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Authenticity and well-being in the workplace: A mediation model

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Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between authenticity at work and well-being. First, the relationship between authenticity at work and hedonic and eudemonic well-being indexes is assessed. Second, the mediating role of meaning of work in the relationship between authenticity at work and subjective well-being at work is investigated. Design/methodology/approach – In total, 360 managers from public organizations completed self-reported questionnaires. Multiple hierarchical regressions were used to assess the hypotheses. Findings – Cognitive and behavioral components of authenticity at work explained a significant proportion of variance in each hedonic and eudemonic well-being indexes. Authenticity is positively associated with well-being at work. Moreover, meaning of work is a partial mediator of the relationship between authenticity and subjective well-being at work. Practical implications – The results suggest that meaning of work is a mechanism in the relationship between authenticity and subjective well-being at work. The study highlighted a growing need to promote authenticity within organizations since it has been associated with public managers' well-being. Originality/value – To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study showing the positive relationship between authenticity and well-being in the workplace amongst public organizations managers. It sheds a very new light on the importance of authenticity in work settings and on how it could be linked to meaningfulness in managerial roles.

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... Moreover, although some studies could provide valuable insights to understand how the individual links between personal values, authenticity and work engagement operate, research on non-profit faith-based organizations is virtually non-existent, which emphasizes the significance of this investigation. The personal and professional lives of employees in non-profit religious institutions present a larger overlap between them than in other environments (Ménard and Brunet, 2011;Ariza-Montes et al., 2017). According to these authors, these entities constitute a unique context in which to examine the alignment of human values with professional life. ...
... Authenticity mainly refers to acting in congruence with one's self, beliefs and core values (Harter, 2002;Ménard and Brunet, 2011;de Carvalho et al., 2015); some humanistic theorists call it respect of one's needs and values or self-respect (Erikson, 1959;Maslow, 1976). On the other hand, self-determination theories understand authenticity as self-initiated behaviors in line with the inherent basic psychological needs of competence, relatedness, and autonomy (Sheldon and Kasser, 1995;Ryan, 2000, 1995). ...
... The three-dimensional model of authenticity is very appropriate for studies in the work area (Goldman and Kernis, 2002;Ilies et al., 2005). It is demonstrated that authenticity generates a wide range of positive effects among workers as they find a meaningful job (Ménard and Brunet, 2011;Reich et al., 2013). However, there is a growing need for empirical investigation of authenticity in the workplace (Knoll et al., 2015). ...
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Nowadays religious organizations play a leading role in the third sector, contributing to maintaining the welfare state in a large number of countries in sectors such as health, education or social services, among others. These organizations provide a service to their users, aiming to transmit the predominant values in their mission statement and simultaneously promote both authenticity and work engagement in their employees. Indeed, the purpose of this article is to evaluate the link between human values and work engagement, as well as the mediating role of authenticity in this relationship. To this end, 938 workers of a Catholic religious organization, which constitutes a relatively unexplored context, is employed. To test the research model and hypotheses, this investigation uses PLS (Partial Least Squares). It covers two notable research gaps. First, the results confirm the direct links between human values, authenticity and work engagement within the context of religious organizations. Second, they provide evidence of the mediating role exercised by authenticity in the relationship between human values and work engagement.
... Authenticity at work (AAW) refers to employees' feelings of alignment between their experience and perception of their genuine, "true" self (van den Bosch & Taris, 2014b). Recently, AAW has earned much interest due to its positive relation to job satisfaction (Biermeier-Hanson et al., 2020;Fletcher & Everly, 2021;Wayne et al., 2019), meaning in work (Kuntz & Abbott, 2017;Ménard & Brunet, 2011), and self-determined motivation (Ma et al., 2020;. However, prior research neglected the link between AAW and occupational self-actualization (OSA), which is defined as employees' feelings of completion, achieved by realizing their potentials (Brown & Gunderman, 2006). ...
... The association between AAW and OSA has not yet been investigated. However, according to prior research, AAW was found to be positively related to well-being (Ariza-Monte et al., 2019;Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Sutton, 2020;van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a;Wessel et al., 2020), job and life satisfaction (Biermeier-Hanson et al., 2020;Fletcher & Everly, 2021;Wayne et al., 2019), meaning in work (Kuntz & Abbott, 2017;Ménard & Brunet, 2011), and self-determined motivation (Ma et al., 2020;. ...
