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Development of a measure of relationship
perception in schizophrenia
Mark J. Sergia,b,⁎, Alan P. Fiskec, William P. Horanb,d, Robert S. Kernb,d,
Kimmy S. Keeb,d,e, Kenneth L. Subotnikd,
Keith H. Nuechterleind,f, Michael F. Greenb,d
aDepartment of Psychology, California State University, Northridge, CA, USA
bVeterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, USA
cDepartment of Anthropology, Center for Culture, Brain and Development, and Center for Behavior,
Evolution, and Culture, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
dDepartment of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
ePsychology Program, California State University Channel Islands, Camarillo, CA, USA
fDepartment of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Received 10 January 2007; received in revised form 9 July 2007; accepted 11 March 2008
Relationships Across Domains (RAD) is a new measure of competence in relationship perception that may be used to assess
clinically stable persons with schizophrenia and healthy persons. The structure and content of the RAD are grounded in relational
models theory, a well-validated theory of social relations. The 75-item RAD contains 25 vignettes and can be administered in
approximately 35 min. The RAD requires participants to implicitly identify the relational model of a dyad described in a brief
vignette and infer how the members of the dyad are likely to behave in three other social contexts. The RAD demonstrated good
internal consistency in schizophrenia outpatients and healthy participants matched to the outpatients in age and education. The
schizophrenia outpatients performed more poorly on the RAD than two healthy comparison groups, supporting the ability of the
RAD to discriminate between clinical and non-clinical populations. The schizophrenia patients' performance on the RAD was
moderately related to reading ability and several domains of community functioning.
© 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Schizophrenia; Relationship perception; Relationships Across Domains; Social cognition; Relational models theory; Community
Social cognition, the ability to construct mental
representations about others, oneself, and relations
between others and oneself (Adolphs, 2001; Brothers,
1990), is impaired in persons with schizophrenia (Green
et al., 2005). Relative to healthy persons, schizophrenia
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
Psychiatry Research 166 (2009) 54–62
⁎Corresponding author. Department of Psychology, California State
University, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330-8255, USA.
Tel.: +1 818 677 7352; fax: +1 818 677 2829.
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (M.J. Sergi).
0165-1781/$ - see front matter © 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Author's personal copy
patientsdisplayimpairments insocialcognitive domains
such as emotion processing (Archer et al., 1994; Pollard
et al., 1995), social perception (Corrigan and Green,
1993; Toomey et al., 2002), theory of mind (Greig et al.,
2004; Roncone et al., 2002), and social knowledge
(Corrigan and Addis, 1995; Penn et al., 2002). Correla-
tional and structural equation modeling analyses
strongly suggest that social cognition mediates relations
between neurocognition and community functioning in
2005; Sergi et al., 2006; Vauth et al., 2004). The
investigators of the NIMH Initiative Measurement and
Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizo-
seven domains that should be routinely assessed in
cognition, has not been studied in schizophrenia largely
due to the absence of a measure of competence in
relationship perception. Most measures of social cogni-
tion assess how persons understand and make inferences
about other individuals, typically by perceiving social
cues such as facial expressions or gestures. However,
social relationships also depend on relationship percep-
tion — the ability to implicitly recognize the model that
others are using to organize a given social interaction,
and to understand the implications of using that
particular relational model. Findings of impaired rela-
tionship perception in schizophrenia would advance our
understanding of social cognition in schizophrenia and
likelyexplainvarianceinthefunctional statusof persons
with schizophrenia that is not explained by other aspects
of social cognition. Hence, we developed a measure of
competence in relationship perception that assesses
one's capacity to implicitly recognize and make appro-
priate inferences about relational models.
Relational models theory is a well-validated and
widely applied theory of relationship perception (Fiske,
1991, 2004). It posits that people construct, coordinate,
and evaluate their social relationships using four implicit
relational models (see Table 1). Communal sharing
relationships are based on the sense that participants
have something socially significant in common —
usually something that differentiates them from others.
Communal sharing relationships vary in intensity from
deep love to team membership to community citizenship
ships are linear hierarchies of prestige and legitimate
especially in traditional societies, age. In equality
matching relationships, people keep track of additive
differences in what they give and get, with reference to
even balance. Examples include balanced, in-kind
reciprocity such as exchanging party invitations; turn-
taking; voting; and the rules of nearly all sports and
games. Market pricing relationships are organized with
reference to some socially meaningful ratio or rate, such
as prices, wages, rents, taxes, interest. But relationships
based on rationality need not involve money or even
material barter; market pricing operates in cost/benefit
analysis, military analysis based on kill-ratios, utilitarian
moral reasoning, and standards of proportional justice
(e.g., calculating just rewards or due punishments).
