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The food system: A stranger to the planning field

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Abstract

Planning lays claim to being comprehensive, future-oriented, and public-interest driven, and of wanting to enhance the livability of communities. It is concerned with community systems-such as land use, housing, transportation, the environment, and the economy-and their interconnections. The food system, however, is notable by its absence from most planning practice, research, and education. We present evidence for the limited presence of the food system in planning's list of concerns by scanning leading journals, texts, and classic writings, and by reporting on a survey of 22 U.S. city planning agencies. We analyze this low level of attention and discuss reasons and ideas for planning involvement to strengthen community food systems.

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... Future trends of food retail modernization must incorporate hybrids of local and international supermarket chains to address the needs of both traditional shoppers and convenience shoppers. The influence of access to transport and distance of residence from supermarkets cited by Goldman, (2000) underscore the role of urban planning in strengthening food systems in communities (Pothukuchi & Kaufman 2000). The food system has vital connections with community systems including contributing to the city's economy, health, waste and transportation systems. ...
... The food system has vital connections with community systems including contributing to the city's economy, health, waste and transportation systems. Despite these interconnections, urban food systems are excluded from urban design and physical planning, social planning, environmental planning and technology planning (Pothukuchi & Kaufman 2000). Reasons for this exclusion include the lack of funding for planning and private market driven food systems (Pothukuchi & Kaufman 2000). ...
... Despite these interconnections, urban food systems are excluded from urban design and physical planning, social planning, environmental planning and technology planning (Pothukuchi & Kaufman 2000). Reasons for this exclusion include the lack of funding for planning and private market driven food systems (Pothukuchi & Kaufman 2000). Failure to integrate urban planning and food systems undermines food security in communities for example creation of food deserts (Guthman 2008 andShort, 2008 in Table 1). ...
Article
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... Urban sprawl contributes to increases in both income and racial segregation (Nelson, Dawkins and Sanchez 2004) and in turn decreases the availability of healthy and affordable foods (Hamidi 2019). Even though food is a basic need, urban planning efforts largely ignore the retail food system (Pothukuchi and Kaufman 2000). The retail food industry has access to wide-ranging market research to understand how to attract and retain customers. ...
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Article
The benefits of a “healthy diet” are firmly established, but the ability to follow established dietary-guidelines varies significantly across the American population. While personal choices do matter, the local food environment plays a role in the ability to access the right foods. This study examines the underlying pathways by which residential segregation affects the food environment in all large metropolitan areas in the United States by specifically relating the different dimensions of residential segregation with the food environment in terms of both access and quality, variety of food available. Using variance function regression, we simultaneously model the means and variances, and therefore the net effects of residential segregation on the food environment. Results show that residential segregation impacts the relative availability of healthy food options compared to unhealthy food options. More segregated metros have relatively fewer healthy food outlets and also have larger travel distances to healthy food outlets. Increased residential segregation is also associated with less variation in the food environment, especially for segregation by income. By shedding light on the particular aspects of residential segregation that impact the food environment, this study fits into both the debate over the consequences of segregation, and the debate over effective food retail zoning and accessibility.
... Food systems considerations are an increasingly indispensable focus in urban planning. Resilient food systems, the systems and infrastructures needed for food production, processing, distribution, consumption and disposal (Pothukuchi & Kaufman, 2000), are required to ensure food security for residents, and the ability of cities and regions to cope with the potential food supply chain disruption effects from climate change (Zeuli et al., 2018). Environmental impacts from climate change are amplified in the urban context as complete reliance upon long-distance food transport in urban areas can easily be disrupted by extreme flooding, heat waves, and ice storms (Zeuli et al., 2018). ...
... The food system planning literature has grown by leaps and bounds since the publication of Pothukuchi and Kaufman's (2000) seminal paper, "The Food System: A Stranger to the Planning Field", which identified a major gap in the planning field. Until that point (with a few exceptions see Ebenezer Howard's Garden Cities of Tomorrow, 1965;Parham, 1990) food considerations were not seen as an important part of the planning domain and planners often made land use and policy decisions that directly or indirectly negatively impacted or ignored community food security. ...
Article
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... As such, it requires democratic institutions that work with citizens to steward the 145 public resources to meet public goals. In their classic work, Pothukuchi and Kaufman (2000) 146 demonstrated that a food system in a city contributes significantly to the health and welfare of 147 the city's inhabitants and to the larger metropolitan economy. A city's food infrastructure 148 connects to other urban infrastructure (e.g., transportation, housing, water and sewer networks, governance, serve as a voice for city residents while helping urban governments navigate their 165 role in this new policy area (Mendes, 2008). ...
Article
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... Food waste management in China is largely separated from food system governance, although it has been a critical component of central regulations and policies such as the 12th and 13th Five-Year Plan. In recent years, several Chinese cities have started to formalize their food waste management system to foster the non-hazardous treatment and reuse of food waste [51,70]. In 2015, Nanjing has also developed a food waste management system including household recycling [71,72], but it has not been integrated into comprehensive food system planning. ...
Article
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Research
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Despite the diverse benefits of urban agriculture, there is limited research into urban agriculture as a sector in Victoria. This report presents findings from a survey of urban agriculture practitioners in Melbourne, Bendigo, Ballarat and Geelong. The findings include the sector’s composition, activities, market channels, challenges, needs and aspirations, as well as opportunities for sector support and growth. The report also proposes a roadmap for addressing critical challenges that face the sector and for building on the strength of its social and environmental commitments. These findings and recommendations are of relevance to policymakers at all levels of government, especially as food security, climate change, human and ecological health and urban sustainability emerge as key interconnected priorities in this challenging decade.
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Chapter
Our research investigates how the issue of food security is addressed through an effective urban planning strategy and legislative agenda in resource-constrained urban environments. As part of our study, we assess the degree to which urban planners have embraced the issue of food security. We also examine the importance of urban agriculture in facilitating narrower supply chains, which enhance food security. Finally, to further our understanding of the field, this study provides urban farming examples from Canada, Brazil, and Singapore to shed light on how a combination of community and NGOs support, public and private sector investments, as well as specific government regulatory provisions can help alleviate most of the food security challenges that resource-constrained environments present.
... Noticeably, emerging disciplines within planning, such as climate planning and food systems planning, are represented in topic contents. Future work could tease out the combined influences of food system planning expertise (Pothukuchi and Kaufman 2000), education (Hammer 2004), and advocacy databases, such as Growing Food Connections (Raja, Raj, and Roberts 2017) that fed into food systems planning topics. Similarly, researchers could follow topics related to climate planning (Bassett and Shandas 2010;Boswell, Greve, and Seale 2010;Wheeler 2008) to both extract policy information on plans that are in practice and compare them with current research, theory, and implementation. ...