... The association between AAW and OSA has not yet been investigated. However, according to prior research, AAW was found to be positively related to well-being (Ariza-Monte et al., 2019;Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Sutton, 2020;van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a;Wessel et al., 2020), job and life satisfaction (Biermeier-Hanson et al., 2020;Fletcher & Everly, 2021;Wayne et al., 2019), meaning in work (Kuntz & Abbott, 2017;Ménard & Brunet, 2011), and self-determined motivation (Ma et al., 2020;. ...
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Authenticity at work (AAW) is an important work-related state. Little is known about how other work-related resources can promote AAW and the link between AAW and organizational self-actualization (OSA). In three studies, we drew on conservation of resource theory to determine whether AAW serves as a mediator between three distinct work-related resources (i.e., social support at work, job autonomy, authentic leadership) and OSA. Studies 1 and 2 used a cross-sectional design (Ns = 209; 597), and study 3 used a two-wave longitudinal design (N = 143) to evaluate data from employees. While studies 1 and 2 supported a positive, indirect relation between job autonomy, social support at work, and OSA via AAW, study 3 and additional post hoc findings challenged these results. Alternatively, a reciprocal, cross-lagged effect of OSA on AAW is plausible. Lagged effects from work-related resources to AAW or OSA were not supported in study 3. Authentic leadership (AL) was not related to OSA via AAW. Instead, post hoc analysis suggested two serially mediated links between AL and OSA. All three studies confirmed the proposed factor structures of AAW and OSA. The findings extend both our knowledge regarding the concepts of AAW and OSA and the promotion of AAW and its relation to OSA. We discuss the dynamics of work-related resources, AAW, and OSA and conclude with implications for future research, organizations, leaders, and employees.
... Evidence indicates that authenticity can promote subjective well-being (Boyraz & Kuhl, 2015), improve psychological functioning (Goldman, 2006), and decrease negative emotions and stress (Wang, 2016). Although the study of employee authenticity at work is still in its early stage, authenticity has been found to be positively related to job satisfaction, work engagement, and job performance (Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a, 2014b. Therefore, research suggests that authenticity is conducive to employee productivity and organizational effectiveness. ...
... Authenticity is crucial for employee psychological wellbeing and personal functioning (Boyraz & Kuhl, 2015;Ménard & Brunet, 2011). Research on authenticity at work has concluded the positive relationships of authenticity with intrinsic motivation and job performance, indicating the value of authenticity in promoting employee success and organizational effectiveness (Emmerich & Rigotti, 2017;Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014b). ...
... Authenticity is crucial for employee psychological wellbeing and personal functioning (Boyraz & Kuhl, 2015;Ménard & Brunet, 2011). Research on authenticity at work has concluded the positive relationships of authenticity with intrinsic motivation and job performance, indicating the value of authenticity in promoting employee success and organizational effectiveness (Emmerich & Rigotti, 2017;Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014b). Consistent with this literature, the current study supported the positive relationship between authenticity and autonomous motivation. ...
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The experience of authenticity is conducive to job performance. However, research has not examined the underlying mechanism. Additionally, knowledge about the antecedents of authenticity is limited, and research findings regarding the relationship between authenticity and work outcomes are exclusively at the between-person level. To advance the research on authenticity at work, the current study investigated the motivation process through which authenticity influences job performance and examined the role of supportive leadership in facilitating authenticity. We tested the hypotheses at both the between-person and within-person levels and found convergent results. Autonomous motivation mediated the positive relationship between authenticity and task performance/work proactivity, and supportive leadership was found to positively predict authenticity. Theoretical implications and managerial suggestions are discussed.
... With this regard, it must be noted that concern for the employees' wellbeing has recently emerged as a relevant research topic within management literature [4], mainly due to its link with several personally-and organizationally-driven variables, such as satisfaction, organizational commitment, performance or happiness, among others i.e., [5][6][7]. ...
... Thus, using a sample of health sector workers in Australia, [53] found that authenticity leads to lower levels of tension, in a positive sense, and greater emotional wear, in a negative sense. Aside from this, [4] investigated within a sample of managers the mediator effect exerted by the degree of work significance in the authenticity-wellbeing link. Finally, using a hierarchical regression model in the German labor market, [10] demonstrated that self-alienation is the most decisive element of authenticity in the prediction of wellbeing. ...
