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Corporate culture: its value as a resource for competitive advantage

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Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this research study is to investigate the application of the resource-based view to a construct of organizational culture, doing so in the context of the generic models of business strategy. Design/methodology/approach – The original research underlying this paper was an empirical study of 311 organizational sub-units, comprising over 2,600 individual respondents. The measures consisted of two data collection instruments: a valid and reliable survey instrument (the Organizational Culture Inventory; OCI), and an Executive Manager Interview form designed for this research project. Findings – Although the author has all of the research results in terms of statistical results, for the practitioner readership of this journal, the results are restated the results in conceptual, not statistical, terms. The findings included that adaptive, flexible (technically “constructive” cultures) appear to be positively related to desirable outcomes (including quality of the firm's products and services), regardless of the type of strategy deployed. Research limitations/implications – The results suggest that to become a high-performance organization, key members need to understand their business strategy and create an adaptive, flexible, constructive culture that will facilitate the implementation of the business strategy. Originality/value – This research fills a void in the area of empirical studies testing the linkage between business strategy and organizational culture.

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... Organizational culture can be a unique strategy for organizations to take advantage of their competitors (Stinnett, 2001). A successful organization relies on prudent strategy to achieve its set objectives and growth (Klein, 2011). An organizational strategy is formulated on organizational culture (Gibson, Ivancevich & Donnelly, 1997) and every organizational strategy implemented has a culture that supports it (Lizelle, 2001). ...
... An organization's strategic plan often reflects its core beliefs, cultural traits and managerial values (Naranjo-Valencia et al., 2011) as they dwell in management's strategic thinking and can response to external forces. Organizational culture influences strategy formulation and implementation, however, a prolonged use of certain strategies may have influence on organizational culture by either strengthening or completely changing the existing culture (Klein, 2011). Management frequently encourages integration of culture and strategy in innovative strategy implementation so as to achieve the objective of the new strategy (Baird et al., 2007). ...
... The ambition of a well planned organizational strategy is to find better ways of using resources and capabilities to ensure that the organization has the ability to create value and improve returns to its stakeholders (Seyed et al, 2012). Even Google, Apple, and Facebook, the prosperous and highperforming organizations need to continuously change the way they operate over time so that they can go with the challenges (Klein, 2011). The ability of organizations to adapt a variety of organizational culture and constantly support expatriate managers adjust to the economic, political, and cultural values of the countries in which they positioned is another form of global challenges (Johnson, 2019) that confront organizations in today's business environment. ...
Article
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This study establishes the relationship between organizational culture and organizational strategy. It also seeks to find out how a successful organization relies on its culture as a strategy to survive unstable economic conditions. In this paper, pragmatic articles on organizational culture and organizational strategy were exclusively reviewed. Authors of previous studies defined organizational culture as beliefs, assumptions and values of an organization while an organizational strategy is all about the actions an organization takes to achieve long-term goals. The literature explicitly confirmed that these two concepts are linked and had worked successfully for organizations. The review found that organizational strategy begins with a summary of the organization's beliefs, norms and values, and that organizational culture and strategy are intertwined. The study further confirmed that organizational culture could be considered as an organizational strategy because both serve the same purpose. The outcome of the study shows that organizational culture in itself is a unique strategy for organizational development. The results suggest that an organization maintains its culture as a strategy to gain a competitive advantage over its competitors.
... Also, the strong culture is likely to last more during the change process and replacement of employees (Kotter & Hesket, 1992). Culture is an internal resource and should link the organization's internal resources and capabilities with its external opportunities and threats (Klein, 2011), and more efficient this linkage better results are expected. Therefore, it is demanded by management the establishment of a strong organizational culture. ...
... Particular types of organizational culture are fit better in specific conditions. Thus, a more innovative culture that rewards risk-taking, creativity, and innovation is ideal in organizations that emphasize innovation and new product development (operated in new technologies sector) (Klein, 2011), while the hierarchy culture mainly dominates in public organizations (Saif, 2017). ...
... According to Hoffman and Klepper (2000), organizational culture is amorphous, difficult to measure and quantify. However, variations in the organization's capabilities and resources included in corporate culture may impact performance differentiations across companies (Klein, 2011). Finally, Heskett (2012) pointed out that the contribution of organizational culture to corporate performance is 'substantial and quantifiable' and can add for 20-30% on this compared with 'culturally unremarkable competitors'. ...
Chapter
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Organizational culture is a critical issue in the practical and academic side of business management. An efficient organizational culture is closely related to the firm's quick response to internal and external challenges and positively contributes to its operational and financial performance. Scholars proposed some generic types of organizational culture that provide a valuable framework for management to identify their cultures and adapt to the more appropriate and efficient ones for their case. This particular chapter presents the primary studies that propose generic organizational culture types, criticizing and discussing them. The study highlights the essential commonalities of the various theories. There are cases where more than one generic type exists within a firm, operating in benefit or detriment of organization performance. Other important business issues related to organizational cultures, such as the impact of the national cultures, the appropriate leadership, and motivation, are also presented in this chapter. The current study can benefit academic scholars and professionals by providing new knowledge and valuable insights into the importance of organizational culture and the cultural transformation for enabling operational excellence in a multicultural business context.
... En passende justering av strategi og kultur kan hjelpe bedrifter å skape verdier og generere inntekter. Det kan i følge Klein (2011) også føre til motiverte og engasjerte medarbeidere og arbeidsgrupper med høy ytelse. ...
... Resultatene til Klein (2011) indikerte at type generiske strategier ikke var en like viktig faktor i å forklare forholdet mellom strategi og resultater, som hvilken type tilstedevaerende kultur. ...
... Dette tyder på at for å bli en høy-ytelses organisasjon, må firmaets ledelse først, forstå deres "business" og anvende denne kunnskapen til å utvikle en hensiktsmessig strategi, og for det andre, lage en adaptiv, konstruktiv kultur, som er fordelaktig å implementere uavhengig av hvilken strategi som er fulgt. Klein (2011) viser til at ledelsesfeltet fremdeles er i strid med tanke på hvordan organisasjonskultur utspiller seg i forhold til å hjelpe organisasjoner med å svare på markedets signaler, skape organisatoriske enheter, og utføre strategier. Videre tyder hans forskningsresultater på at kultur skapes og formidles gjennom flere mekanismer, deriblant jobb design, lederstil, menneskelig ressurs-praksis, fordelingen av makt, og andre faktorer. ...
... The dissemination of specific values may bring positive results such as better intra-organizational information exchange and sharing of human values that affect staff motivation (Bourne and Jenkins, 2013;Dobni et al., 2000;Paarlberg and Perry, 2007). In this sense, the organization mission statement, containing the guiding values, are highly related to the strategy because the stated values support the behavior that is intended to achieve strategic goals (Semler, 1997;Tosti and Jackson, 1994;Klein, 2011). Organizations employ their guiding values in the formulation of missions and in the implementation of their strategy (Porter, 1985;Klein, 2011). ...
... In this sense, the organization mission statement, containing the guiding values, are highly related to the strategy because the stated values support the behavior that is intended to achieve strategic goals (Semler, 1997;Tosti and Jackson, 1994;Klein, 2011). Organizations employ their guiding values in the formulation of missions and in the implementation of their strategy (Porter, 1985;Klein, 2011). ...
Preprint
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A proper mission statement enriched with specific values and culture is essential for effective communications in this industry field. This paper explores the key values embedded in the mission statements of airline companies , and how values are correlated to their strategies. Content analysis and consequently network analysis among the obtained keywords were carried out in this study. Six content dimensions in the mission statements of airline companies were identified as: 'service', 'customer', 'concern for stakeholders', 'concern for strategy', 'competitive advantage' and 'development'. In addition, the method of islands on airline networks offers a viewpoint from another perspective. Six core values are identified and reported: 'tourism', 'excellence', embrace', 'transport and continuity', 'growth' and 'low-fare'. The findings confirm that by employing content analysis advanced network techniques can serve to study mission statements and other similar texts. Moreover, applied text analytic tools through visualization of data represents a new approach in the field of organization study. This research adds to the existing knowledge of the role that mission statements play in airline management.