Article
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Land-use control is local and highly varied. State agencies struggle to assess plan contents. Similarly, advocacy groups and planning researchers wrestle with the length of planning documents and ability to compare across plans. The goal of this research is to (1) introduce Natural Language Processing techniques that can automate qualitative coding in planning research and (2) provide policy-relevant exploratory findings. We assembled a database of 461 California city-level General Plans, extracted the text, and used topic modeling to identify areas of emphasis (clusters of co-occurring words). We find that California city general plans address more than sixty topics, including greenhouse gas mitigation and Climate Action Planning. Through spatializing results, we find that a quarter of the topics in plans are regionally specific. We also quantify the rift and convergence of planning topics. The topics focused on housing have very little overlap with other planning topics. This is likely a factor of state requirements to update and evolve the Housing Elements every five years, but not other aspects of General Plans. This finding has policy implications as housing topics evolve away from other emphasis areas such as transportation and economic development. Furthermore, the topic modeling approach reveals that many cities have had a focus on environmental justice through Health and Wellness Elements well before the state mandate in 2019. Our searchable state-level database of general plans is the first for California—and nationally. We provide a model for others that wish to comprehensively assess and compare plan contents using machine learning.
... Until now, as mentioned in the first paragraph, the city has played a decisive role in the creation of food models and the countryside has played the equally fundamental role of creating typical products, preserving and ensuring their quality [56,57,58,59,60]. For some years, however, it has been the same international bodies, responsible for tackling the food problem, to focus on rethinking the relationship between city and countryside or, better said, between urban food demand and supply from agricultural production. ...
Preprint
: For decades the city has created food models by requiring the countryside to meet the growing demand with increasingly more homologated crop reconversions and increasingly vast and competitive farms. The current acceleration of the land concentration process and the dramatic experience of the COVID 19 pandemic have, however, forced us to redefine the city-country relationship, which has been called into question for some years now in various FAO and EU documents. Based on the GECOAGRI-LANDITALY survey itinerary, a proven tool for reading local peculiarities, the AAs show how easy it is to recognize which farmlands can best fulfil the role of guaranteeing food safety and protecting the quality and typicality of traditional foods. The final proposal is to start a new agri-food policy that no longer starts from the demand formulated by the city but, reversing the direction of the old relationship, it starts from the availability of products offered by the countryside to re-educate consumption and promote the sustainability of agricultural practices.
... Thus, after a period during which these issues were neglected, cities now seem to be increasingly interested in food issues, driven by citizens' enthusiasm and by rising concerns including increasing urban food insecurity (Brand et al., 2019;Pothukuchi et al., 2000;Steel, 2013). This situation is even more acute in times of conflict and global trade disorders as the Russo-Ukrainian War revealed in 2022. ...
Article
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To better understand policy integration dynamics, this paper analyses the early implementation of three urban food policies in France (Montpellier, Rennes, Strasbourg). A key challenge of food policies is their intersectoral nature, while policy design is usually meant to be sectoral. This article seeks to understand both levers and brakes to the implementation of effective integrated policies at the urban level. To explore the making and “everydayness” of the three policy case studies, we collected empirical data based on a multi-faceted methodology comprising a wide review of the grey literature, 29 in-depth interviews, and several series of participant observations on the ground. Our analysis indicates that dedicated organisational resources, including assigned units, trained staff and appropriate financial resources, are keys to the deployment of integrated food policies. We argue that such organisational resources should be more systematically studied in the policy integration literature. Local food policies should also be assessed more critically by putting the organisational resources they receive into perspective with the massive use the local government can make of them for communication purposes.
... The strategic vision of food is replaced by an approach of economic development of a sector of activity, or other arguments for intervention linked to commercial, tourism, social, economic, sustainable development or urban requalification policies. This disconnection leads to a loss of knowledge of the functioning of the system that feeds the territory (Hedden, 1929) and the absence of the food issue from land use and territorial planning policies (Brand, 2015;Pothukuchi & Kaufman, 2000). ...
Article
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Our contribution aims at pointing out how the food issue challenges metropolitan areas while at the same time identifying potential for sustainable urban planning. To that end, we investigate to what extent taking into account agricultural and food-related issues enables to rethink urban planning which is usually qualified as sustainable. Our analysis will be based upon the two French urban regions of Grenoble and Caen where participatory research was conducted through collective and prospective walks. These urban explorations, which provide insights on metropolitan spaces and the interrelations that underlie them, underly the disconnections of contemporary urban planning with the inhabitants, their vital needs and, more generally, the soil, while highlight working paths for a more nourishing, meaningful and rooted urban planning. By considering urban planning through the scope of agri-food stakes, we contribute then to the renewal of urban concepts and thus highlight three workshops aiming at further developing sustainable urban planning issues and tools.
... This approach is also known as the "buy today eat today" model (Soma, 2018), to test interventions that would encourage smaller and more frequent food provisioning, it would be important that households have easy access and the ability to shop in smaller amounts. Unfortunately, the lack of food system planning consideration (Pothukuchi and Kaufman, 2000) has created car-oriented urban sprawl and neighborhood development that promotes stocking up due to the need to use cars to access grocery stores (Freund and Martin, 2008). When asked whether the awareness campaign changed the amount of food wasted in the household, and what has helped the participants reduce food waste the most, several participants noted that the changes they made had nothing to do with improved awareness or information. ...
Article
As awareness around the issue of food waste has grown, various types of interventions to reduce food waste have emerged, many of which tackle waste at the household level. The most popular type of intervention is the awareness campaign, where information and tips are provided to individuals in order to motivate and improve the abilities of households to reduce the amount of food waste they generate, and to better manage food in general. This study is the first to apply the Motivation Opportunity Ability (MOA) framework to assess the experience of households who participated in an awareness campaign intervention study. Specifically, it highlights how the intervention impacted their motivations, opportunities and abilities to reduce food waste. Using two focus groups engaging a total of 44 participants in the City of Toronto, we found that the awareness interventions had positive impacts in improving motivation and ability. They were less impactful in providing opportunities to reduce food waste but we did find that interventions that act as nudges can help provide some opportunities, albeit at a micro-scale. The study also found that despite the campaign, there were many barriers that resulted in households not acting in accordance with their motivations and abilities, mainly due to challenges around store promotions. This paper contributes to an emerging body of literature applying the MOA framework in the field of food waste studies and recommends that future interventions are designed in a manner that addresses all three factors.
... Researchers define the food system as the chain of activities connecting food production, processing, distribution, consumption, and waste management, as well as all the associated regulatory institutions and activities [3] . Based on the food flow and the priorities assigned, we propose a linear and ...
