquez-Domínguez 2002). ...
Chapter
Molecular genetic data are increasingly used to assist in species identification and delimitation, and provide a powerful tool to detect conservation units (population/s of an organism considered to be different for conservation purposes). In combination with distributional and ecological information, molecular genetic data can contribute to establishing the conservation status of species and populations. Here, we review these applications to rodent species in Argentina, a diverse assemblage of some 200 species. We capitalize on recent efforts to establish the conservation status of mammals in Argentina and combine this information with available molecular genetic data for rodents in this country. This portion of the southern South America offers exceptional cases of population differentiation and species diversification related to a wide and diverse geography, which includes varied landscapes such as the Patagonian steppe, Andean highlands, tropical and subtropical forests, and the Monte and Pampa regions. Many species are data deficient (including no or limited genetic data) and only known from their type localities. Among the remaining species, most have at least some available mitochondrial DNA sequence data and these, coupled with morphological, karyotypic and (less frequently) nuclear DNA sequence or microsatellite data have been instrumental in identifying and delimiting species. In general, multilocus data with the desirable geographical density are lacking for all but a few species that have been studied in greater detail. Studies coupling genetic and ecological data (e.g. landscape or ecological genetics) are limited to a handful of more intensively studied cases. Given that habitat loss and fragmentation are among the major threats for survival of natural populations, assessing the extent of these threatening processes is crucial in conservation management and a priority in studies of conservation biology.
... Our results show that the studied sample of O. virginianus presents a genetic diversity that has not been modified by historical demographic processes such as population expansions (Rogers and Harpending 1992;Rogers et al. 1996). However, the pressure of clandestine hunting and legal hunting of the specie in Mexico (SEMARNAT 2013), its ecology and management (Gallina and Mandujano 2009), habitat fragmentation, poaching, consumption by local communities, and predators (Mandujano 2011;Gallina-Tessaro et al. 2019) are constant pressures on the populations of this species. This decreases the effective size of the mating population in wild populations (Mandujano and González-Zamora 2009), thus only a few lineages go on to the next generation while other lineages go extinct or are less frequent within the population (Rogers et al. 1996;Vázquez-Domínguez 2002). ...
Chapter
The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a cervid with ecological importance, managed in different exploitation schemes for its economic and cultural value in Mexico; O. virginianus subspecies are distinguished based on phenotypic traits and geographic distribution, but their genetic differentiation by mitochondrial markers has not been explored. The objectives of the study were to carry out a literature review and analyse the diversity, structure and phylogenetic relationships of the D-loop region of the mtDNA of subspecies of O. virginianus in Mexico. Only 10 studies have explored the genetic diversity of 13 subspecies of O. virgnianus that provide valuable information for their conservation. The sample of 66 sequences from the D-loop region of the mtDNA shows that the haplotype and nucleotide diversity remain stable in terms of mutations, but together they do not reflect a structure that allows differentiating subspecies or detecting population subdivisions. The threats faced by O. virginianus in the wild and in captivity are constant, actions such as reducing their legal and clandestine hunting and a genetic improvement program would help conserve the genetic diversity of the species.
... While the majority of mule deer and other ungulates in México are not considered to be of sensitive status and can be hunted under some restrictions (Gallina and Mandujano 2009), Cedros and Tiburón insular mule deer subspecies are of conservation concern (USFWS 1975;SEMARNAT 2010). This study highlights how natural history specimens provide genetic, phylogeographic and historical insight, particularly when extant samples are not easily attainable (Wandeler et al. 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Though mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) persist in robust populations throughout most of their North American distribution, habitat loss, unregulated hunting and other factors have reduced their historical range in México. Two of the six putative subspecies inhabiting México’s deserts and Baja California peninsula are of conservation concern, occupying islands in the Pacific Ocean (O. h. cerrosensis on Cedros Island: endangered) and Sea of Cortés (O. h. sheldoni on Tiburón Island: threatened). Focusing on the desert southwest (n=448), we sampled Tiburón (n=22) and Cedros (n=15) Island mule deer using contemporary samples and natural history museum specimens to complete a phylogeographic evaluation of the species complex, and assess the phylogeography of these insular subspecies. Both insular subspecies formed endemic haplotype lineages, consistent with island biogeographic theory. Bayesian skyline plots were consistent with Holocene demographic expansion. Cedros Island deer were genetically most similar to adjacent mainland Baja California deer, but exhibited a suite of unique haplotypes and reduced genetic variation. Tiburón Island deer haplotypes unexpectedly nested within a mainland lineage found in distant New Mexico, rather than the adjacent mainland Sonoran lineage. Such findings suggest the importance of post-glacial climate fluctuations and biotic community turnover in the phylogeographic history of mule deer in the desert southwest. Our genetic data corroborates cultural, archaeological, and phenotypic evidence supporting Cedros and Tiburón deer endemicity and subspecies status. Reduced genetic variation, divergence from mainland populations, and demographic trends on both islands indicate that conservation, monitoring, and management are critical to ensure persistence of these endemic insular subspecies.
Article
The success of environmental conservation initiatives increases when traditional knowledge and local perceptions of nature are taken into consideration. The objective of the present research was to obtain information from the knowledge and perception that the inhabitants of some rural communities in northeastern Mexico have about the white-tailed deer, with the purpose to contribute to plan programs for conserving this species. Seventy-three men aged from 17 to 68, who belong to seven rural communities in northern Tamaulipas, were interviewed from January to March 2019. In general, the interviewees feel a profound respect and admiration for the white-tailed deer, since this animal is part of the support of their families and represents a source of experiences that they shared with their relatives and friends. In the region, the use of the species is divided into four categories: food, recreation, commercial activities and tourism. Nevertheless, the general perception of the status of the white-tailed deer population is that it is declining due to overhunting. On the other hand, the knowledge that the inhabitants of the region have about the deer can be sorted into three categories: food, life cycle and behavior of the species. In conclusion, the white-tailed deer is considered as a key resource for the natural communities of northern Tamaulipas, where the inhabitants recognize that they obtain environmental, economic and social benefits. For this reason, it is necessary that the inhabitants be organized and take advantage of their admiration and knowledge for the deer to design a strategy for communal exploitation of the species from which the majority will be benefited.
Article
Full-text available
Collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu sonorensis) inhabit the tropical deciduous and semi-deciduous forests of Chamela Biological Station on the coast of Jalisco, located in the southernmost part of the geographical distribution of this subspecies. These vegetative communities are different in floristic composition, phenology, aerial biomass, productivity, nutritive value, and root biomass. From 1989 to 1994, I analyzed the variation of herd size of collared peccaries in relation to seasonal and spatial variation of food, cover, water, and predation risk. Number of individuals per herd ranged from 1 to 12, with groups of 1 to 4 individuals being the most common. In tropical semi-deciduous forest peccaries usually formed large herds, but in tropical deciduous forest they most commonly formed small herds. Number of individuals per herd was similar during rainy and dry seasons. Collared peccaries subdivided into small groups to forage in tropical deciduous forest, and aggregated into herds in semi-deciduous tropical forest. Density and herd size of P. t. sonorensis in Chamela were more similar to those found in other tropical forests than those in northern arid habitats. Peccaries consumed a high percentage of roots thorough the year. From rainy to dry seasons consumption of low quality roots increased as high quality leaves-branches decreased. During the dry season, variation in fruit production and rate of fruit fall support different herd sizes.
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