... The dissemination of specific values may bring positive results such as better intra-organizational information exchange and sharing of human values that affect staff motivation (Bourne and Jenkins, 2013;Dobni et al., 2000;Paarlberg and Perry, 2007). In this sense, the organization mission statement, containing the guiding values, are highly related to the strategy because the stated values support the behavior that is intended to achieve strategic goals (Semler, 1997;Tosti and Jackson, 1994;Klein, 2011). Organizations employ their guiding values in the formulation of missions and in the implementation of their strategy (Porter, 1985;Klein, 2011). ...
... In this sense, the organization mission statement, containing the guiding values, are highly related to the strategy because the stated values support the behavior that is intended to achieve strategic goals (Semler, 1997;Tosti and Jackson, 1994;Klein, 2011). Organizations employ their guiding values in the formulation of missions and in the implementation of their strategy (Porter, 1985;Klein, 2011). ...
Article
A proper mission statement enriched with specific values and culture is essential for effective communications in this industry field. This paper explores the key values embedded in the mission statements of airline companies, and how values are correlated to their strategies. Content analysis and consequently network analysis among the obtained keywords were carried out in this study. Six content dimensions in the mission statements of airline companies were identified as: ‘service’, ‘customer’, ‘concern for stakeholders’, ‘concern for strategy’, ‘competitive advantage’ and ‘development’. In addition, the method of islands on airline networks offers a viewpoint from another perspective. Six core values are identified and reported: ‘tourism’, ‘excellence’, embrace’, ‘transport and continuity’, ‘growth’ and ‘low-fare’. The findings confirm that by employing content analysis advanced network techniques can serve to study mission statements and other similar texts. Moreover, applied text analytic tools through visualization of data represents a new approach in the field of organization study. This research adds to the existing knowledge of the role that mission statements play in airline management.
... Corporate culture is also an intangible asset that creates sustained competitive advantage as Graham et al. (2017) found that 92 percent of senior executives believe that corporate culture is one of the top three drivers of firm value. Klein (2011) report that corporate culture, specially adaptive and flexible culture, leads to desired firm outcomes. Moreover, corporate culture can also contribute toward sustaining a competitive advantage as it is very difficult to imitate as postulated by the VRIO framework of the resource-based theory (Kim Jean Lee and Yu, 2004). ...
... We expect that companies that feature in the "Best Companies to Work For" list will outperform the market in general because of the findings in the previous studies that better corporate culture leads to better firm outcomes (for instance, Klein, 2011;Kim Jean Lee and Yu, 2004). And all firm outcomes must ultimately lead to increased firm value in the long run. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the stock market performance of companies featured in the survey “Best Companies to Work For” as a proxy for corporate culture. Design/methodology/approach The authors employed the portfolio formation and event study methods from finance to examine the linkage between corporate culture and future stocks returns. The lists of India’s best place to work for by Great Place to Work® Institute and Business Today ( BT ), India’s leading business magazine, form the primary surrogate for a great corporate culture. The authors compared the stock market performance of the culture portfolio vis-à-vis market index, in addition to using Carhart’s (1997) four-factor model. Findings A portfolio of Indian firms that featured in the “Best Companies to Work For” by Great Place to Work© Institute and BT magazine provides a higher return than the market index Sensex both on an ordinary return and on a risk-adjusted basis. The four-factor α s of the value-weighted culture portfolios are significant, implying that these portfolios have provided abnormal returns during the sample period. Moreover, the findings suggest a positive drift in the abnormal returns after inclusion in the “Best Companies to Work For” list. Research limitations/implications The results are largely in conformity with the prediction of the theory that states that corporate culture is an economic asset for a firm that increases its value. Practical implications From an investor’s point of view, the study indicates that investment in “Best Companies to Work For” is a better alternative than passive index investing. Originality/value This study fills the empirical void in the relationship between corporate culture and stock market performance in the Indian context.
... Constructive culture norms promote participation in team efforts and reward quality task performances, and fair treatment of all organizational members (Cooke and Rousseau, 1988). This cluster of organizational culture norms is associated with a range of positive outcomes: including high levels of performance, decrease levels of turnover intention and increase levels of job satisfaction (Balthazard et al., 2006;Klein, 2011). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in the literature by exploring the perceived societal discrimination as an antecedent of perceived organizational discrimination, and investigating the impact of organizational culture (i.e. constructive, passive-defensive and aggressive-defensive culture norms) on perceptions of discrimination in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach A total of 176 American employees completed three surveys assessing perceived societal discrimination, perceived organizational discrimination and organizational culture online through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression method. Findings Results suggest individuals’ perceptions of discrimination in the workplace are influenced by both perceived discrimination in society and perceptions of behavioral norms related to organizational culture. Findings in the current study indicated individuals’ attitudes and beliefs manifested in the societal context were carried into, and reflected in, the workplace. Additionally, beliefs related to organizational discrimination were found to be amplified or minimized depending on organizational culture; specifically, organizations dominated by culture norms reflecting behaviors related to individual security needs predicted higher levels, and culture norms reflecting behaviors related to meeting employee satisfaction needs predicted lower levels of perceived organizational discrimination. Originality/value This paper tested theoretical frameworks debated in the literature by exploring beyond institutional boundaries in the study of perceived discrimination by exploring perceived societal discrimination as an antecedent to perceived organizational discrimination. This project also is the first study (to authors’ knowledge) to investigate the impact of organizational culture on perceived organizational discrimination.
... Penelitian empiris terkini yang sudah dilakukan para ahli dan para akademisi cenderung menunjukkan strategi organisasi dan budaya organisasi memiliki hubungan interdependensi dan keduanya saling mempengaruhi secara timbal balik. (Klein A, 2011). ...
Article
Strategi organisasi dan budaya organisasi adalah dua konsep yang paling mendasar di dalam ilmu manajemen. Berbagai penelitian sudah dilakukan dan secara secara empiris hasil dari setiap penelitian itu pada umumnya membuktikan bahwa strategi organisasi dan budaya organisasi memiliki hubungan yang sangat penting dan memberikan keuntungan bagi organisasi. Strategi Organisasi dan Budaya Organisasi memiliki hubungan yang saling melengkapi dan timbal balik dalam upaya organisasi untuk untuk mencapai tujuannya. Budaya organisasi sangat mempengaruhi proses perumusan strategi organisasi, mulai dari formulasi strategi sampai kepada implementasi strategi tersebut. Implementasi strategi organisasi akan mencapai hasil yang optimal, efektif dan efisien apabila difasilitasi dan diperkuat dan oleh tumbuhnya budaya organisasi yang baik dan kuat pula.
... Dalam kaitan teori kinerja yang dikemukakan oleh para ahli diatas dengan faktor-faktor kinerja karyawan, penelitian Klein (2011), Mc Murray et al., (2010, dan Denison et al., (2003) telah membuktikan bahwa suatu lingkungan kerja yang menyenangkan sangat penting untuk mendorong tingkat kinerja karyawan yang paling produktif. Dalam interaksi sehari-hari, antara atasan dan bawahan, berbagai asumsi dan harapan lain muncul. ...