Article
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According to UN FAO, global food production in 2019 reached 2.722 billion tons, showing high profitability and efficiency levels [1] . However, while we enjoy fresh and nutritious food, people in Africa and Central Asia are suffering from starvation and nutritional deficiencies. Despite the high profitability and efficiency levels, the existing food systems are challenged by equity and sustainability problems. In order to assess the current food system and propose a rational optimization approach, we propose a linear and hierarchical food system based on the priorities of food flow and distribution. To quantify food security based on food systems, we develop the AAQN Index system to measure the affordability, availability, quality& safety, and natural resources& resilience of a food system based on the Global Food Security Index (GFSI). We select 68 indicators and calculate the indicator weights by combining the entropy weight method (EWM) with GFSI. By systematically clustering the calculated results, we classified the food systems of 113 countries/regions into: excellent, normal, and poor. Then, we adjust the priorities of the Indian food system, a poor food system, to reveal the differences before and after optimization. Finally, by predicting the future AAQN Index of Indian through Grey Relational Analysis.
... Urban planning links health outcomes and place at a local level (Slade et al. 2016) with urban planners playing a pivotal role in creating the types of healthy living environments that provide sustainable and equitable access to secure and healthy sources of food (Morgan 2009). However, as Pothukuchi and Kaufman (2000) note, while urban planners have done much to improve land use, housing, transportation and a range of environmental factors, little interest has been given to addressing the issue of food security (Cassidy and Patterson 2008). Moreover, within the context of urban agriculture, Thibert (2012) states that local government urban planners are ill-equipped to deal with the practical and policy aspects of the role. ...
Chapter
Today, cities host more than half the world population, and this number is expected to increase by 70% and reach 6.4 billion people by 2050. Asian tropical cities will experience more than 60% of this increase, half of which will occur in cities with less than 500,000 urban dwellers. Owing to the rapid urbanisation in the tropics, governmental organisations should ensure that urban planning and design policies adequately address the socio-economic aspect and well-being of urban inhabitants and meet the sustainable development missions and visions. Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, is one of the megacities in Asia, with an estimated population exceeding 60 million people. This chapter provides an overview of the main challenges that planners encounter to address the sustainable development objectives in Bangkok. These challenges are listed as follows. 1) Climate change has been the main drive for stakeholders and municipalities to propose a strategic framework, which can reduce CO2 emissions and increased urban air temperature. These actions consider the existing city infrastructure and the need for community involvement. 2) The economic development and productivity of Bangkok are adversely affected by traffic congestion and poor connectivity in the urban fabric. 3) Poverty, social inclusion and the growing number of slums in Bangkok, accounting for almost one-quarter of the city’s total population. This chapter adopts a case study approach in providing a review on how municipalities tackled the above-mentioned challenges considering environmental (climate change), physical (transportation and street systems) and social (slum access to housing) sustainability. This chapter also provides an insight into the planning actions that can be considered to meet sustainable development goals.
... Several public health nutrition programs have attempted to address food insecurity and associated nutritional inadequacies in northern and northern Indigenous communities. These include strategies such as Healthy Foods North, the Ontario Diabetes Prevention program, and the federal Nutrition North program (34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39). These strategies have attempted to improve food security by addressing the issue of store-bought foods with some, although quite limited, attention to traditional food access. ...
... In this chapter, the aim is not to conduct a social movement study, but to showcase how food can be embedded socio-politically and what this embeddedness could mean for governance. In this sense, it resonates with the call for attention to four major food concerns, amongst which the most relevant to this case is how food issues are integrated into economic development activities (Pothukuchi & Kaufman, 2000). ...
Chapter
In the aftermath of a mass fish death along the coastal area of Central Vietnam in April 2016, disdain and frustration of the public soon escalated into widespread protests. These protests arose in response to evasion and oppressive tactics from the government. Using discourse analysis, this chapter identifies the different narratives between the government and the activists. This mismatch reveals challenges to governance in Vietnam in the form of a lack of participatory platform. The chapter explores how the theme of fish contributed to the narrative of protestors in rural and urban areas in Vietnam and where they differ. Our analysis indicates that food, as a socio-political lens, has seemingly unified the voices of rural and urban protestors and might have potential to consolidate the existing discourses on civil society. The socio-political imagery of masses of dead fish depicted a life-threatening reality that transcended mere everyday discomfort or technical failures. The fish death, as reconstructed through various media sources, highlighted the role of food as a medium for transboundary socio-political activism. In this sense, food and the related discourse has a bounding effect on some narratives but also functions as a frame to illustrate the challenged relationship between the government and its people.
... In North American cities, urban agriculture was already recognised in the early 1970s, but its planning did not develop on a wider scale until the late 1990s (Pothukuchi, and Kaufman, 2000). The issues of urban agriculture and food production in cities started to become a subject of more extensive research, but also cooperation between e.g. ...
... In the field of public health, these root causes, or social determinants of health, underscore the importance of public policies addressing social justice and other variables that lie "upstream" from poor health outcomes such as hunger and malnourishment. Scholars have also described food systems as spanning (Pothukuchi and Kaufman, 2000) administrative boundaries, from agricultural departments assisting farmers to sanitation agencies managing food waste. ...
Article
Policymakers acknowledge that the food system is multidimensional and that social determinants affect diet-related health outcomes, yet cities have emphasized programs and policies narrowly connected to food access and nutritional health. Over the past fifteen years, the boundaries of food governance have expanded to include a wider range of issues and domains not previously considered within the purview of food policy, like labor, housing, and education policies. This paper illustrates the processes by which this shift occurs by presenting the case of New York City, which has broadened its food governance to a larger set of issues, requiring cross-sectoral initiatives that have led to a more expansive notion of food policy. This shift has resulted from an increased political salience of income inequality and poverty, and a change in municipal leadership that led to a greater emphasis on equity and social justice. Efforts to address equity affected the food system, and in turn led to diverse policies that have expanded the boundaries of food policy. The paper traces this evolution and outlines the implications of these findings for food governance and future urban food policy development and research.
... Cities constitute specific scales of action for food systems in urban food planning (Morgan, 2009(Morgan, , 2013Pothukuchi & Kaufman, 2000). Urban areas are recognised as key actors in food policies through the planning of local food systems at the urban and metropolitan scales (Moragues-Faus & Morgan, 2015) and from a city's regional perspective (Blay-Palmer et al., 2018). ...
