Pott, G.B. , Chan, E.D. , Dinarello, C.A. & Shapiro, L. Alpha-1-antitrypsin is an endogenous inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokine production in whole blood. J. Leukoc. Biol. 85, 886-895

Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado Denver, 12700 E. 19th Ave., Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
Journal of leukocyte biology (Impact Factor: 4.29). 03/2009; 85(5):886-95. DOI: 10.1189/jlb.0208145
Source: PubMed


Several observations suggest endogenous suppressors of inflammatory mediators are present in human blood. alpha-1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is the most abundant serine protease inhibitor in blood, and AAT possesses anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that in vitro stimulation of whole blood from persons with a genetic AAT deficiency resulted in enhanced cytokine production compared with blood from healthy subjects. Using whole blood from healthy subjects, dilution of blood with RPMI tissue-culture medium, followed by incubation for 18 h, increased spontaneous production of IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-1R antagonist (IL-1Ra) significantly, compared with undiluted blood. Dilution-induced cytokine production suggested the presence of one or more circulating inhibitors of cytokine synthesis present in blood. Serially diluting blood with tissue-culture medium in the presence of cytokine stimulation with heat-killed Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epi) resulted in 1.2- to 55-fold increases in cytokine production compared with S. epi stimulation alone. Diluting blood with autologous plasma did not increase the production of IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, or IL-1Ra, suggesting that the endogenous, inhibitory activity of blood resided in plasma. In whole blood, diluted and stimulated with S. epi, exogenous AAT inhibited IL-8, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta significantly but did not suppress induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1Ra and IL-10. These ex vivo and in vitro observations suggest that endogenous AAT in blood contributes to the suppression of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis.

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Available from: Gregory B Pott, Feb 12, 2015
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    • "In addition, PiMZ subjects without airway obstruction may also exhibit neutrophilic inflammation in their airways, and therefore at greater risk in developing pulmonary changes [15]. Indeed, native α1-antitrypsin (AAT) serves as an endogenous inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokine production [17,18], implying that loss or reductions in AAT concentration could make AATD individuals more susceptible to chronic systemic inflammation. Management of AATD patients with COPD can also include treatment with purified AAT to replace/augment circulating AAT levels, commonly referred to as ‘augmentation therapy’. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is still limited information on systemic inflammation in alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficient (AATD) COPD patients and what effect alpha-1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy and/or exercise might have on circulating inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that AATD COPD patients on augmentation therapy (AATD + AUG) would have lower circulating and skeletal muscle inflammatory cytokines compared to AATD COPD patients not receiving augmentation therapy (AATD-AUG) and/or the typical non-AATD (COPD) patient. We also hypothesized that cytokine response to exercise would be lower in AATD + AUG compared to AATD-AUG or COPD subjects. Methods Arterial and femoral venous concentration and skeletal muscle expression of TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β and CRP were measured at rest, during and up to 4-hours after 50% maximal 1-hour knee extensor exercise in all COPD patient groups, including 2 additional groups (i.e. AATD with normal lung function, and healthy age-/activity-matched controls). Results Circulating CRP was higher in AATD + AUG (4.7 ± 1.6 mg/dL) and AATD-AUG (3.3 ± 1.2 mg/dL) compared to healthy controls (1.5 ± 0.3 mg/dL, p < 0.05), but lower in AATD compared to non-AATD-COPD patients (6.1 ± 2.6 mg/dL, p < 0.05). TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β were significantly increased by 1.7-, 1.7-, and 4.7-fold, respectively, in non-AATD COPD compared to AATD COPD (p < 0.05), and 1.3-, 1.7-, and 2.2-fold, respectively, compared to healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Skeletal muscle TNFα was on average 3–4 fold greater in AATD-AUG compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). Exercise showed no effect on these cytokines in any of our patient groups. Conclusion These data show that AATD COPD patients do not experience the same chronic systemic inflammation and exhibit reduced inflammation compared to non-AATD COPD patients. Augmentation therapy may help to improve muscle efflux of TNFα and reduce muscle TNFα concentration, but showed no effect on IL-6, IL-1β or CRP.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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    • "Instead, decreased A1AT in gastric cancer was found in our study. A1AT possesses anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and contributes to the suppression of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis such as interleukin-8, TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 beta[25]. It has been reported that host genetic factors that affect interleukin-1-beta may determine the disease phenotype of H. pylori infection[26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer (GC) has a high rate of morbidity and mortality among various cancers worldwide. The development of noninvasive diagnostic methods or technologies for tracking the occurrence of GC is urgent, and searching reliable biomarkers is considered.This study intended to directly discover differential biomarkers from GC tissues by two-dimension-differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and further validate protein expression by western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC).Pairs of GC tissues (gastric cancer tissues and the adjacent normal tissues) obtained from surgery was investigated for 2D-DIEG.Five proteins wereconfirmed by WB and IHC, including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), glutathione s-transferase pi (GSTpi), apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI), alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) and gastrokine-1 (GKN-1). Among the results, GRP78, GSTpi and A1ATwere significantlyup-regulated and down-regulated respectively in gastric cancer patients. Moreover, GRP78 and ApoAI were correlated with A1AT for protein expressions.This study presumes these proteins could be candidates of reliable biomarkers for gastric cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a 394-aa, 52 kDa glycoprotein synthesized primarily by hepatocytes, with smaller amounts synthesized by intestinal epithelial cells, neutrophils, pulmonary alveolar cells and macrophages [7,8]. AAT is the most abundant, endogenous serine protease inhibitor in blood circulation and it has been implicated in regulating vital fluid phase biological events such as blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, complement activation, apoptosis, reproduction, tumor progression and inflammatory response [9,10,11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The serine protease inhibitor, clade A, member 1 (SERPINA1) is the gene for a protein called alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), which is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily of proteins. By conformational change, serpins control several chemical reactions inhibiting the activity of proteases. AAT is the most abundant endogenous serpin in blood circulation and it is present in relatively high concentration in human milk as well as in bovine and porcine colostrum. Here we report for the first time the molecular characterization and sequence variability of the ovine SERPINA1 cDNA and gene. cDNAs from mammary gland and from milk were PCR amplified, and three different transcripts (1437, 1166 and 521bp) of the SERPINA1 gene were identified. We amplified and sequenced different regions of the gene (5' UTR, from exon 2 to exon 5 and 3' UTR), and we found that the exon-intron structure of the gene is similar to that of human and bovine. We detected a total of 97 SNPs in cDNAs and gene sequences from 10 sheep of three different breeds. In adult sheep tissues a SERPINA1 gene expression analysis indicated a differential expression of the three different transcripts. The finding reported in this paper will aid further studies on possible involvement of the SERPINA1 gene in different physiological states and its possible association with production traits.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · PLoS ONE
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