Development of a measure of relationship perception in schizophrenia

Department of Psychology, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330-8255, USA.
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.47). 03/2009; 166(1):54-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2008.03.010
Source: PubMed


Relationships Across Domains (RAD) is a new measure of competence in relationship perception that may be used to assess clinically stable persons with schizophrenia and healthy persons. The structure and content of the RAD are grounded in relational models theory, a well-validated theory of social relations. The 75-item RAD contains 25 vignettes and can be administered in approximately 35 min. The RAD requires participants to implicitly identify the relational model of a dyad described in a brief vignette and infer how the members of the dyad are likely to behave in three other social contexts. The RAD demonstrated good internal consistency in schizophrenia outpatients and healthy participants matched to the outpatients in age and education. The schizophrenia outpatients performed more poorly on the RAD than two healthy comparison groups, supporting the ability of the RAD to discriminate between clinical and non-clinical populations. The schizophrenia patients' performance on the RAD was moderately related to reading ability and several domains of community functioning.

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Available from: Kenneth L Subotnik
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    • "Performance is measured as the total number of correct responses (ranging from 0 to 45) and four sub-scores, one for each relational model named above. The RAD has good psychometric properties and was specifically developed and validated to assess perception of relationships in individuals with schizophrenia based on evidence showing a link between poor use of relationship models and vulnerability to psychosis (Sergi et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Deficits in social cognition are well established in schizophrenia and have been observed prior to the illness onset. Compared to healthy controls (HCs), individuals at clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR) are said to show deficits in social cognition similar to those observed in patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis. These deficits have been observed in several domains of social cognition, such as theory of mind (ToM), emotion perception and social perception. In the current study, the stability of three domains of social cognition (ToM, social perception and facial emotion perception) was assessed over time along and their association with both clinical symptoms and the later development of psychosis. Six hundred and seventy-five CHR individuals and 264 HC participants completed four tests of social cognition at baseline. Of those, 160 CHR and 155 HC participants completed assessments at all three time points (baseline, 1 year and 2 years) as part of their participation in the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study. The CHR group performed poorer on all tests of social cognition across all time points compared to HCs. Social cognition was not associated with attenuated positive symptoms at any time point in the study. CHR individuals who developed a psychotic disorder during the course of the study did not differ in social cognition compared to those who did not develop psychosis. This longitudinal study demonstrated mild to moderate, but persistent ToM and social perception impairments in those at CHR for psychosis compared to HCs.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Schizophrenia Research
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    • "It is worth noting that social perception assessments typically consider the awareness of cues that occur in social situations (Addington et al., 2006); however, studies to date assessing social perception in CHR individuals have typically considered only one aspect of social perception. In this study, we have examined the understanding of social relationships, as assessed by the RAD, and our results are supported by two other studies that demonstrated poor performance on the RAD for both schizophrenia (Green et al., 2012a; Sergi et al., 2009) and CHR samples (Green et al., 2012a). Furthermore, after controlling for IQ, we observed group differences in RAD Authority. "
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    ABSTRACT: Social cognition, the mental operations that underlie social interactions, is a major construct to investigate in schizophrenia. Impairments in social cognition are present before the onset of psychosis, and even in unaffected first-degree relatives, suggesting that social cognition may be a trait marker of the illness. In a large cohort of individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) and healthy controls, three domains of social cognition (theory of mind, facial emotion recognition and social perception) were assessed to clarify which domains are impaired in this population. Six-hundred and seventy-five CHR individuals and 264 controls, who were part of the multi-site North American Prodromal Longitudinal Study, completed The Awareness of Social Inference Test, the Penn Emotion Recognition task, the Penn Emotion Differentiation task, and the Relationship Across Domains, measures of theory of mind, facial emotion recognition, and social perception, respectively. Social cognition was not related to positive and negative symptom severity, but was associated with age and IQ. CHR individuals demonstrated poorer performance on all measures of social cognition. However, after controlling for age and IQ, the group differences remained significant for measures of theory of mind and social perception, but not for facial emotion recognition. Theory of mind and social perception are impaired in individuals at CHR for psychosis. Age and IQ seem to play an important role in the arising of deficits in facial affect recognition. Future studies should examine the stability of social cognition deficits over time and their role, if any, in the development of psychosis.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Schizophrenia Research
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    • "The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) Part 3: Social Inference–Enriched (Mc- Donald, Flanagan, & Rollins, 2002) evaluates beliefs and knowledge when a lie or sarcasm is depicted, including whether the meaning of a message and the intent and emotional state of the character are detected. The MSCEIT, RAD, and TASIT have strong psychometric properties and have been utilized in studies of schizophrenia (e.g., Kee, Green, Mintz, & Brekke, 2003; Kern et al., 2009; Sergi et al., 2009). Given the degree of shared variance among the three measures (r ϭ .48, "
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with schizophrenia face significant challenges in daily functioning, and although social cognition predicts how well patients respond to these challenges, associated physiological mechanisms remain unspecified. The present study draws from polyvagal theory and tested the hypothesis that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an established indicator of the capacity to self-regulate and adapt to environmental demands, combines with social cognition to predict functional outcome. Using data from 41 schizophrenia patients and 36 healthy comparison subjects, we replicated group differences in RSA and social cognition and also demonstrated that RSA and social cognition interact to predict how effectively patients manage work and independent living activities. Specifically, RSA did not enhance functional outcomes when social cognition was already strong, but higher levels of RSA enabled effective role functioning when social-cognitive performance was impaired. Jointly, RSA and social cognition accounted for 40% of the variance in outcome success, compared with 21% when evaluating social cognition alone. As polyvagal theory suggests, physiological flexibility and self-regulatory capacity may compensate for poorer social-cognitive skills among schizophrenia patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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