Article
This paper focuses on the research pathway related to the drafting of a strategic Agri-Food Plan of Rome. The paper highlights the theoretical background and investigates the strategic vision and actions, as well as the role played by the Covid-19 Pandemic by changing priorities. The merging between two strands of study is identified: urban food strategies and sustainability in the debate on post Covid-19 food planning studies and the analysis of local agri-food systems for economic development. This work shows that in the case of urban and metropolitan areas around the Mediterranean, agriculture, the cultural dimension of food, logistics, research and innovation, and tourism marketing can be included within a single planning and policy tool. In the case of Rome, the place-based approach allowed us to consider the specificities of social and spatial contexts with interactions of market drivers with public institutions. This approach may constitute a promising path of research for the future of sustainable planning, particularly in Mediterranean cities. The results have interesting policy implications that should be more explicitly considered in addressing urban agendas, and in particular, the role of food to promote local development by integrating economic, social, and environmental and spatial values at a regional scale.
... In North America, the discussion about food systems as part of the planning portfolio can be traced back to the early 2000s. Pothukuchi and Kaufman [1], [2] were among the first to address the absence of food systems from planning practice. At that time, community food security was the primary driver behind Pothukuchi and Kaufman's work which revealed that few planners in America viewed food systems as part of the planning portfolio and, more concerningly, that few planners perceived "food system issues to be particularly problematic" [1]- [3, p. 5]. ...
... Ongoing trends, however, indicate that there is little difference in the demand for supermarket items across low to high income terciles in Africa and Asia with regards to the consumption of non-staple and processed food (Reardon et al., 2019). Despite this shared demand for supermarket products across income groups, the neglect of low-income communities as sites for supermarket locations may mean that the food security of such communities will be undermined by urban planning (Pothukuchi & Kaufman, 2000). This trend may result in the creation of urban food deserts. ...
Article
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As an indicator of a potential broader nutrition transition, the supermarketization of urban food systems in the Global South has become a growing area of research interest. While the rising dominance of supermarkets in urban food systems has been noted in several global cities in the Global South, there have been fewer investigations into the spatial and demographic characteristics that may govern the patronage of supermarkets in smaller secondary cities. This paper assesses this supermarketization trend via an investigation of supermarket patronage in a secondary city through a 2014 household survey of Matola, Mozambique ( n = 507). Using a combination of descriptive statistics and decision tree learning algorithms, the findings suggest a strong geographic pattern to supermarket patronage among the surveyed households in Matola. Further analyses comparing frequent and infrequent supermarket patrons confirms the observation that spatial distance may be a more significant determinant of supermarket patronage than household wealth among the surveyed households in Matola. These findings suggest that the spatial availability of supermarkets may play a greater role in defining the supermarketization of Matola’s food system than household entitlements. These findings also have implications for the evolving concept of urban food deserts in secondary cities, recognizing the role of spatial location in determining household access to supermarkets.
... Alongside countless social practices and a decisive increase in food-related social movements, this has led to several parallel but strongly interrelated developments in the policy, planning and research fields. Planning scholars have transformed the topic of food from being 'a stranger in the planning field' (Pothukuchi and Kaufman 2000) into the dedicated academic field of sustainable food planning (Cabannes and Marocchino 2018;Ilieva 2016;Morgan 2009Morgan , 2013van der Valk and Viljoen 2014). Local and regional actors have produced a broad range of food-related vision documents, strategies and policy initiatives (Calori et al. 2017;Candel 2020). ...
Article
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The development of urban food policies has shed light on the strategic role of public landownership for strengthening farmers capacities in the context of rising land values. Despite attention on a few pioneering farming initiatives promoted by local authorities on public farmland, however, there is often little understanding of the extent of public landownership and the modus operandi of public institutions within urban land markets. This makes it hard to assess how representative these ‘pioneering’ projects are, and whether or not they are embedded in coherent urban agendas. The city region of Ghent (Belgium) offers an exemplary case: internationally celebrated for its innovative urban food policy, its administration is at the centre of controversies with farmers and grassroots movements who denounced the large-scale sell-off of historical public farmland in the city region. Using Belgian Land Registry data, this paper constructs a unique, empirically grounded, cartography of public landownership and public land transaction for the Ghent city region. The results expose deep contradictions in public policy and demonstrate the continuation of an urbanism disconnected from agricultural concerns. They also provide tools for reshaping the management of public land aligned to urban food policy goals, in and beyond the Ghent city region.
... Whilst politicians and urban planners are sensitive to the multiple benefits of UA (such as fighting climate change and increasing biodiversity and green spaces in cities, amongst others), the food system was, for very long, 'a stranger to the planning field' (Pothukuchi & Kaufman, 2000). This made community gardens and other UA sites 'politically contested spaces' between gardening residents, municipal government, private developers and community and grassroots organisations, particularly as they often have competing interests and differing degrees of power on how urban land is allocated and managed. ...
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A luta contra as mudanças climáticas é uma longa batalha que está longe de ser vencida. Negociações e acordos formais sobre mudanças climáticas vêm sendo conduzidos há décadas e metas foram estabelecidas para impor reduções nas emissões de gases de efeito estufa a governos e grandes indústrias. Além disso, os cidadãos começaram a explorar maneiras de participar. Depois de focar em protestos para tentar pressionar stakeholders e estados que são os maiores poluidores, eles reconheceram que a luta contra as mudanças climáticas levará a melhores resultados se mudarmos os nossos sistemas económicos e produtivos também no nosso quotidiano, mudando os nossos estilos de vida. Este artigo explora três tipos de ativismo de mudança climática expressos por meio da agricultura urbana (AU). Através de ‘proximidades’, ‘dissidência disruptiva’ e ‘governança urbana participativa’, este artigo analisa como a AU, como forma de ativismo de mudança climática no terreno, pode ajudar a agir, tomando exemplos ilustrativos de duas capitais verdes europeias: Bristol no Reino Unido e Lisboa em Portugal. Recebido: 24/1/2022 Aceite: 21/6/2022
... La faim et la malnutrition, censées être des problématiques réservées aux pays en développement, sont en effet réapparues dès les années 1980 dans les villes d'Amérique du Nord paupérisées par la crise et le reflux des politiques fédérales. Face au retour de l'insécurité alimentaire, il s'agit alors de lutter contre la précarité alimentaire (Pothukuchi et Kaufman, 2000) et les food deserts caractéristiques des banlieues pauvres (Cummins et Macintyre, 2002). Les villes nordaméricaines (comme Toronto ou Baltimore) ont mis en place des food policy councils (Stierand, 2012) dès les années 1990 pour répondre à des objectifs d'accès à la nourriture des populations les plus démunies. ...
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The participation of farmers to the urban food policies is a new issue. Urban and periurban municipalities are facing the discrepancies between various agricultural and urban stakeholders carrying new environmental and food expectations. This article offers a comparative study of three sequences of natural and agricultural land allocations to new farmers in the periurban area of Montpellier (France). Our results show various forms of farmers’ participation to the urban agri-food policy. A geography of farmers’ participation to the urban food policy is sketched. It highlights the role of the farmers’ lived spaces in shaping their pathways of participation to the local governance.