According to relational models theory, the four
relational models govern social behavior across the
many domains of social life (e.g., material transactions,
ing of places and things, social decision-making, moral
judgment, normative aggression) (Fiske, 1991). Persons
in any given group or dyadic relationship may use
different relational models in different situations. For
example, although Mary acts as Joe's boss in the office
(characteristic of the authority ranking relational model),
they may play tennis after work as equals (characteristic
of the equality matching relational model). However, a
they tend to use to coordinate most of their interactions
(Haslam and Fiske, 1999).
The four relational models
• Members are equivalent and undifferentiated
• Members focus on commonality among persons in the
• Members share resources without accounting
• Seen in healthy family and love relationships
• Members focus on asymmetric hierarchical ordering
• “Decision maker” takes initiative and accepts
• “Follower” readily accepts and supports the decisions
of the “decision maker”
• Seen in relations between military personnel and
medical personnel of different rank
• Members focus on one-to-one correspondence
regarding contributions and distributions
• Members closely monitor effort and/or resource use
and evaluate against a 50:50 baseline
• Reciprocity of like behaviors amongst members
• Seen in turn-taking among peers, car pools, and
• Members focus on proportionality
• Each member is entitled to a “fair rate of return”
proportional to their contribution
• Relationships are organized by ratios and rates
such as wages and cost-benefit calculations
• Seen in buyers and sellers, but need not involve money
55M.J. Sergi et al. / Psychiatry Research 166 (2009) 54–62
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Considerable evidence suggests that the relational
models correspond to persons' implicit organization of
relationships. The relational models organize memory
for acquaintances (e.g., recall of acquaintances tends to
be organized by the relational model most characteristic
of the relationship with the acquaintance) (Fiske, 1995).
The relational models also account for both intentional
and inadvertent substitutions of people in naming,
memory, and action (e.g., attempting to telephone Ben,
you actually dial Mike because most of your interactions
with both Ben and Mike are communal sharing
experiences) (Fiske, 1995; Fiske et al., 1991; Fiske and
Haslam, 1997). Taxometric studies support the theory's
contention that the relational models are discrete
categories (Haslam, 1994), and cross-cultural research
indicates that the relational models are present in diverse
societies (Fiske, 1990, 1993).
Inflexible or aberrant use of the relational models is
connected to vulnerability to depression, bipolar dis-
order, psychosis, and personality disorders (Allen et al.,
2005; Haslam, 2004; Haslam et al., 2002). While people
typically perceive their family relations as based
primarily on communal sharing and authority ranking,
vulnerability to dysthymia is correlated with unusually
extreme perceptions of communal sharing and authority
ranking in family relations (Allen et al., 2005).
Hypomania is associated with higher than average
perceptions of communal sharing and authority ranking
in close friendships, and atypically high perceptions of
communal sharing and equality matching in relation-
ships that most people perceive as hierarchical. Psycho-
sis proneness is associated with low perceptions of
communal sharing and equality matching, along with
Most personality disorders are associated with a unique
pattern of motivation to engage in, frequency of
engagement in, and reported frustration in different
relational models. For example, in both non-clinical and
clinical samples, schizoid PD is associated with low
investment in communal sharing relationships, low
implementation (or construal) of equality matching re-
lationships, and lack of reported difficulties in relation-
(Haslam et al., 2002; Haslam, 2004).
all previous quantitative research on relational models
their relationships, their motivations or preferences for
each relational model, or their difficulties with each
relational model. No previous research has explored
competence in using relational models. Competence may
vary across individuals — and since people use relational
their relationships, deficient competence is likely to
significantly impact social functioning and, more gen-
erally, subjective and objective well being. Hence, we
developed the RAD (Relationships Across Domains), the
first measure of competence in recognizing the four
relational models and making inferences from one
interaction to others.