... Their conditions as "owners" of the institution must make this way of living easier [52]. This evidence, that confirms the approach of our first research hypothesis, is consistent with the results discovered by other researchers, such as [4,11,12], among others. ...
Article
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Research in work and organizational psychology has paid little attention to religious workers, something certainly surprising as faith-based organizations play a key role in the welfare state of many countries. This research shows that religious workers in a Catholic order present a high degree of subjective wellbeing, both in terms of flourishing and satisfaction with life in general, and a positive balance of positive and negative feelings. More specifically, this study examines the relationship between authenticity and wellbeing amongst religious workers. Survey responses from 142 religious workers in Spain were analyzed using partial least squares path modelling. The results reveal that subjective wellbeing at work is positively related to authenticity. In addition, this relationship is mediated by their level of work engagement.
... Empirical psychology has recently demonstrated a link between authenticity and a variety of positive outcomes (e.g., Harter, 2002;Heppner et al., 2008;Sheldon, Ryan, Rawsthorne, & Ilardi, 1997). In organizational settings, for example, authenticity has been studied in terms of functional leadership styles (e.g., Gardner, Avolio, & Walumbwa, 2005;Luthans & Avolio, 2003;Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008), or as a state of subjective experience that occurs within work-specific contexts (Gagné & Deci, 2005;Lopez & Ramos, 2016;Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Metin, Taris, Peeters, van Beek, & van den Bosch, 2016;van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a, 2014b. In both cases, authenticity remains a robust predictor of positive outcomes in workplace, including psychological well-being of oneself or coworkers (Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Yagil & Medler-Liraz, 2014), work engagement (Metin, et al., 2016;6;Schmader & Sedikides, 2017), and job performance (van den Bosch & Taris, 2014b). ...
... In organizational settings, for example, authenticity has been studied in terms of functional leadership styles (e.g., Gardner, Avolio, & Walumbwa, 2005;Luthans & Avolio, 2003;Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008), or as a state of subjective experience that occurs within work-specific contexts (Gagné & Deci, 2005;Lopez & Ramos, 2016;Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Metin, Taris, Peeters, van Beek, & van den Bosch, 2016;van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a, 2014b. In both cases, authenticity remains a robust predictor of positive outcomes in workplace, including psychological well-being of oneself or coworkers (Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Yagil & Medler-Liraz, 2014), work engagement (Metin, et al., 2016;6;Schmader & Sedikides, 2017), and job performance (van den Bosch & Taris, 2014b). The current research followed the latter approach, studying authenticity at work as a sense of being able to live up to and express the "core" attributes of true self in workplaces. ...
... Moreover, we also explored whether authenticity at work and self-reported (im)moral behaviors would have downstream consequences on meaning in work and job satisfaction, two important indices of well-being in organizational settings (Judge & Klinger, 2008;Schnell, Höge, & Pollet, 2013;Sousa-Poza & Sousa-Poza, 2000;Steger, Dik & Duffy, 2012). Previous research has suggested that authenticity and moral behaviors could both be potential predictors of well-being in work settings (Allan, Duffy, & Collisson, 2017;Grant, 2008;Grant & Campbell, 2007;Grant & Sonnentag, 2010;Ménard & Brunet, 2011). We thereby predicted that authenticity and moral behavior at work should contribute to meaning in work and job satisfaction simultaneously. ...
Article
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Authentic experiences are deeply tied to human existential concerns and have implications for psychological well-being and optimal functioning. Importantly, previous studies suggest a mutually reinforcing relationship between authenticity and moral behaviors. The current research aims to extend this line of research to work-specific contexts. We found, among two U.S. samples that (a) perceiving oneself as having behaved morally prompted feelings of authenticity at work (Study 1), (b) people who tried to be authentic (vs. be realistic or rational) were less willing to engage in immoral behaviors at workplace (Study 2), and among a Chinese sample that (c) daily fluctuations in morality and authenticity covaried with each other, both contributing positively to job satisfaction and meaning in work (Study 3). Together, the findings demonstrate a bidirectional relationship between moral behaviors and authenticity in the workplace.