... However, urbanites grew accustomed to consuming food produced anywhere (Steel, 2008). When we consider spatially the patterns of production, transformation, distribution, commerce, consumption and disposal of food, i.e. the food system (Pothukuchi & Kaufman, 2000;Steel, 2008;Parham, 2015) we inevitably must question how territories are organized, since we often ignore negative externalities of agrifood business and their associated "productivist spatial fix", separating city and countryside (Sonnino, 2019). ...
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... Authors such as Cina (2015), who have worked on a much needed shift towards sustainable food urban planning, deplore the fact that such shift "is impeded by a strongly limiting obstacle: the powerful prevalence of building land values on agricultural land values and the consequent preference to plan as developable large peri-urban agricultural areas (PAA)" (2015:57). The defence for urban sprawl relegated the PAA to the role of reserve for new urbanisation, and most city planning literature, at the start of the 21 st c., ignored food issues (Pothukuchi and Kaufman 2000). The rise of the urban food question in the global North (Morgan 2014) has boosted an extensive system of networks, associations, research centres and training institutes, and regulations are being developed. ...
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In 2018, Lisbon won the title of Green capital of Europe 2020. It was described by the Expert Panel as an inspirational city which had started its journey towards sustainability during a period of economic crisis. A year later, Covid-19 had become a global pandemic. Imposed confinements highlighted the extent to which globalisation has spread the virus, as well as the particular fragility of places like cities where people, living together, were asked to not physically interact anymore. Exploring further that very particular global crisis can help to identify the faults in our economic systems and to ask why Lisbon was neither resilient nor sustainable in the face of that adversity. In addition to highlighting how weak our health is, Covid-19 has exacerbated vulnerabilities in Lisbon such as job losses (especially in the touristic sector), food supply (Portugal imports 70% of its food) and food waste. This paper explores how the activity which, ‘par excellence’, meets the most basic of our needs (food), through the example of Urban Agriculture (UA), could contribute to discussions on what makes a city sustainable. A literature review on UA in Lisbon highlights its various benefits, complemented by a broader literature review which converges to showing how UA can help to address the vulnerabilities generated or exacerbated by Covid. Having shown its potential contribution to addressing crises, this article then suggests to examine how systems approaches could help to incorporate UA further in a new type of more participatory urbanism aimed at creating sustainable cities.
... Though the ecology of the cities is deeply influenced by urban agriculture, the discussions about that have not been included with due importance in the urban planning discourse. This lacuna was first pointed out by Pothukuchi and Kaufman [43] and they conducted a survey on 22 US city planning agencies to establish the issue. In 2007, for the first time, American Planning Association formulated a Policy Guide on Community and Regional Food Planning [3]. ...
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Chapter
With roots tracing back to the nineteenth century and the study of ‘natural’ ecosystems, in the 1970s urban ecology emerged as a sub-discipline integrating the natural, engineering, social, and humanist sciences. Adding to the primary scope of urban ecology focusing on the recent past, the present, and planning for the future, archaeologists use a deep temporal frame of reference for analyzing socio- ecological processes in urban systems. Archaeologists study what people have done, explain why they did so (by testing and evaluating a multitude of social, economic, cultural, and/ or ecological interpretive frameworks), and link outcomes to specific legacies, consequences, and trade-offs of anthropogenic transformations of landscape. Archaeology can extend the frame of reference and spatial and temporal scale of analysis for urban ecology scholars and planners addressing the wide range of issues and challenges presently associated with cities and urban systems.
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This paper is aimed to analyze the implications between urban planning, policymaking and scenarios of land uses’ design. The analysis assume that urban planning and design contribute to the quality of a city’s land uses and landscapes that are related to factors that improve qualitatively urban areas and the upgrading neglected areas. It begins analyzing the urban design and planning and its relationships with the urban land uses, policymaking and strategies to resume in design scenarios. It is concluded that urban planning, policymaking and design of land uses are relevant activities to manage urban land resources to achieve sustainable urban development. Keywords: Design, land uses, policy making, scenarios, urban planning.
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This chapter is aimed to analyze the system of green resilience eco-urban land uses oriented in urban social-ecological systems. It reviews and analyses the relevant literature in green social-ecosystem resilience concept and presents a discussion in relation to the sustainable development and ecological sustainability. It further discusses and gives an in-depth overview of the urban social ecosystems as a working structural and functional unit, describes decision support tools that could be applied to sustainable green land uses and development, and offers some strategies for engaging in urban ecosystems, ecological sustainability and adaptive development. It is concluded that the urban land use that through the innovative pro-environmental solutions can, in a natural way, support the system of green resilience eco-oriented urban land uses in urban ecosystems and serve to improve the quality of life in the city.
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Urban food security is a growing concern in many cities across the world due to the increasing global challenge to feed the world. This concern assumes increased prominence in the fast-growing cities of the Global South where most of the new urbanisation is taking place. As many cities in the Global North adopt a raft of measures to ensure their cities are food secure, little is happening in cities of the Global South. The few efforts taking place do not always take a holistic approach to urban food security. In many cities, there is a conflation of urban food security with urban agriculture. Officials in the public and non-governmental organisation sectors take urban agriculture to be the most important, if not the only strategy to combat hunger in cities. This chapter challenges the notion of urban agriculture as a panacea to urban food security on its own. Through examining literature on what strategies cities are adopting to address food security and through interviews with key informants, the chapter established that approaches to food security are narrow-minded and misplaced. Officials also display indifference to comprehensive planning for food. A new paradigm shift that takes a food systems approach is recommended.
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Planners manage the built environment and settlements. The profession envisions the form of urban areas and are responsible for the different land use mixes and the facilities available for residents to use. They also impose rules that determine the uses that are permitted in a locality. At the site level, urban planners determine the buildings that may be built and the extent of development permitted. So, planning determines what use is where and the detail of development. It also directs and dictates what uses are compatible with each other and can be situated next to each other. This is an important lens through which to assess the country’s compliance with provisions of global urban development objectives as set out in the New Urban Agenda (NUA). In Zimbabwe, the urban planning profession is very well-developed and strictly regulated. It borrows heavily from Britain, the former colonial authority. Examining the views of professionals that oversee this profession, the Urban Planners, is therefore, very useful in understanding their actions and in empowering society to meaningfully engage them. This chapter examines the views of Zimbabwean planners on their role in urban food systems. The questions that the chapter sought to answer include: Do Zimbabwean planners think it is part of their mandate to plan for food? What role do they think they should be playing? Who else do they think should be planning and managing food? Do they see themselves as contributing towards the achievement of urban food security? Various research methods were used to collect data including interviews with key informants. A desk survey of the existing planning tools, such as master and local plans, was also undertaken. The author also attended an annual gathering of Zimbabwean urban planners and listened to and analysed discussions during the conference to assess their views. An examination of decisions that have impacted on food systems in the past and the role of planners in these decisions was also used to gain an understanding of the planners.