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Kita telah menyaksikan tumbuhnya kesadaran di dunia korporat. Para eksekutif puncak, manajer menengah, bahkan para pengawas mulai mencari suatu konsep bagaimana menumbuhkan perilaku kewargaan organisasi (Organizational Citizenship Behavior). Kesadaran ini muncul karena perusahaan pada kenyataanya adalah memberikan tugas pekerjaan kepada karyawannya hanyalah berada pada dimensi job deskripsinya saja, walaupun sesungguhnya karyawan tersebut mampu bekerja di luar dari peran yang diberikan perusahaan. Fenomena ini tidak lagi relevan dengan kondisi perusahaan saat ini, sebab perusahaan yang sukses tidak hanya memberikan kesempatan karyawan bekerja dalam konteks in role behavior (perilaku yang berkaitan dengan tugas resmi), tetapi membutuhkan karyawan yang akan melakukan lebih dari sekedar tugas formal mereka dan mau memberikan kinerja yang melebihi harapan. Perilaku ini di kenal dengan istilah perilaku yang berkaitan dengan luar peran kerja (extra role behavior ). Perilaku extra-role dalam kajian literatur diistilakan dengan Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). OCB seperti fenomena meresap dalam penelitian dan praktek bahwa beberapa meta-analisis telah dilakukan pada subjek. Persistensi dimana dengan OCB yang telah dipelajari menggambarkan pentingnya efek perilaku terhadap perusahaan, dan sejauh mana sistem manajemen mengandalkan kegunaan OCB ketika menilai kinerja unit kerja perusahaan. Sampai saat ini kajian-kajian OCB telah difokuskan terutama pada anteseden OCB, konsekuensi dari OCB dalam hal kinerja. Fakta menunjukkan bahwa perusahaan yang mempunyai karyawan yang memiliki OCB yang baik, akan memiliki kinerja yang lebih baik dari perusahaan lain. Dalam beberapa riset bahwa budaya organisasi yang berkorelasi dengan proses penilaian kinerja dan memiliki dampak yang signifikan terhadap OCB. OCB adalah perilaku karyawan yang melebihi peran yang diwajibkan, yang tidak secara langsung atau eksplisit diakui oleh sistem reward formal. OCB adalah sikap membantu yang ditunjukkan oleh anggota perusahaan, yang sifatnya konstruktif, dihargai oleh perusahaan tapi tidak secara langsung berhubungan dengan produktivitas individu. OCB merupakan bentuk perilaku yang merupakan pilihan dan inisiatif individual, tidak berkaitan dengan sistem penghargaan formal perusahaan tetapi secara agregat meningkatkan efektivitas perusahaan. Karyawan yang memiliki OCB akan memiliki loyalitas yang tinggi terhadap perusahaan tempatnya bekerja, dan dengan sendirinya akan merasa nyaman dan aman terhadap pekerjaannya. OCB berorientasi pada perilaku dan diharapkan perilaku tersebut mencerminkan nilai yang dihayati. Sifat dari OCB adalah pragmatis sehingga dapat diaplikasikan pada manajemen perusahaan, khususnya yang berkaitan dengan sumber daya manusia. Perusahaan tidak akan berhasil dengan baik atau tidak dapat bertahan tanpa ada anggotanya yang bertindak sebagai good citizenship atau OCB . Secara spesifik OCB dapat mempengaruhi kinerja perusahaan dalam hal: mendorong peningkatan produktivitas manajer dan karyawan; mendorong penggunaan sumber-sumber daya yang dimiliki perusahaan untuk tujuan yang lebih spesifik; mengurangi kebutuhan untuk menggunakan sumberdaya organisasi yang langka pada fungsi pemeliharaan; menfasilitasi aktivitas koordinasi diantara anggota tim dan kelompok kerja; lebih meningkatkan kemampuan perusahaan untuk memelihara dan mempertahankan karyawan yang berkualitas dengan membuat lingkungan kerja sebagai tempat yang lebih menyenangkan untuk bekerja; meningkatkan stabilitas kinerja perusahaan dengan mengurangi keragaman variasi kinerja dari masing-masing unit perusahaan; meningkatkan kemampuan perusahaan untuk melakukan adaptasi terhadap perubahan lingkungan. Karena itu para akademisi dan praktisi berusaha menemukan suatu formula bagaimana mengembangkan potensi OCB perusahaan. Berbagai penelitian dilakukan semata-mata untuk menumbuhkan potensi OCB yang dimiliki karyawan. Oleh karena itu, Buku ini mengupas beberapa aspek yang dapat mempengaruhi OCB perusahaan hingga menghasilkan kinerja karyawan. Aspek-aspek yang dimaksudkan tersebut adalah kecerdasan spiritual karyawan, kepemimpinan perusahaan, dan budaya organisasi perusahaan. Tiga aspek ini memiliki pengaruh terhadap terbentuknya OCB hinggga berimplikasi pada kinerja karyawan. dengan demikian, pada bab awal buku ini sengaja ditempatkan topik bahasan Pendahuluan karena pada topik tersebut diharapkan para pembaca mengenal, memahami konsepsi dasar dan urgensi penting organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) dalam kehidupan individu, berkelompok, dan perusahaan. Pada bab-bab selanjutnya diuraikan tentang Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB), OCB dan Kinerja Karyawan, Kecerdasan Spiritual dan OCB, Kepemimpinan dan OCB, Budaya Organisasi dan OCB, OCB dalam Bingkai MSDM, dan Studi Empirik OCB. Mengingat relevansinya isi buku dengan dunia perusahaan, maka buku ini setidaknya menjadi salah satu sumber bacaan bagi mahasiswa, birokrat, dosen serta praktisi atau pun bersinggungan dengan dunia Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia (MSDM) baik dalam perspektif ekonomi konvensional maupun ekonomi Islam. Bagi pihak di luar, buku ini sesungguhnya bisa dimiliki untuk memahami kompleksitas dan isu-isu terbaru di seputar persoalan pengembangan perilaku karyawan perusahaan melalui pemberdayaan potensi-potensi OCB karyawan. Akhirnya, kami sadari bahwa buku ini, di sana sini masih banyak kekurangan namun penulis berharap kritik dan saran dengan lapang dada kami terima sebagai suatu masukan dalam penyempurnaan buku ini, kepada semua pihak yang telah banyak membantu, kami haturkan terima kasih. Kepada Allah SWT, juga kami bersyukur dan semoga buku ini bermanfaat bagi semua pihak yang mengelola dan memberdayakan sumber daya-sumber daya organisasi ke arah yang efektif dan efisien, sehingga tujuan akhir organisasi dapat tercapai secara maksimal. Amin
... Except for limited research agendas (Ahmadi et al., 2012;Klein, 2011;Mallinger et al., 2009;Van Der Maas, 2008), where a simplistic relationship between corporate culture and strategy has been studied, very little information/research is available regarding the interrelationship between strategy and organizational culture. The strategy literature has discussed how market orientation drives specific marketing and/or innovation strategy, which in turn drives firm performance (Jaworski and Kohli, 1993;Kohli and Jaworski, 1990); however, that literature has ignored how different types of firm culture impact the selection of the various firm strategies prevalent in companies. ...
Article
Purpose Strategy and organizational culture are indispensable for success within a business. Both behavioral scientists and practitioners have shown keen interest in understanding the association between culture and strategy; however, no strong consensus has been formed about this relationship. This paper aims to shed light on this relationship by answering the following questions: Is organizational culture separable from its strategies? Is there an association between organizational culture and strategy? Design/methodology/approach Using a sample of 496 service managers, this study empirically examines the relationship between culture and strategy. Due to the nature of the data, cross-tabulation research method was used for analysis and to check the association between organizational culture and strategy. Findings Results indicate that successful firms with a bureaucratic and innovative culture may demonstrate any of the four examined strategies (command, rational, transactive and generative). The results also suggest that successful firms with a supportive culture will likely use a transactive or generative strategy. Overall, the results found that all four strategies are associated with each of the three corporate cultures, except for the supportive culture-command strategy and supportive culture-rational strategy dyads. Originality/value There are diverse views about the organizational culture-strategy relationship; however, no strong consensus has been formed about this relationship. Using managerial data collected from service industry, this study examines the relationship between three organizational cultures, namely, bureaucratic, supportive and innovative, and four different types of strategies, namely, specially command, rational, transactive and generative.