The first step in creating a measure of competence in
relationship perception and inference was to generate a
pool of sentences describing social interactions between
varied male–female dyads. The originator of relational
models theory, Dr. Alan Fiske, assessed the construct
validity of each sentence. Each social interaction was
consistent with one of the four relational models and a
specific domain of social life. Preferred sentences were
used to create test items (see Materials and methods
Sample items from Relationships Across Domains (RAD)
I. Information about Alan and Patty
Alan andPattybuy gifts for eachotherwhenevertheyseesomething
they think the other would like, just because they like to make each
other happy. They recently had to decide where to locate their
restaurant. Alan and Patty thoughtabout how each potential location
would affect their relationship with each other. They picked a site
that they thought would allow them to spend the most time together.
Alan and Patty in other situations
Using what you now know about this pair, circle yes or no to
indicate whether the pair would act or think in the way described in
each of the following statements.
1. Alan keeps track of the time he spends with Patty relative to
the time he spends with other people. (Yes) (No)
2. Patty brings home all the money she earns and turns it over
to Alan; whenever she needs spending money, she asks Alan
and he gives her some. (Yes) (No)
3. Alan and Patty feel like they've always been together,
and always will be. (Yes) (No)
II. Information about Jerry and Karen
Karen often thinks about whether her association with Jerry is a
good use of her time. Jerry and Karen recently had to decide where
to locate their office. Jerry got a cost estimate for the location he
wanted and Karen got a cost estimate for the location she wanted.
They selected the location with the lowest costs.
Jerry and Karen in other situations
Using what you now know about this pair, circle “yes” or “no” to
indicate whether the pair would act or think in the way described in
each of the following statements.
4. Karen is careful not to interrupt Jerry when he is speaking,
but he interrupts her sometimes. (Yes) (No)
5. Jerry and Karen had to make an important decision yesterday.
a contract that states what each of them needs to do. (Yes) (No)
6. Jerry won an award earlier this year. Karen figured that Jerry
had earned it and that Jerry's tremendous investment of
time and energy had finally paid off. (Yes) (No)
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The “beta version” of Relationships Across Domains
(RAD) consisted of 40 vignettes with three questions per
vignette, a total of 120 questions. This draft was ad-
ministered to 109 undergraduates with the intention of
“pruning” items to increase internal consistency. The 25
vignetteswiththe highest average item-total correlations
were retained, yielding a 75 question measure with ade-
quate internal consistency (alpha=0.78).
The present article reports on the psychometric
properties and discriminative validity of the 25-vign-
ette/75-item RAD. Our first aim was to assess the in-
ternal consistency of the RAD in three samples:
outpatients with schizophrenia; healthy persons similar
to the outpatients in age, education, and gender; and
undergraduate students. A second aim was to establish
that theRAD could detect differentlevelsof competence
in relationship perception between schizophrenia out-
patients and healthy persons. As persons with schizo-
phrenia show impairment on most measures of social
cognition, we hypothesized that the outpatients would
perform less well on the RAD than both comparison
groups. The third aim was to examine the relationship
between performance on the RAD and reading skill (an
estimate of premorbid verbal intelligence). As the RAD
involves written vignettes, we hypothesized that the
RAD and the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading would be
somewhat correlated in schizophrenia outpatients and
healthy persons. The fourth aim was to examine the
relationship between performance on the RAD and
community functioning. As relational models theory
argues that social functioning depends on an implicit
understanding of the relational models, we hypothesized
that performance on the RAD and performance on the
Role Functioning Scale would be correlated in schizo-
2. Materials and methods
The present study involved three groups of partici-
pants: 48 schizophrenia outpatients, 34 healthy compar-
ison participants who were similar to the outpatients in
age and education, and 140 undergraduate students. This
Comparison of the three groups
Undergraduates Schizophrenia patientsHealthy comparisont-test UG/SZt-test SZ/HC
Gender (male: female)37: 103
SAPS (mean global rating)
SANS (mean global rating)
RAD (percent correct)
CS — vignette
AR — vignette
EM — vignette
MP — vignette
CS — statement
AR — statement
EM — statement
MP — statement
85.0 (13.3) 2.11
All t-tests were two-tailed.
SZ, schizophrenia outpatients; UG, undergraduates; HC, healthy comparison participants; SAPS, Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms;
SANS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms; RAD, Relationships Across Domains; CS, Communal Sharing; AR, Authority Ranking;
EM, Equality Matching; MP, Market Pricing; WTAR, Wechsler Test of Adult Reading; RFS, Role Functioning Scale.
a45 schizophrenia outpatients and 29 healthy comparison participants completed the WTAR.
b46 schizophrenia outpatients completed the RFS.