Book
This book discusses the production, distribution, regulatory and management frameworks that affect food in urban settings. It plugs a gap in knowledge especially in the sub-Saharan Africa region where food, despite its critical importance, has been ignored as a ‘determinant of success’ in the planning and management of cities and towns. The various chapters in the book demonstrate how urban populations in Zimbabwe and elsewhere have often devised ways to produce own food to supplement on their incomes. Food is produced largely by way of urban agriculture or imported from the countryside and sold in both formal and informal stores and stalls. The book shows how in spite of the important space food occupies in the lives of all city residents, the planning and regulatory framework does not facilitate the better performance of food systems.
Book
This book discusses the production, distribution, regulatory and management frameworks that affect food in urban settings. It plugs a gap in knowledge especially in the sub-Saharan Africa region where food, despite its critical importance, has been ignored as a ‘determinant of success’ in the planning and management of cities and towns. The various chapters in the book demonstrate how urban populations in Zimbabwe and elsewhere have often devised ways to produce own food to supplement on their incomes. Food is produced largely by way of urban agriculture or imported from the countryside and sold in both formal and informal stores and stalls. The book shows how in spite of the important space food occupies in the lives of all city residents, the planning and regulatory framework does not facilitate the better performance of food systems.
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In 2020 and 2021, anthropologists confronted the obstacles of conducting fieldwork during the global COVID-19 pandemic. For months, we endured quarantine with others and grieved the loss what many consider the basis of our professional identity: participant observation. We were unable to predict how much our methodological toolkit would have to stretch and shrink to keep up with public health restrictions during a pandemic. We repeatedly asked ourselves: what, in fact, is ethnography and how can we do our work now? To address such a methodological predicament, this paper presents an ethnographic investigation conducted in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area during the summer of 2020 to show how several small-scale agricultural businesses managed to feed confined city dwellers during lockdown. Although concerns for these farmers’ dealings are practically absent from planning policies, they operate in the territory, changing the food system from within. This article also presents the pros and cons of investigating during a pandemic and the implications of reflexivity in the construction of ethnographic knowledge, even if our research needs to be done digitally and remotely for the time being.
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Over the past several decades, cities worldwide have attempted to reconfigure their food systems to improve public health, advance social justice, and promote environmental resilience using diverse municipal policies, often with the support of stakeholder-led governance mechanisms such as food policy councils. This article reviews the roles that cities have played in creating healthful urban food systems and the effects of those policies on public health. It explains that despite wide-ranging policy initiatives, disparities in food insecurity and malnourishment persist. It concludes by describing several promising pathways for urban food policy: engaging in food-focused urban planning to create equitable food environments; treating policies to address inequality and social justice as upstream food policies; considering the effects of new business models such as online food retail in urban food policy making; and using food procurement as a lever to influence regional, national, and global food systems. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health, Volume 43 is April 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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An extensive body of scholarly literature has emerged in the past decade that investigates many aspects of urban agriculture. This chapter provides a review of that literature with a particular focus on topics relevant to this research, namely, sustainability governance, social justice, and land tenure. While the context varies in cities of the global North and South, there are similar political economic systems that influence much urban agriculture practice. In reviewing this literature, I argue that in order to achieve the social justice and sustainability goals pursued by many urban agriculture advocates, it is critical to engage with long-standing questions of land valuation and tenure in marginalized urban areas.
Chapter
Rapid urbanization has left cities with shrinking vegetative and green cover. This study first outlines the role of urbanization in creating heat stressed cities including urban heat islands and health effects. Urban agriculture (UA) practices are an undervalued and untapped counter resource for such ill-effects. Various food and non-food UA systems help engage (1) marginal workers and unemployed, (2) youth and elderly, and (3) business or hobby seekers for family sustenance, economy growth, environmental sustainability, and increased happiness. UA integration has the potential for increasing building efficiency and thermal comfort, enhancing aesthetic value and urban biodiversity, and providing fresh food.This chapter highlights past and projected land use land cover (LULC) changes in Delhi (India). Urban area has expanded from 7.7% (1977) to 39.3% (2014), and is projected to cover 53.8% in 2030. Likewise, rapid decrease in agriculture, allied activities, and green cover is noted. The current status of UA in the capital city is discussed. It is encouraging that the government is supporting farmers to switch to profitable food based UA systems, e.g. vegetable and flower farming. Businesses utilizing soil-less farming techniques, zero-acreage farming, etc. are on the rise. Vertical gardens, green walls, and other non-food UA strategies are being promoted. However, the city lacks impact based studies of UA systems. Further research is needed to maximize UA benefits to the society.KeywordsUrban agriculture (UA)Land use land cover (LULC)UA systemsDelhi
Thesis
Les conséquences du régime socio-écologique industriel sur le climat et la biosphère sont connus depuis de nombreuses années et ont été rappelées au cours de l’été 2021 au sein du dernier rapport du Groupe Intergouvernemental d’Experts sur le Climat (GIEC). Pour maintenir les conditions qui permettent aux êtres humains de vivre, il est nécessaire d’engager une transition socio-écologique dont l’objectif serait de rendre compatible le fonctionnement des sociétés avec celui de la biosphère. Sa mise en œuvre fait l’objet de différents scénarios. Parmi ces derniers, plusieurs auteurs esquissent celui d’une relation renouvelée entre villes et campagnes qui permettrait de maîtriser les flux matériels et énergétiques. Si nous constatons un contexte favorable au développement de ces relations villes-campagnes par les acteurs locaux en France, son effectivité et sa contribution à la mise en œuvre de la transition socio-écologique restent à appréhender, c’est ce à quoi s’attèle cette thèse. En portant notre attention sur les flux de matières et d’énergie, et en ancrant notre travail dans le champ de l’écologie territoriale, nous proposons une approche renouvelée de l’étude deces relations villes-campagnes matérielles et énergétiques via la notion de métabolisme territorial. Deux échelles d’analyses sont mobilisées dans lesquelles différents matériaux de recherche ont été collectés. A l’échelle nationale, nous avons constitué et analysé un corpus de 2 641 documents, puis défini une typologie des relations villes-campagnes métaboliques. A l’échelle locale, nous avons étudié trois de ces relations en réalisant des entretiens avec les parties prenantes et en analysant les documents de projets associés. A la lumière de ce travail, les relations villes-campagnes métaboliques n’apparaissent pas comme une modalité d’action dominante pour les acteurs locaux en réponse aux enjeux de la transition socio-écologique. De plus, la majorité de ces relations répondent aux besoins des villes et peu se matérialisent sous la forme d’un mutualisme, c’est-à-dire d’une mobilisation conjointe des ressources renouvelables des villes et des campagnes pour satisfaire leurs besoins. Enfin, les relations villes-campagnes métaboliques ne contribuent qu’à la marge à la transformation du métabolisme territorial. Loin d’observer un chemin vers la transition socio-écologique selon ces relations villes-campagnes métaboliques, nous observons plutôt la résistance et la permanence du régime socio-écologique industriel.