... The fit between organizational culture and innovation strategy is desirable to achieve superior innovation performance (e.g., [50]). Organization theorists have suggested that organizational culture and innovation strategy are intimately connected. ...
Article
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Although prior studies have indicated the interrelationships between specific types of innovation strategy and specific elements of organizational culture, few studies simultaneously evaluate the relationship between the two multi-dimensional constructs in holistic perspective. Based on configuration theory, we conceptualize fit as ‘profile deviation’, and investigate the fit between an organization’s culture and its innovation strategy. Data were collected from 183 Chinese organizations. We examine the hypothesis that greater fit between organizational culture and innovation strategy encourages superior innovation speed and innovation quality. Our results provide evidence that in the group of organizations exhibiting either exploratory or exploitative innovation strategy, the more similar the organizational culture configurations are to those of the top performers, the higher their innovation speed and innovation quality are. In the group of organizations exhibiting ambidextrous innovation strategy, the fit between organizational culture and innovation strategy is insignificantly associated with innovation speed and innovation quality. Implications for applying the culture–strategy fit in innovation management are discussed.
... Organizational culture affects decisions and actions of managers and employees thus afffecting almost all elements of management and organization. In that sense, we have empirical evidence showing how culture affects strategy [16,23,4], performance control [10], organizational structure [18], compensation system [22], performance appraisal [15], organizational leaning [1,8], as well as organizational performance [21]. One of elements of organizational behavior proven to be influenced by organizational culture is the leadership [12,6]. ...
Article
The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of organizational culture on leadership. The assumption that organizational culture affects leadership implies that dominance of different types of cultures in an organization implies different styles of leadership. Empirical research encompassed a sample of 16 companies (423 employees) in Montenegro where respondents answered the survey questions. The analysis of data obtained was conducted by Chi square test. The research findings showed that different types of organizational culture, depending on their content, imply different styles of leadership.
... The role of organizational culture on business success is clarified by Calori and Sarnin (1991), Linnenluecke and Griffiths (2009), Sadri and Lees (2001), Klein (2011), Flamholtz and Yvonne (2012), Jofreh and Masoumi (2013), Vitel et al. (2009). Organizational culture plays an important role in the success of business unit, and there has been ample evidence of positive correlation between organizational performance and organizational culture. ...
Article
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This paper is mainly to study implementation of organizational culture in enhancing business competitiveness. Culture is seen as a soft system tool that reflects beliefs that are able to drive business performance in an international environment. Today, culture is a part of instrument to measure organizational readiness in managing business in an international environment. The research is focused on evaluatiny organizational culture in international-scale hotel in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. International-scale hotels are faced with differences in the nature of employees and customers, so management needs to develop a culture type as a strategy to encourage business competitiveness. The research applies Denison’s organizational culture model with four dimensions: involvement, consistency, adaptability, and mission. Sample includes 248 working people at four star hotels with various positions, that is managers, supervisors and employees. The results of the study found that international hotel chains have the power to carry out internal alignment as a strategy to increase competitiveness through employee empowerment programs, team orientation, skills development, and alignment of work values. The results of the study illustrate the importance of internal and external dimension consistency for international business competitiveness.
... Through its influence on the decisions, actions, and interactions of managers and employees, organizational culture influences different aspects of management and organization. Extensive empirical research has documented that organizational culture affects strategy (Klein 2011;Yarbrough, Morgan, Vorhies 2011;Baird, Harrison, Reeve 2007), performance control (Deem et al. 2010), organizational structure (Ranson, Hinings, & Greenwood 1980), compensation systems (Chen 2010), performance appraisal (Henri 2006), organizational learning (Alavi, Kayworth, & Leidner 2005-6;De Long & Fahey 2000), leadership (Giberson et al. 2009;Berson, Oreg, & Dvir 2008), and organizational performance (Wilderom, Glunk, & Maslowski 2000). Organizational culture also influences job satisfaction, which is an aspect of organizational behaviour (Lund 2003;Silverthorne 2004;Johnson & McIntyre 1998). ...
Article
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The paper explains the impact of organizational culture on employees’ job satisfaction. Organizational culture, through its values and norms, shapes an organization’s internal context and thus impacts different elements, including job satisfaction. The paper develops two theoretical explanations of organizational culture’s impact on job satisfaction, which are verified through empirical research on a sample of 324 employees from 16 companies in Montenegro. The first theoretical explanation starts with the assumption that organizational culture impacts job satisfaction by harmonizing its values and norms with specific types of employee needs, while the second starts with the assumption that organizational culture impacts job satisfaction based on the content of its values and norms, regardless of the employees’ needs. The research shows that employees’ job satisfaction level systematically and significantly varies in different organizational culture types, proving that organizational culture is a job satisfaction factor; and that organizational culture does not impact the job satisfaction level by harmonizing with employee needs but through the content of its values and norms. It also shows that the level of job satisfaction is highest in task culture, followed by power culture, and lowest in role culture.
... Moreover, organizational culture has been considered as a leveraging factor, as it reinforces and enhances the value of other assets like social capital (Xiao & Tsui, 2007), knowledge (Zheng et al., 2010), corporate image or identity (Hatch & Schultz, 1997). There are also evidence that organizational culture does not remain neutral either for "hard" or "soft" processes implemented and realized within organizations like manufacturing (Nahm, Vonderembse, & Koufteros, 2004), quality management (Sousa-Poza, Nystrom, & Wiebe, 2001), strategic management (Klein, 2011), innovation management (Gebert et al., 2003;Wang & Li, 2007), knowledge management (Ismail Al-Alawi, Yousif Al-Marzooqi, & Fraidoon Mohammed, 2007) or managing cognitive processes (Fiol, 1991). In this way, organizational culture can be considered as an important coopetition factor playing both direct and indirect role within a single organization. ...
Article
Free article link valid until March 25, 2016: http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1SUjs4Wst3RCv Abstract This study explores the importance of organizational culture for coopetition, and identifies the cultural profile of coopetitors operating within an innovation network. Although organizational culture's role in interorganizational collaboration is long established, coopetition settings have not received a similar attention. This exploratory study sheds light on the role of culture for coopetition, and scrutinizes organizational culture using the Competing Values Framework. Our findings suggest cultural differences between coopetitors versus non-coopetitors. Coopetitors display a cultural profile typical to hierarchy, as they describe themselves as more stable than flexible and more internally than externally focused in their strategic orientation. Interestingly the culture model typical for coopetitors, has been identified as the most distant for non-coopetitors, while the second typical model for non-coopetitors i.e. adhocracy has been identified as the most distant for coopetitors.
... Therefore, culture of management and organization. Extensive empirical research has documented that organizational culture affects strategy [23], [38], performance control [13], organizational structure [29], compensation systems [37], performance appraisal [18], organizational learning [14], leadership [15], and organizational performance [36]. Organizational culture also influences job satisfaction, which is an aspect of organizational behavior [24], [32]. ...
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The paper explores the impact of organizational culture on the effects that the implementation of information and communication technology has on decentralization of organization. The starting assumption is that the implementation of information and communication technology does not have a predetermined and unique impact on centralization or decentralization of organization, but this impact rather depends on the context in which the implementation is performed. Organizational culture has a considerable influence on thinking and behavior of employees and managers since it shapes their interpretive schemes through assumptions, values, and norms that it contains. Therefore, organizational culture must be considered as one of the possible elements of the context on which the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on structure decentralization depends. Starting with Handy's classification of organizational culture types, hypotheses on different impacts that ICT might have on decentralization in each of the culture types are generated. The conclusion is the following: ICT implementation in people culture will lead to a high decentralization, ICT implementation in task culture will lead to a moderate decentralization, ICT implementation in power culture will lead to a moderate centralization, and ICT implementation in role culture will lead to a high centralization.