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study was carried out in accordance with the Declaration
of Helsinki. All persons participated in the study after
providing their written informed consent. The students
division psychology course. They were informed of
paper. The students had to have seven years of English-
based education to participate in the study. The schizo-
phrenia outpatients and the healthy comparison partici-
pants were part of a larger study of multiple aspects of
Interpersonal and Emotional Processes” (M. F. Green,
Project P.I.) within the UCLA Center for Neurocognition
P.I.). All outpatients met criteria for schizophrenia based
on interview with the Structured Clinical Interview for
DSM-IVAxis I Disorders (SCID; First et al., 1997). All
potential healthy control participants were administered
the SCID and selected sections of the Structured Clinical
Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II; First
et al., 1996). Potential healthy comparison participants
were excluded if they had a history of any psychotic
disorder, recurrent depression, bipolar disorder, substance
dependence,orif theymet criteriaforanyof the following
personality disorders: Avoidant, Paranoid, Schizoid, and
Schizotypal. Potential control participants were also
assessed with the Scale for the Assessment of Positive
Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS; Andreasen,
1984; Andreasen and Grove, 1986). These measures con-
to 5 (symptom severe). SAPS and SANS raters, trained to
use these measures in the UCLA Center for Neurocogni-
tion and Emotion in Schizophrenia, demonstrated agree-
expert diagnosticians (minimum intraclass coeffi-
cient=0.75). The SAPS and SANS ratings (Table 3)
indicate that the outpatients' symptoms were mild at the
time of their participation. The age, education, and gender
distribution of the participants are displayed in Table 3.
The outpatients and the healthy comparison participants
did not differ in age, t(80)=1.14, P=0.26, or education,
t(80)=0.12, P=0.90. The majority female undergraduate
sample reflects the gender distribution of those enrolled in
lower division psychology courses at California State
University, Northridge (CSUN).
The study protocol for the undergraduate students was
approved by the human subjects protection committee of
CSUN. The study protocol for the schizophrenia patients
and the healthy control participants was approved by the
human subjects protection committee of UCLA. The
in a single report.
The undergraduate students completed the RAD in
groups of 4 to 12 participants. The schizophrenia out-
patients and the healthy comparison participants com-
pleted the RAD and Wechsler Test of Adult Reading
individually. The outpatients with schizophrenia com-
pleted the Role Functioning Scale individually. All
participants were asked to read the RAD silently as the
tester read it aloud.
2.3.1. Relationship perception
Relationships Across Domains (RAD) is a 75-item
paper and pencil measure of competence in relationship
perception. The content and format of the RAD are based
on relational models theory (Fiske, 1991, 2004). The
content of the RAD's vignettes and items reflects the
theory's contention that four relational models (commu-
nal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching, market
pricing; see Table 1) govern social behavior across many
domains of social life (e.g., material transactions, dis-
tributions, contributions, organization of work, meaning
of things, social decision-making, moral judgment). The
RAD reflects the theory's assertion that persons use their
implicit knowledge of the four relational models to
the behavior of social partners in future interactions.
each involving a differently named male–female dyad
whose interpersonal behaviors are consistent with one of
the four relational models (see Table 2). Each vignette is
followed by three statements that describe the dyad's
interpersonal behavior in domains of social life different
from that of the vignette. Each of the three statements is
relational models of the vignettes was varied throughout
the RAD so that practice or fatigue effects during
administration would not affect performance on items of
any one relational model. Participants are asked to use
what they learned about the dyad from the vignette to
indicate whether the behaviors described in the three
statements are likely or unlikely to occur by answering
“yes” or “no.” Thus, participants use their implicit
knowledge of the relational models to correctly answer
the items of the RAD. The number of items per vignette
58M.J. Sergi et al. / Psychiatry Research 166 (2009) 54–62
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with correct “yes” responses (range 0–3) was intention-
ally varied to reduce response expectations in partici-
pants. Of the 25 vignettes of the RAD, eight involve
content, six involve equality matching content, and five
involve market pricing content. Of the 75 items of the
RAD, 25 involve a communal sharing statement, 25
involve an authority ranking statement, 14 involve an
equality matching statement, and 11 involve a market
pricing statement. The total number of correct responses
on the measure provides an index of competence in
relationship perception. The reading level of the RAD
was estimated at the ninth grade using the Flesch–
Kincaid algorithm of Microsoft Word. Administration of
the RAD typically required about 35 min for participants
in all groups.