Thesis
Des processus de crises économiques et sociales apparaissent dans les villes europééennes. Elle se caractérise par des situations de précarités des citadins urbains. Ces derniers mettent alors en place toute une série de stratégies pour répondre à leurs besoins. La pratique agricole constitue l'une des stratégies possibles pour se réapproprier la ville. En partant de l'hypothèse que les crises urbaines constituent autant d'espaces d'opportunités pour penser la ville durable et la ville égalitaire, nous cherchons ici à analyser les fonctions sociales, économiques, écologiques et politiques des jardins des villes en crise. Nous faisons la double hypothèse que les jardins répondent à des besoins économiques, mais que cette fonction est indissociable de toute une série de motivations allant du bien être citadin au droit politique de se réapproprier la ville et de participer à sa création. Dans cette perspective, les jardins et plus généralement les projets environnementaux peuvent être pensés comme des outils d'égalité sociale pour et par les sociétés urbaines. Ils permettent enfin à une échelle plus importante, de repenser les fonctionnalités des villes moyennes dans les métabolismes territoriaux.
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Studying and teaching Architecture and Design is a versatile endeavour where creativity can channelise into Design and Form. This paper will be outlining the first Exercise of Basic Design which is the antecedent to all other exercises of the Architecture Undergraduate Program in India. As part of Semester 1 Design Studio, various studies were made on a Natural Object, which includes: Analyses, Abstraction and Design. These activities are meant to open the minds of the students and further enhance the learning process. The analyses covers the main components that make up Design: the Principles and Elements of Design. The Abstraction is limited to the way this Object can be disintegrated and re-imagined as Abstract Art or Abstract Design. The Design of it includes the final creativity factor put to work, arriving from the Abstraction to a usable product. An illustrated example has also been documented in the words of a student for visual understanding. The interplay between architectural studies and student psychology is significant and creativity is a critical skill that can be taught, nurtured and increased.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted multiple vulnerabilities and issues around local and regional food systems, presenting valuable opportunities to reflect on these issues and lessons on how to increase local/regional resilience. Using the Fraser Valley Regional District (FVRD) in Canada as a case study, this research employs integrated planning perspectives, incorporating comprehensive-systems, regional, place-based, and temporal considerations, to (1) reflect upon the challenges and vulnerabilities that COVID-19 has revealed about local and regional food systems, and (2) examine what these reflections and insights illustrate with respect to the needs for and gaps in local/regional resilience against future exogenous shocks. The study used a community-based participatory approach to engage local and regional government, stakeholders, and community members living and working in the FVRD. Methods consisted of a series of online workshops, where participants identified impacts related to the food production, processing, distribution, access, and/or governance response components of the local and regional food systems and whether these impacts were short-term (under 3 months), medium-term (3 to 12 months), or long-term (over 1 year) in nature. Findings from the study revealed that food systems and their vulnerabilities are complex, including changes in food access and preparation behaviours, lack of flexibility in institutional policies for making use of local food supply, cascading effects due to stresses on social and public sector services, and inequities with respect to both food security impacts and strategies/services for addressing these impacts. Outcomes from this research demonstrate how including comprehensive-systems, regional, place-based, and temporal considerations in studies on food systems vulnerabilities can generate useful insights for local and regional resiliency planning.
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More and more cities develop urban food strategies (UFSs) to guide their efforts and practices towards more sustainable food systems. An emerging theme shaping these food policy endeavours, especially prominent in North and South America, concerns the enhancement of social justice within food systems. To operationalise this theme in a European urban food governance context we adopt Nancy Fraser's three-dimensional theory of justice: economic redistribution, cultural recognition and political representation. In this paper, we discuss the findings of an exploratory document analysis of the social justice-oriented ambitions, motivations, current practices and policy trajectories articulated in sixteen European UFSs. We reflect on the food-related resource allocations, value patterns and decision rules these cities propose to alter and the target groups they propose to support, empower or include. Overall, we find that UFSs make little explicit reference to social justice and justice-oriented food concepts, such as food security, food justice, food democracy and food sovereignty. Nevertheless, the identified resources, services and target groups indicate that the three dimensions of Fraser are at the heart of many of the measures described. We argue that implicit, fragmentary and unspecified adoption of social justice in European UFSs is problematic, as it may hold back public consciousness, debate and collective action regarding food system inequalities and may be easily disregarded in policy budgeting, implementation and evaluation trajectories. As a path forward, we present our plans for the RE-ADJUSTool that would enable UFS stakeholders to reflect on how their UFS can incorporate social justice and who to involve in this pursuit.
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This article articulates a classification of local farming economies today into strong, moderate, and weak categories. The author suggests that exclusive agricultural zoning is the only effective way to protect a viable commercial farming economy, but that it is realistically feasible only in strong commercial farming areas. The author also recognizes uses for zoning in urban fringe areas where pressure to develop is the strongest. However, such development will ultimately serve only to preserve the 'rural character' of the area, not to protect commercial farming. In moderately strong farming communities, the author believes that the usefulness of cluster zoning is debatable; he suggests it should be used only sparingly, if at all.
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Food issues are generally regarded as agricultural and rural issues. The urban food system is less visible than such other systems as transportation, housing, employment, or even the environment. The reasons for its low visibility include the historic process by which issues and policies came to be defined as urban; the spread of processing, refrigeration, and transportation technology together with cheap, abundant energy that rendered invisible the loss of farmland around older cities; and the continuing institutional separation of urban and rural policy. Despite its low visibility, the urban food system nonetheless contributes significantly to community health and welfare; to metropolitan economies; connects to other urban systems such as housing, transportation, land use, and economic development; and impacts the urban environment. We examine existing or potential city institutions that could offer a more comprehensive look at the urban food system. These include the city department of food, the food policy council, and the city-planning department.