... Results show that respondents overall believe that the management of organisation culture is critical for implementation of strategy (M=3.878) and organisation culture also enhances implementation of strategy in the organisation (M=3.642). This findings concur with Klein (2011) who noted that the culture of an organisation is a way of attaining competitive advantage, it was found that the norms in a culture have a tendency of fairly and consistently influencing quality regardless of the strategy that is adopted by the company. ...
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The paper aims to investigate the relationship between organisational structure and strategy implementation in oil marketing companies. The study attempts to ascertain the perceptions of the employees regarding the impact of organisational structure on strategy implementation using four organisational variables: hierarchical levels, organisational communication, decision making structures and organisational culture. Based on a sample of 148 respondents working in Kenyan oil marketing companies, the study found that hierarchical levels, organisational communication, decision making structures and organisational culture have a certain influence on strategy implementation. By considering the influence of communication, decision-making, and organisational culture, this study attempts to explore the ways in which organisational structure influences strategy implementation in Kenyan oil marketing companies.
... In order to gain a competitive advantage in today's world organizations need to focus organizational knowledge which is part of the companies culture, its processes and values. Scientists found evidence that strategic implementation impact the culture of a company (Janićijević, 2012;Ahmadi et al., 2012;Klein, 2011). There is a causal relationship between the strategy of an organization and the organizational culture which presents processes, the way people learn and implement methods etc. Knowledge management can be seen as part of it. ...
Article
Organizations today have to position themselves correctly in the market in order to survive in the competitive landscape. Corporate strategy often forms the way the operational business is executed. Corporate strategy therefore plays an important role for the internal structure of an organization. But is also the opposite true? The goal of this study is to identify relationships between the internal organization of a company and overall goals and strategic settings of the enterprise. This research empirically compares the use of standardized management systems, developed levels of knowledge management and strategic goals of car manufactures. The main question is how the use of certain methodologies and best practise approaches (TQM, ISO-based management systems, etc.) influences the strategies of an organization. The result of this study shows that there is a correlation between the internal organization and the strategies of corporations. Internal methodologies and processes are defined according to strategic decisions of an organization. Internal processes and methodologies on the other side have an effect on the strategy as well. This study also suggests a holistic framework to assess this effect on strategy.
... It was immediately clear that there is a specific causal relationship between organizational culture and company's strategy, although it was not clear which of those two was "older" in this relationship, i.e. which one is the cause and which one is the effect. Recent empiric research proved that there is a relationship of interdependence and influence between the company strategy and its organizational culture [12]. Organizational culture significantly influences the process of strategy formulation and selection, as well as its implementation. ...
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The paper analyzes the relationship of strategy and organizational culture as two fundamental concepts in management. The results of recent empiric research are first presented, which prove that there is a relationship of interdependence and influence between strategy and organizational culture. Then, the nature and mechanism of the influence of culture on strategy formulation and implementation are analyzed, as well as the influence of strategy on organizational culture. It is shown that organizational culture influences the strategy formulation by determining the gathering of information, perception and interpretation. Also, organizational culture can, through the process of legitimization, facilitate or disable strategy implementation. On the other hand, implementation of the selected strategy leads to the strengthening or changing of organizational culture through the process of its institutionalization.
... Much scholarly attention has been devoted to organizational culture, which has been identified as a critical factor for organizational effectiveness [22,92], competitive advantage [7,13,52], strategy [2,51], and the successful response to a challenging environment [10,31,55]. We discuss two views of culture that dominate the study of organizational culture: the collective meaning perspective and the toolkit perspective. ...
Article
Digitalization has fundamentally changed organizational structures and processes and affects how people interact with each other, thereby impacting organizational culture. Given the pervasiveness of digitalization today, it is useful to study its profound effects on organizational culture through new theoretical lenses. In this paper, we offer a fresh perspective on organizational culture in the digital world. We accomplish this by integrating two competing perspectives and then leveraging the new perspective to identify digital cultural resources and propose a conceptualization of digital culture. We frame our conceptualization around the cultural resources for digitalization and describe four digital culture archetypes.
... Barrett notes that culture is the "essence, DNA, the present and future" (p. 6) of his organization. Though culture is believed to be passed on from one generation to the other, some researchers (Klein, 2011;Finnan, 2000) argue that the culture of an organization is subject to change and should attune to altering times. Thus, a periodic review of an organization's cultural profile, which reflects the aspirations of its workforce, is needed to provide awareness and envisage a clear direction. ...
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The pretest-only survey design using the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument was administered to 96 staff members of Gedu College of Business Studies, Royal University of Bhutan. The result shows the presence of market culture in the college, indicating competition as the key aspect driving the daily functioning of the college. In addition, individual development seems to be a priority for each staff member. On the other hand, the analysis reveals that clan culture is indicated as the preferred culture. Employees look forward to working in teams founded on loyalty and trust. In view of these findings, it is intelligible for the management to shift towards clan-oriented culture as desired by its employees to fulfil its vision of value-driven business education institute.
... Therefore, contextual factors such as organisational culture and external environment, including national culture, should be specifically addressed in PM system. Notwithstanding that, organisational culture features prominently in the literature as an explanatory construct for behaviour and design, and a feature promoted within management control systems (Aggarwal & Bhargava, 2009;Carroll, 2008;Davis & Shrader, 2007;Klein, 2011;Kotter & Heskett, 1992;Linstead, 2009;O'Regan & Ghobadian, 2004;Witte, 2012;Hofstede et al., 2010;Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 2012;Schein, 2010). Ferreira and Otley (2009) take the view that organisational culture as one of the contingent variables 'that might explain why certain patterns of control are more or less effective' (pp. ...
... Job as a lecturer with psychological contract will improve HR strategy through organizational culture, which supports the research conducted by Richard, McMillan-Capehart, Bhuian, & Taylor (2009) which reveals that organizational culture plays an important role in forming psychological contracts. Research conducted by Klein (2011) about the alignment between the right HR strategy and organizational culture can help organizations create value and generate income. Silva & Weerasinghe (2016) showed the results that HR strategy has an effect on psychological contracts, in which it acts as the main component of psychological contracts starting from the recruitment and selection process to the creation of performance management, work termination, and retirement. ...
... Bowen & Ostroff, 2004;Ulrich & LaFasto, 1995) tentang peranan budaya organisasi sebagai pemboleh ubah pengantara dalam hubungan antara PSM dengan prestasi organisasi. Hasil kajian ini juga konsisten dengan keputusan kajian oleh Klein (2011), Lau dan Ngo (2004), serta Molineux (2013) yang menunjukkan bahawa amalan PSM boleh membawa kepada pembentukan budaya organisasi. Dapatan ini mengukuhkan lagi kefahaman tentang peranan PSM dalam membentuk budaya organisasi, dan seterusnya budaya yang dibentuk memberi kesan terhadap kecemerlangan prestasi organisasi. ...
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The purpose of this study is to identify dimensions that determine the customer satisfaction in Islamic banking services has been conducted at Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Awam (IPTA) in Perlis involving two institutions, namely Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UNIMAP) and Universiti Teknologi Mara (UITM) Perlis. The collection of principal data was accomplished method using a survey paper to answer the study's research questions. It involved 224 customers using Islamic banking services. This study was analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) by applying a descriptive analysis and inferential analysis (Independent T-test, One Way Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) and Correlation Pearson) was used to answer research questions and objectives.His study finds that there are some difference relationships in term of position in university and level of education in the demographic characteristics analysis towards customer satisfaction. Most of the dimension related customer satisfaction in Islamic banking services is being positively correlated with each other (commitment, product knowledge, competence, service encounter).This study proves that this research is useful to academician by providing new empirical evidence of relationship marketing with customer satisfaction in the Islamic banking industry. The results from this study can encourage bank managers on how can improve (commitment, product knowledge, competence, service encounter) in Islamic banks’ services to customer. Islamic banking services, Customer satisfaction, Relationship marketing, Service quality, Service encounter, Commitment, Product knowledge and Competence
... The Body Shop is working fairly with the farmers and supplies to help the communities through the Community Trade Program to ensure that all the products are made up of 100% vegetables and plants and forever being firmly against animal testing. Strong corporate culture associated with business performance can build a significant competitive advantage (Denison, 1984;Kotter & Heskett, 2008;Eccles, Ioannou, & Serafeim, 2014;Barney, 1986;Sadri & Lees, 2001;Klein, 2011). This has shown that The Body Shop practice a strong corporate culture which can be turned into the motivation of employees and leading to low turnover as well as high emotional bonding with the brand among the customers. ...
