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In a power system with many fast and/or large changes in the generation or the consumption, for example in a system with large amounts of wind power, the frequency control is more complicated to handle efficiently. Minimiz- ing regulation costs for the system operator in such a sys- tem requires the possibility to simulate the frequency con- trol, but the existing methods for calculations are neither ef- ficient enough with respect to computation time nor accurate enough. This paper shows how the frequency control can be optimized, thereby reducing the regulation costs, using a multi-area model combined with a DC load flow. The multi- area modeling is described and the optimization is applied to a numerical example.

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... Market rules do have an influence on the amount of power reserve that will be used. In [23], using the LP optimization formulation for regulation developed in [13] and presented in section III-B, setting time deviation to zero every second hour instead of every hour is shown to result in less activated regulating power and smaller regulation costs. Rightly designed market rules could therefore help mitigating the increase use of reserves due to wind power. ...
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This paper reviews studies concerning new challenges for European transmission system operators (TSOs) when op-erating primary, secondary and tertiary reserves in a system with large amounts of wind power. The review adopts three perspectives. First, the impact on existing markets is discussed and it is shown that need for additional reserve requirements does not necessarily mean need for new reserve capacity. Secondly, possible designs of improved load-frequency control schemes are presented. The proposed solutions exhibit a trend towards market-based procurement mechanisms and automation of reserve operations. Finally, participation of wind power in load-frequency control is examined. Technical designs are presented for participation in primary control.
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