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At the center of the United States, between the Rockies and the tallgrass prairies of the Midwest and South, lies the shortgrass expanse of the Great Plains. The region extends over large parts of 10 states and produces cattle, corn, wheat, sheep, cotton, coal, oil, natural gas, and metals. The Plains are endlessly windswept and nearly treeless; the climate is semiarid, with typically less than 20 inches of rain a year. The country is rolling in parts in the north, dead flat in the south. It is lightly populated. A dusty town with a single gas station, store, and house is sometimes 50 unpaved miles from its nearest neighbor, another three-building settlement amid the sagebrush. As we define the region, its eastern border is the 98th meridian. San Antonio and Denver are on the Plains' east and west edges, respectively, but the largest city actually located in the Plains is Lubbock, Texas, population 179,000. Although the Plains occupy one-fifth of the nation's land area, the region's overall population, approximately 5.5 million, is less than that of Georgia or Indiana. The Great Plains are America's steppes. They have the nation's hottest summers and coldest winters, greatest temperature swings, worst hail and locusts and range fires, fiercest droughts and blizzards, and therefore its shortest growing season. The Plains are the land of the Big Sky and the Dust Bowl, one-room schoolhouses and settler homesteads, straight-line interstates and custom combines, prairie dogs and antelope and buffalo. The oceans-of-grass vistas of the Plains offer enormous horizons, billowy clouds, and somber-serene beauty. During America's pioneer days and then again during the Great Depression, the Plains were a prominent national concern. But by 1952, in his book The Great Frontier, the Plains' finest historian, the late Walter Prescott Webb of the University of Texas, could accurately describe them as the least-known, most fateful part of the United States. We believe that over the next generation the Plains will, as a result of the largest, longest- running agricultural and environmental miscalculation in American history, become almost totally depopulated. At that point, a new use for the region will emerge, one that is in fact so old that it predates the American presence. We are suggesting that the region be returned to its original pre-white state, that it be, in effect, deprivatized.
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Many African cities are currently marked by the decline of the formal urban economy and the simultaneous upsurge of household cultivation by the urban poor. The modernization proponents view urban cultivation as a manifestation of rural habits. The New-Marxist critics blame such activities for contributing to the 'double exploitation of labor' and for maintaining the status quo of capitalist social relations of production. This paper, based on a survey of 250 low-income households in Zambia, attempts to respond to both criticisms. The paper also argues that urban cultivation by the poor reduces their vulnerability to the fluctuations of fortune that currently beset the economies of African cities. -from Author
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Metropolitan areas officially defined by the U.S. Census Bureau now encompass 16 percent of land area in the United States, including 29 percent of all farms and almost 20 percent of harvested cropland. Agriculture has adapted to the urbanizing environment through the working of smaller farms, more intensive production, a focus on high-value crops and livestock, and greater off-farm employment. Such adaptations are further advanced in older metro counties than in newer ones. This article shows how the more dispersed settlement pattern in newer metropolitan areas, emerging environmental and lifestyle trends, and recent developments in agricultural policy and the agricultural economy favor the survival of metro farming.
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The use of public money to purchase development rights to privately held land has become increasingly popular in recent years as a way to preserve agricultural land and open space. Several states and counties have devoted substantial dollars toward the purchase of development rights (PDR). The majority of PDR programs are found in the Northeast, and are particularly popular in urban fringe areas where farmland and open space are under intense pressure for conversion to urban or suburban uses. It is unlikely, however, that PDR programs alone can preserve a critical mass of farmland. Indeed, a number of states have chosen not to use PDRs among their growth management techniques. Although PDR programs are likely to remain controversial because of the sizable costs involved, they do offer more permanent farmland protection than zoning or property tax breaks and provide private landowners with compensation in return for restrictions on development.
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Investigates the attempts being made in the USA to unite the best features of social reforms with available social services. Looks at the growth of the urban settlement, housing and work, identifies new approaches and makes proposals for change in the US. -after Author
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This article combines theory and a literature review with empirical and descriptive findings to demonstrate that Oregon's mix of policies is effective in preserving prime farmland in the face of urbanization. Exclusive farm use zones preserve farmland for farming; urban growth boundaries limit urban sprawl; exurban districts accommodate the demand for rural residential development without harming commercial farm operations; farm tax deferral and right-to-farm laws create incentives for farmers to keep farming; and comprehensive plans legitimize the entire package. This article proposes a comprehensive scheme for farmland preservation that expands on the experience of Oregon, including its mistakes.
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Long before Betty Friedan wrote about "the problem that had no name" in The Feminine Mystique, a group of American feminists whose leaders included Melusina Fay Peirce, Mary Livermore, and Charlotte Perkins Gilman campaigned against women's isolation in the home and confinement to domestic life as the basic cause of their unequal position in society.The Grand Domestic Revolution reveals the innovative plans and visionary strategies of these persistent women, who developed the theory and practice of what Hayden calls "material feminism" in pursuit of economic independence and social equality. The material feminists' ambitious goals of socialized housework and child care meant revolutionizing the American home and creating community services. They raised fundamental questions about the relationship of men, women, and children in industrial society. Hayden analyzes the utopian and pragmatic sources of the feminists' programs for domestic reorganization and the conflicts over class, race, and gender they encountered.This history of a little-known intellectual tradition challenging patriarchal notions of "women's place" and "women's work" offers a new interpretation of the history of American feminism and a new interpretation of the history of American housing and urban design. Hayden shows how the material feminists' political ideology led them to design physical space to create housewives' cooperatives, kitchenless houses, day-care centers, public kitchens, and community dining halls. In their insistence that women be paid for domestic labor, the material feminists won the support of many suffragists and of novelists such as Edward Bellamy and William Dean Howells, who helped popularize their cause. Ebenezer Howard, Rudolph Schindler, and Lewis Mumford were among the many progressive architects and planners who promoted the reorganization of housing and neighborhoods around the needs of employed women.In reevaluating these early feminist plans for the environmental and economic transformation of American society and in recording the vigorous and many-sided arguments that evolved around the issues they raised, Hayden brings to light basic economic and spacial contradictions which outdated forms of housing and inadequate community services still create for American women and for their families.
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Reimpresión en 1944, 1976, 1978 Incluye bibliografía
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Project (M.A.)--University of California, Los Angeles, 1993. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 546-589). Duplicate foliation sequence, different text (Appendix 2: leaves 525-545 following leaf 590).
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Between 8% and 16% (2.5 to 4.9 million) of the elder population have experienced food insecurity within a 6-month period. Federal programs to combat food insecurity reach only one-third of needy elders. While hunger and poverty are linked directly to malnutrition, the multifaceted nature of elderly malnutrition cuts across all economic, racial, and ethnic groups. Malnourished patients experience 2 to 20 times more complications, have up to 100% longer hospital stays, and compile hospital costs $2,000 to $10,000 higher per stay. Dietitians can advocate routine nutrition screening to target elders at highest risk and lobby for expansion of appropriate nutrition services in home, community, and institutional settings.
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