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Body Shop is a well-known cruelty-free cosmetics brand company. This research paper explores how Body Shop is running the campaign 'forever against animal testing' and raising its voice for banning animal testing in cosmetics. The Body Shop has been advocating for animal rights since 1989. Qualitative analysis techniques have been used in this research paper and information is obtained through a questioner focused on convenient sampling. We have discovered in our research that most consumers do not want to purchase goods which are created by harming animals. In manufacturing cosmetics, we say companies must use alternative artificial testing like Body Shop.
... Antropologiškai visoms kultūroms, kartu ir organizacijos kultūrai, yra būdingas kurios nors jos kultūrinės srities kultūrinis unikalumas (Klein, 2011). Šis unikalus kultūrinis bruožas padaro organizacijos kultūrą nekopijuojama, nes viena organizacija tiesiog fiziškai nėra pajėgi nukopijuoti visų kitos organizacijos kultūrinių dimensijų. ...
Article
Nowadays culture is becoming an increasingly important factor for every organization in terms of employee loyalty / disloyalty, as well as company performance. Corporate culture is even given the extraordinary metaphor as social glue. The most successful companies in the world have their unique culture. Recently it has become very fashionable to examine, modify and copy other corporate cultures. It is important to note that the change of culture is not a one-day move, but a lengthy process, particularly starting from the study of corporate culture. This article focuses on the culture research problems and opportunities, the cultural types of classification, and the recommended study of culture in the organization.
... Through its influence on the decisions, actions, and interactions of managers and employees, organizational culture also impacts different aspects of management and organization. Extensive empirical research has documented that organizational culture affects strategy (Klein 2011;Yarbrough, Morgan, Vorhies 2011;Baird, Harrison, Reeve 2007), performance control (Deem et al. 2010), organizational structure (Ranson, Hinings, The aim of this paper is to explain the way in which organizational culture impacts company performance and to present the results of the existing research into this topic. Therefore, the theoretical framework of the organizational culture's impact on performance will be presented first; it will be followed by a presentation of the basic knowledge on the relations between culture and organizational performance reached by researchers thus far. ...
... As such, the innovation culture permeated the organization little by little, as demonstrated by the different survey results from managers and employees during the research period. From this perspective, our findings contradict the general assumption of many authors (Cooke and Lafferty, 1987;Van den Berg and Wilderom, 2004;Klein, 2011;Kumar and Balakrishnan, 2011) that assert that a favorable culture in the organization is needed prior to this kind of change initiative. ...
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The purpose of this article is to identify the drivers, success factors, benefits, and barriers to innovation in a medium size construction firm with a standardized innovation management system. The case study method is used to compare theory to reality from different perspectives, building explanations from a Spanish contractor observed over a three year period. Findings suggest that innovation management can be standardized, which leads to an organizational improvement for the company, and at the same time this improvement facilitates organizational problem-solving on a regular basis, increasing technical capabilities, knowledge management, business profit, and client satisfaction. The framework described in this research aims to provide guidance for managers, thus they can innovate in a systematic way; however, this exploratory study has still to be validated by empirical investigations on a larger scale through a significant number of certified companies, which is currently not yet the case in the Spanish construction industry.
... Bowen & Ostroff , 2004;Ulrich & LaFasto, 1995) tentang peranan budaya organisasi sebagai pemboleh ubah pengantara dalam hubungan antara PSM dengan prestasi organisasi. Hasil kajian ini juga konsisten dengan keputusan kajian oleh Klein (2011), Lau dan Ngo (2004, serta Molineux (2013) yang menunjukkan bahawa amalan PSM boleh membawa kepada pembentukan budaya organisasi. Dapatan ini mengukuhkan lagi kefahaman tentang peranan PSM dalam membentuk budaya organisasi, dan seterusnya budaya yang dibentuk memberi kesan terhadap kecemerlangan prestasi organisasi. ...
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Kajian ini menyelidik hubungan antara pengurusan sumber manusia (PSM), budaya organisasi dan prestasi organisasi menerusi pemodelan persamaan struktur. Kajian ini berasaskan reka bentuk tinjauan dan bersifat keratan rentas. Sebanyak 137 soal selidik dikutip daripada organisasi pembuatan di Malaysia dan digunakan dalam analisis statistik. Amalan PSM termasuk pengambilan pekerja, penilaian prestasi, latihan dan pembangunan, ganjaran berasaskan prestasi, pengurusan kerjaya, perkongsian maklumat, dan jaminan pekerjaan. Pemboleh ubah budaya organisasi meliputi penglibatan, koordinasi dan integrasi, komunikasi terbuka, kepercayaan, penambahbaikan, dan kerjasama. Sementara pemboleh ubah prestasi organisasi merangkumi kadar pertumbuhan jualan, hasilan operasi dan hasilan sumber manusia. Hampir 57 peratus daripada varians dalam konstruk budaya organisasi dapat diterangkan oleh konstruk PSM. Sementara kedua-dua konstruk PSM dan budaya organisasi dapat menerangkan kira-kira 68 peratus varians dalam konstruk prestasi organisasi. Model persamaan struktur menunjukkan budaya organisasi berperanan sebagai pengantara dalam hubungan antara PSM dengan prestasi organisasi. Kata kunci: Pengurusan sumber manusia, budaya organisasi, prestasi organisasi, LISREL.
... El resultado de este proceso es la fijación de un posicionamiento estratégico que garantice la supervivencia del hospital en el largo plazo. Las empresas competitivas son capaces de entender su negocio y volcar dicho conocimiento en el desarrollo de una estrategia coherente con su cultura corporativa (Klein, 2011). ...
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El objetivo de este artículo de revisión bibliográfica es analizar el impacto de las redes sociales en la creación de la reputación online de una marca hospitalaria. El artículo propone el modelo PMA de gestión de la reputación online para marcas hospitalarias, y concluye afirmando que la existencia de un equipo multidisciplinar, la proyección de la marca en el largo plazo y la implicación de los profesionales de la salud son aspectos determinantes para que el Director de Comunicación de un hospital pueda crear una marca reputada.
Article
Teacher’s performance is the main key of school organization’s success. As the key, teachers’ genuineness is highlighted to be the most demanding of the school operations. They are actors, patrons, front liner workers, and models for the future. It shows that the role of teachers is the center of school operations. In the same situations, school operations are affected by school culture and quality management practices that enhance the teachers to do their duties properly. Teachers’ performances are tied to the culture and total quality management practices of the schools. The purpose of this research is to elaborate the relationships between implementation of total quality management practices, organizational culture and teacher’s performance. The research results indicate that there is a strong relationship between total quality management practices and teacher’s performance. Also there is a moderate relationship between organizational culture and teacher’s performance. While the relationship between total quality management and oganizationa culture is moderate relationship. Both total quality management practices and organizational culture positively and significantly affect teacher’s performance. Keywords: Teacher’s, performance, quality management, practices, organization culture, school operation.