2.3.2. Reading ability
The Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR;
Psychological Corporation, 2001) is a measure of
reading ability that is often used as an estimate of
impairing disorders. Participants are asked to read aloud
50 phonetically irregular words of increasing difficulty.
Reading ability is estimated by the number of words
correctly pronounced. Administration of the WTAR
requiredabout 3min. TheWTARwas administeredonly
to the schizophrenia outpatients and the matched com-
2.3.3. Psychosocial status
The Role Functioning Scale (RFS; McPheeters, 1984)
measures four domains of functioning in everyday life:
work productivity, independent living/self-care, relation-
ships with family and spouse, and relationships with
friends. Each domain is rated on specific anchor points
ranging from 1 (severelylimited functioning) to 7 (optimal
functioning). The RFS has sound psychometric properties
Brekke and Long, 2000; Green and Gracely, 1987).
Interviewers for the RFS were masters and doctoral level
persons, who were trained in the Functional Outcomes
in Schizophrenia (John Brekke, Ph.D. Core Director). The
RFS was rated after a 30- to 45-min semi-structured
interview with each schizophrenia patient.
2.4. Data analyses
The internal consistency of the RAD was estimated
with Cronbach's (1951) alpha. Independent samples
t-tests and ANCOVAs were employed to examine group
differences between the schizophrenia outpatients and
the comparison participants on the RAD and WTAR.
Pearson r coefficients were calculated to assess the
relationship between the RAD, the WTAR, and the RFS
for select groups.
The RAD demonstrated good internal consistency for
the schizophrenia outpatients (alpha=.85) and matched
comparison participants (alpha=.86), and somewhat
lower internal consistency for the undergraduate
Performance on the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading
(WTAR) is displayed in Table 3. The schizophrenia
outpatients performed more poorly than the healthy
control participants on the WTAR, t(72)=2.11, Pb0.05.
outpatients, r(45)=0.49, Pb0.01. However, performance
on the RAD (total score) was not related to performance
on the WTAR in the healthy comparison participants,
Performance on the RAD for each group is displayed
in Table 3. The schizophrenia outpatients performed
more poorly on the RAD (total score) than both the
healthy comparison participants, t(80)=4.83, Pb0.001,
and the undergraduate students, t(193)=4.78, Pb0.001.
The difference between outpatients and healthy compar-
ison subjects on the RAD remained significant when the
effects of reading ability (WTAR) were accounted for,
F(1, 77)=5.33, Pb0.05. To examine group differences
in understanding of individual relational models,
statements (items) were identified as belonging to a
specific relational model in two ways: by the relational
model of the vignette preceding the statement or by the
relational model of the statement itself. In general, the
schizophrenia outpatients performed significantly more
poorly than the healthy comparison participants and the
undergraduates on the four relational models, identified
by vignette or statement. Only market pricing identified
by vignette did not evidence group differences.
Performance on the Role Functioning Scale is
displayed in Table 3. The performance of the schizo-
phrenia patients on the RAD (total score) was related to
independent living/self-care, r(45)=0.34, Pb0.05, rela-
tionships with family and spouse, r(45)=0.36, Pb0.05,
relationships with friends, r(45)=0.31, Pb0.05, but not
to work productivity, r(45)=0.12, P=0.44. When the
influence of reading ability/premorbid intellectual abil-
ity (WTAR) was statistically controlled, the patients'
59M.J. Sergi et al. / Psychiatry Research 166 (2009) 54–62
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performance on the RAD (total score) continued to be
associated with independent living/self-care, r(39)=
0.33, Pb0.05, and relationships with family and
spouse, r(39)=0.40, Pb0.05.
Performance on the RAD was not associated with age
in any of the samples (schizophrenia patients, r(47)=
−0.21, P=0.16; healthy comparison participants, r(34)=
−0.20, P=0.26; undergraduate students, r(144)=−0.12,
P=0.14). Gender differences in performance on the
RAD were not observed in any sample (schizophrenia
patients, t(45)=−1.15, P=0.26; healthy comparison
participants, t(32)=−0.20, P=0.84; undergraduate stu-
dents,t(138)=−0.77,P=0.44).Performance onthe RAD
was related to the schizophrenia patients' positive
symptoms (RAD and total of the global ratings on the
SAPS, r(47)=−0.36, Pb0.05), but not their negative
symptoms (RAD and total of the global ratings on the
SANS, r(47)=−0.27, P=0.07).