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Purpose – The purpose of this article is to explore the impact of organizational culture, adaptation, political environment and leadership for expatriate managers working in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Expatriate leaders on overseas assignment often attempt to transfer their home organization culture to their new location. The subsequent cultural clash can have a destructive impact on both the leader and the organization. Design/methodology/approach – Expatriate leaders’ experiences in the UAE were collected through interviews, with a specific focus on cultural adaptation and most effective leadership styles for implementing strategic organizational change. Findings – Our research revealed that a consultative style was found to be most effective by expatriate leaders in the UAE. Communication with local staff, team building, motivating staff and involving staff in decision-making were highly effective approaches in assisting expatriate leaders to succeed within their organizational cultures. Several strategies have been identified based on the experiences of the expatriate leaders interviewed in our study. Practical implications – The findings offer practical advice for organizational leaders anticipating an assignment in the UAE and human resource management practitioners preparing expatriate leaders for their duties there. The authors also provide suggestions for expatriate leaders to enhance their adjustment to the organizational and political culture. Originality/value – Numerous studies have been done on organizational cultural adaptation; however, comparatively little research has been offered on practical organizational adaptation and leadership specific to the UAE.
Book
As global business systems are becoming ever more complex and they continue to grow and expand, it is increasingly more difficult to stand out as an effective and efficient leader. Dynamic Leadership Models for Global Business: Enhancing Digitally Connected Environments describes various models on how to become an outstanding leader in today's rapidly growing global business environments. This book seeks to provide positive instruction which illuminates a practical path to becoming a successful leader in such large and competitive markets. The approach is consistent with any existing leadership development program, or it may be undertaken as an individual initiative.
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The objectives of this study are to clarify the concept of IT capabilities, and to investigate the relationships between strategic resources and IT capabilities in supporting performance to develop a conceptual framework. The analysis was undertaken because of the compelling issues regarding two topics namely the identified strategic resources in the nature of the organization in Thailand and the IT capabilities from dynamic capabilities theory and resource-based theory. The results of this study use the dynamic capabilities concept and resource-based views theory as the theoretical framework to develop the Expected Structure Equation Model (SEM). The SEM model shows the relationship between strategic resources and IT capabilities in supporting organizational performance. The strategic resources bundled with IT capabilities in this research have four elements: entrepreneurship, innovativeness, organizational learning, and market orientation.
Chapter
Values are direct derivatives of the cultural background, and as such, they allow for explicit and implicit expression of what is wrong and what is right. Experts on values observe two levels of values: values held by a person and values held by a group. The Rokeach Value System (RVS) is one of the popular tools made up of two sets of values, with each set containing eighteen individual value items. RVS is a versatile and useful instrument. A wealth of research shows that differences in work values do exist by nation, and that these differences are important to understanding how to motivate people from respective countries. Business ethics and social responsibility are the other two areas strongly influenced by the relationships of national culture and work values and, for most part, it is the country culture-not workplace ideology-that drives workplace values. business ethics; social responsibility; Value analysis
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As perceived by company employees, luxury culture is best understood by collecting and analyzing anonymous genuine current or past employee‐generated comments (EGCs) about their experience of specific work culture, without fear of retaliation by using digital platforms. This paper focuses on luxury culture, including organizational culture, founder culture, and country‐of‐origin culture. It examines the employee‐perception of organizational culture in the case of L'Oréal, a luxury cosmetics company, by analyzing EGCs collected from a digital platform. This study demonstrates that sentiment analysis methodology is a valuable technique in understanding how employees' perceptions of luxury companies' cultures and significantly that changes happening in luxury brands' dynamic organizational cultures may well be known relatively early by analyzing the EGCs. This study adds a new factor to the luxury organizational culture called “digital culture,” in addition to the previously identified cultural determinants, including collective, emotional, historical, symbolic, dynamic, and diffuse dimensions.
Chapter
All leaders are embedded in a community context. In this book, the authors consider leaders in organizational contexts. This chapter provides a historical literature review of key developments with regard to academic and practitioner theorizing about organizational contexts of business leaders, the main body of the chapter being structured around organizational mission, strategy, structure, culture, and organizational lifecycle. This chapter provides an outline of the growth of the strategic planning area within organizations which typically emphasized rationality and employed analysis rather than synthesis. The key schools of thought that have evolved over the past six decades or more range from the informal design school which gradually ceded ground to the emergent and more formalized strategic planning school. There have since been a number of others such as the cognitive school, the learning school, the political school, the cultural school, the environmental school, and the configuration school.
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En este trabajo académico se presenta un modelo teórico de competencias profesionales, estructurado en cuatro niveles y subniveles, que se presenta como una escalera progresiva, que permite definir el conjunto de capacidades integrales a desarrollar en los miembros de una organización para contribuir a la estrategia y propuesta de valor de la misma. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es proponer una guía metodológica sobre las etapas o fases del esquema propuesto. La estructura presentada es una derivación de un modelo pedagógico llamado congruencia educativa. (Córdova y Estay, 2002). Este trabajo ha sido desarrollado utilizando una metodología de investigación exploratoria, basada en la revisión de literatura especializada sobre el tema, cuyo propósito es determinar la influencia de la evolución de estos conceptos y presentar una propuesta teórica que permita contribuir a la simplificación de variables complejas de análisis de negocios. Los resultados del trabajo enfatizan que el fenómeno de estudio no permite una descripción sistemática e integral de los mismos, ya que para determinar con precisión una hipótesis o teoría sobre la alineación, implementación o ejecución estratégica, debe estudiarse en mayor profundidad, la factores de éxito críticos en diversas organizaciones empresariales, considerando sus características heterogéneas, en relación con su actividad económica, nivel de complejidad, formalización y centralización. Palabras claves: competencias profesionales, estrategia, innovación, alineamiento estratégico, modelos de negocios, dirección estratégica. In this academic work a theoretical model of professional competences is presented, structured in four levels and sublevels, which are presented as a progressive staircase, which allows defining the set of integral capacities to be developed in the members of an organization to contribute to the strategy and value proposal of it. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodological guide on the stages or phases of the proposed scheme. The structure presented is a derivation of a pedagogical model called educational congruence. (Córdova and Estay, 2002). This work has been developed using an exploratory research methodology, based on the review of specialized literature on the subject, whose purpose is to determine the influence of the evolution of these concepts and present a theoretical proposal that allows contributing to the simplification of complex variables of business analysis The results of the work emphasize that the phenomenon of study does not allow a systematic and integral description of the same, since to determine with precision a hypothesis or theory on the alignment, implementation or strategic execution, it must be studied in greater depth, the success factors critical in various business organizations, considering their heterogeneous characteristics, in relation to their economic activity, level of complexity, formalization and centralization. Key words: professional competences, strategy, innovation, strategic alignment, business models, strategic direction.
Chapter
Um Geschäftsstrategien weiterentwickeln zu können, diesmal unter Berücksichtigung der strategischen Grundsätze und Logiken, ist das 4-Stufen-Modell entworfen worden. Die vier Stufen dieses „Strategy Dashboards“ sollen sicherstellen, dass alle notwendigen Schritte durchlaufen werden. Im Gegensatz zu einem möglichen ersten Eindruck wird dabei die Absicht verfolgt, schnell auf den Punkt zu kommen. Um dies zu erreichen, werden in vier Stufen ausschließlich robuste strategische Instrumente eingesetzt. Tatsächlich werden einige eher abstrakt erscheinende Themen durch die Anwendung strategischer Instrumente anfassbar, begreifbar. So ist die Portfolio-Technik ein bilanzierendes Instrument, indem sie Kennzahlen aufeinander bezieht und so eine größere Klarheit zustande bringt als dies bei Excel-Tabellen möglich ist.
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This study is steered towards furnishing managers with managerial effectiveness feat in the Nigeria Banking Sector through the introduction and application of a sound corporate culture. Quasi-experimental and cross sectional survey techniques, structured questionnaire on a five point Likert Scale, Spearman's Rank Order Correlation Coefficient through Statistical Package Social Sciences, and census technique were all used. The influence of corporate culture was measured using process and result oriented philosophies on goal attainment and customer satisfaction to ascertain managerial effectiveness considering innovative technology in the Nigeria Banking Sector in Nigeria. The response rate is at 94%, and conclusion drawn.
The changing project environment does not allow to detail or estimate all desired employee behaviors. We contend that to increase project outcomes, it is valuable for managers to create a context in which project members willingly help colleagues perform their tasks, beyond what is required. The current study’s objectives are to investigate whether these project members’ backing up behaviors influence success and can be brought about by project culture. We support the model utilizing 219 project members (project participants) in 69 projects, from various industries in the USA. Results imply a plunge in members’ backing up behaviors can indicate project failure. Owed to restrictions facing project managers, in terms of control over compensation and employee availability, results imply that project culture is a useful substitute lever to manage members’ backing up behaviors, which in due course can propel project success. Practical implications for managing backing up behaviors in order to augment project success are provided.
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This Research aimed at determining the role of (VRIO) analysis on the sustainability of competitive advantage apply in Iraqi Organizations. For this purpose the researcher has depended on the processes of (VRIO) analysis (VALUABLE (V), RARE (R), COSTLY TO IMITATE (I) and ORGANIZED TO CAPTURE VALUE (O)) according to (Rothaermel,2015:104). The dimensions of sustainability of competitive advantage (Durability, Imitability) that have been used are according to (Wheelen&Hunger,2012:164). Men clothing factory in Najaf has been chosen to verify this Research via a questionnaire used (30) individuals of the managers of the company , in addition to personal interviews. The Spearman connection factor , and the (t) test to recognize the identity of this relation, and the (F) test to determine the identity of the regression equation , also the (R²) has been used to explain the degree of the influence of the independent variable in the dependent variable . Some of the most important conclusions the study arrived at are that (VRIO) analysis have a significant impact in the growth and competition of organizations through building capability , competences of the company that help in building and sustainability of competitive advantage and achieve Organizational Excellence. The study has been concluded with a number of recommendations ,some of which are :  Focus on practice (VRIO) analysis in the factory more broadly in light of Iraq environment exposed to the threat of foreign products.  Consolidating the factory's resources and capabilities on all levels in a way that competitors find difficult to surpass.  Keeping a high level of skills and knowledge , and increasing the staff's expertise in a way that achieve a competitive advantage to the factory.
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Modern business conditions are characterized by an increasingly more dynamic and turbulent environment, due to that, the biggest challenge for organizations is how to transform the existing organizational culture in the direction of an organization that learns and adapts quickly to changes in the business environment. Changes in the Serbian financial market often lead to changes in the ownership structures of banks, which caused larger or smaller changes in their strategic orientations. The aim of this paper is to clarify the dependence between strategies and organizational cultures of banks, as two crucial concepts in the management of financial institutions, all based on practical knowledge. The paper will use the case study method on the case of bank A. The usefulness of this paper is based on the fact that the presented knowledge will provide insight to the employees of bank A and other participants in the Serbian financial market about the importance of activities that contribute to creating and maintaining adequate organizational culture within the banking system. Also, this paper can be useful for all legal entities that operate within other business activities.
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This study advances a nascent perspective in the strategic management literature: a focus on the beneficial effects of competition among firms in an industry. Such a perspective supplements the traditional view of competition as firm rivalry. The overall purpose of the study is to provide a theoretical foundation for the study of the mutual gains associated with industry competition. Because of its importance to several different organizational theories, the concept of variety is examined as a potential source of interfirm benefits. The influence of variety is observed in 12 industries, four each from the growth, mature, and decline stages of the life cycle. In each life-cycle stage, two of the industries have substantial amounts of foreign competition while the other two do not. The study's results support two broad conclusions. First, industry variety and performance are positively related, suggesting that interfirm benefits are most feasible in industries characterized by diversity among firms' competitive strategies. Second, as industries move through the life cycle, variety decreases, implying that both strategists and policymakers need to consider the impact on aggregate variety when evaluating prescriptions for the revitalization of declining industries. Implications of these findings are derived for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers.
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Development of a firm's core competencies is identified as the key for global leadership and competitiveness in the 1990s. NEC, Honda, and Canon are used as exemplars of firms that conceive of themselves in terms of core competencies. Core competencies are the organization's collective learning and ability to coordinate and integrate multiple production skills and technology streams; they are also about the organization of work and delivery of value in services and manufacturing. A firm must conceive of itself as a portfolios of competencies, instead of a portfolio of strategic business units (SBUs). The latter limit the ability of firms to exploit their technological capabilities; they are often dependent on external resources. The real source of advantage lies in management's ability to consolidate corporate-wide technologies and production skills into competencies, which will allow individual businesses to adapt to emerging opportunities. Cultivating core competencies does not mean outspending rivals on RD (2) they significantly contribute to the customer benefits of the end-product; and (3) they should be difficult for competitors to imitate. Cultivating core competencies also means benefiting from alliances and establishing competencies that are evolving in existing businesses. The tangible links between core competencies and end products are core products, which embody one or more core competencies. Companies must maximize their world manufacturing share in core products. Global leadership is won by core competence, core products, and end products; global brands are built by proliferating products out of core competencies. Firms must avoid the tyranny of the SBU, the costs of which are (1) under investment in developing core competencies and core products, (2) imprisoned resources, and (3) bounded innovation. Top management must add value to a firm by developing strategic architecture, which will avoid fragmenting core competencies, establish objectives for competence building, make resource allocation priorities transparent and consistent, ensure competencies are corporate resources, reward competence carriers (personnel who embody core competencies), and focus strategy at the corporate level. A firm must be conceived of as a hierarchy of core competences, core products, and market-focused business units. Obsession with competence building will mark the global winners of the 1990s. (TNM)
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The concept of shared organizational values and its impact upon successful marketing strategy implementation are discussed. The need to measure the degree to which values within the organization are shared is stressed. A method to quantitatively measure the degree of value congruency and the strength of value consistency is proposed. An exploratory, empirical study is presented in which organization values are measured and found to impact upon strategy implementation.
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Understanding sources of sustained competitive advantage has become a major area of research in strategic management. Building on the assumptions that strategic resources are heterogeneously distributed across firms and that these differences are stable overtime this article examines the link between firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Four empirical indicators of the potential of firm resources to generate sustained competitive advantage—value, rareness, imitability, and substitutability—are discussed. The model is applied by analyzing the potential of several firm resources for generating sustained competitive advantages. The article concludes by examining implications of this firm resource model of sustained competitive advantage for other business disciplines.ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR
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Three attributes that a firm's culture must have to generate sustained competitive advantages are isolated. Previous findings suggest that the cultures of some firms have these attributes; thus, these cultures are a source of such advantages. The normative implications of the analysis are discussed. Firms that do not have the required cultures cannot engage in activities that will modify their cultures and generate sustained superior financial performance because their modified cultures typically will be neither rare nor imperfectly imitable. Firms that have cultures with the required attributes can obtain sustained superior financial performance from their cultures.
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“Books and articles come and go, endlessly. But a few do stick, and this book is such a one. Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process broke fresh ground in the understanding of strategy at a time when thinking about strategy was still in its early days, and it has not been displaced since.” —David J. Hickson, Emeritus Professor of International Management & Organization, University of Bradford School of Management Originally published in 1978, Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process became an instant classic, as it bridged the formerly separate fields of strategic management and organizational behavior. In this Stanford Business Classics reissue, noted strategy scholar Donald Hambrick provides a new introduction that describes the book’s contribution to the field of organization studies. Miles and Snow also contribute new introductory material to update the book’s central concepts and themes. Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process focuses on how organizations adapt to their environments. The book introduced a theoretical framework composed of a dynamic adaptive cycle and an empirically based strategy typology showing four different types of adaptation. This framework helped to define subsequent research by other scholars on important topics such as configurational analysis, organizational fit, strategic human resource management, and multi-firm network organizations.
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Thesis (PH. D. in Business Administration)--University of Illinois at Chicago, 2003. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 146-158).
Organizational Culture Inventory
  • R.A Cooke
  • J.C. Lafferty
Strategic context and organizational climate
  • W.E Joyce
  • J.W. Slocum