Relationships Across Domains (RAD) is a new
measure of relationship perception that is appropriate for
use with clinically stable persons with schizophrenia
and healthy persons. The RAD demonstrated good
internal consistency in schizophrenia outpatients and
matched comparison participants. The internal consis-
tency of the measure was somewhat lower in university
undergraduates. The RAD detected differences in
relationship perception between the schizophrenia out-
patients and the two healthy samples, showing that the
patients were impaired in their overall competence in
relationship perception as well as their understanding of
the individual relational models. The RAD's associa-
tions with family relations, friend relations, and
independent living/self-care support the relationship
between competence in relationship perception and
community functioning in schizophrenia.
In general, the schizophrenia outpatients performed
significantly more poorly than the healthy comparison
models, identified by vignette or statement. Only market
pricing identified by vignette did not evidence group
differences. The lack of a group difference in market
pricing is not consistent with relational model theory's
to develop in persons. The most likely explanation is
psychometric: market pricing vignettes were fewer in
number than the vignettes of the other relational models;
affording for lesser statistical power and likely resulting
in the observed lack of group differences. Another
possibility is that the writing of the market pricing
vignettes made them difficult to comprehend for all
participants. Contrary to this argument, the percent cor-
rect for market pricing vignettes – averaged across all
groups – were actually greater than the percent correct
for equality matching vignettes.
The relationship perception skill of the schizophrenia
patients was related to independent living/self-care,
relationships with family and spouse, and relationships
with friends, but not to work productivity. The associa-
tions observed support the link between social cognition
and functional status in schizophrenia. Relationship
perception, the ability to understand and make inferences
about relations between others, appears to impact the
schizophrenia patient's ability to get along with friends
with work productivity, largely assessed by days and
hours of paid or volunteer work, the findings suggest that
relationship perception may impactthe patient's ability to
get alongwithemployers andco-workers— a skill thatis
essential for maintaining employment.
The development of the content of the RAD occurred
through our close collaboration with an expert in
we consider it to have acceptable content validity. Our
close collaboration with Dr. Fiske also affected the
structure of the RAD. Performance on the RAD requires
an implicit appreciation of the relational models and
anticipationofthe socialactions ofpersons basedontheir
past social behaviors, reflecting the theory's contention
that persons use their implicit knowledge of the relational
models tounderstand and evaluate socialrelationships, to
generate their own social action, and to anticipate the
actions of others.
One limitation of the RAD is that it is somewhat
language-dependent. Performance on the WTAR, an
estimate of reading ability and premorbid verbal in-
telligence, was related to performance on the RAD in the
patient sample. This association with verbal ability will
need to be considered when the RAD is used with
differences in relationship perception between schizo-
phrenia outpatients and healthy comparison participants
even when reading ability was controlled statistically.
Importantly, two of the three associations between the
RAD and aspects of community functioning remained
significant even when reading ability was controlled
The RAD was developed tocomplementthe measures
of social cognition currently used to study schizophrenia
and other mental disorders. Whereas other measures of
social cognition assess person perception (e.g., emotion
recognition from facial expressions), the RAD assesses
60M.J. Sergi et al. / Psychiatry Research 166 (2009) 54–62
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implicit relationship recognition and inference. The
development of the RAD stems from a collaboration
between basic social scientists and clinical researchers,
working together to try to identify the determinants of
functional outcome in schizophrenia patients. In the next
ecological validity of the RAD and other measures of
social cognition in schizophrenia patients across different
stages of the illness.
This research was supported by the National Institute
of Mental Health Translational Research Center
(MH66286; Keith H. Nuechterlein, Director), Dr. Green's
grants from the National Institute of Mental Health
(MH43292 and MH65707), and the Department of
Veterans Affairs VISN-22 Mental Illness Research Educa-
tion Clinical Center. The authors thank Jim Mintz, Ph.D.,
of the UCLA Semel Neuropsychiatric Institute Biostatis-
Relationships Across Domains. The authors thank Nicho-
las Haslam, Ph.D., for his advice on the development of
the RAD and his comments on an earlier version of this
paper. The authors also thank Karen Cornelius, Psy.D.,
Nori, B.A., for their assistance with the recruitment of
participants and/or the collection and coding of data.
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