... Organizational scholars have also started paying attention to authenticity in the workplace and have focused on two critical issues. First, from the standpoint of psychology, studies have found that the experience of authenticity contributes to psychological well-being by satisfying the need for self-determination (Leroy et al., 2015), creating a sense of work meaningfulness (Ménard and Brunet, 2011), and decreasing negative emotions (Wood et al., 2008). In contrast, the experience of inauthenticity, such as inauthentic emotional displays, involves suppressing and disguising genuine feelings and thoughts (Morrison and Milliken, 2000), which leads to anxiety and stress (Hackman, 1992). ...
... These findings have several important theoretical implications. First, authenticity has long been theorized as a personality trait, and researchers have suggested that acting with authenticity helps promote psychological well-being (Leroy et al., 2015;Ménard and Brunet, 2011). Despite broad recognition of the social implications of authenticity, it was not until recently that research attention has been paid to the display of authenticity in social interactions (e.g. ...
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Purpose This study aims to investigate whether and how a high turnover rate stimulates employees to engage more in learning behavior. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on self-regulation theory, the authors suggest that the motive for employees to engage in learning behavior is to improve themselves. Such a need can be activated when they reflect on themselves and realize the discrepancy between their current selves and desired future selves. The authors argue that the employees’ perceived poor performance at daily work may induce their desire for self-improvement via making the future work selves salient, and in turn engage more in learning behavior. This is particularly so when turnover rate is high because employees may be alert of and concerned more about their own poor performance. In an experience sampling study, the authors obtained evidence for these hypotheses. Findings When turnover rate was high, employees’ poor performance increased salience of future work selves, which in turn facilitated their learning behavior. This relationship was not significant when turnover rate was low. Originality/value Contrary to the typical view that high turnover rate leads to knowledge loss for the companies, the present study findings suggest that it could also serve as a motivational factor facilitating employees’ learning behavior, which is an important way to increase knowledge pool of the companies.
... Therefore, we expect authenticity to increase an individual's IWB. Expressing one's whole self at work and being true to work is likely to increase work engagement (Reis, Trullen, & Story, 2016), trust (Wang & Bird, 2011), well-being (Ménard & Brunet, 2011), and voice behaviors (Hsiung, 2012). These behaviors are related positively with an employee's propensity to innovate in organizations. ...
... These behaviors are related positively with an employee's propensity to innovate in organizations. Ménard and Brunet (2011) found that authenticity influences employee's psychological well-being that in turn increases individual creativity and innovation (Rasulzada & Dackert, 2009). They found that lower levels of authenticity were associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression, burnout, and perceived stress; all of which are detrimental to an individual's creative and innovative potential. ...
Article
Despite the clear importance of perceived corporate social responsibility for employee's innovative work behavior, how and when perceived corporate social responsibility fosters said behavior is not very well understood. Research at the individual level of corporate social responsibility has been growing rapidly. This study proposes that perceived corporate social responsibility has a substantial influence on employee's innovative work behavior and this relationship is mediated by authenticity and volunteerism. A questionnaire survey consisting of 317 valid responses from employees and 175 valid responses from their respective supervisors in the hotel industry in Pakistan validated the proposed model. The current study found that perceived corporate social responsibility is positively related with an employee's innovative work behavior. Moreover, authenticity and employee volunteerism mediated the link between perceived corporate social responsibility and innovative work behavior. The practical implications to enhance individual innovative work behavior are discussed.
... This perspective, whilst only emphasising the role of cognitive learning for SDMs, suggests that SDMs lack supporting operational structures necessary to apply what they have learnt. Consequently, most efforts overlook the need for SDMs to learn how they can fit their role for an eventual realisation of their self-potential (Menard and Brunet, 2011;Cowen and Hodgson, 2015;Evans, 2017). As a result, the strategies used for regulating and improving SDMs' identity at work through viable and sustainable models of operation are relatively missing in this context. ...
... To date, research efforts that investigate service operations design methodologies, based on systems thinking principles, and work identity of service managers in highly-demanding businesses are absent. This can be elicited from previous studies that have overlooked the need for SDMs to learning how they fit their role for an eventual realisation of their self-potential through proper organisational structural and operational fittings (Menard and Brunet, 2011;Cowen and Hodgson, 2015). The aim of this paper was, therefore, to explore the impact of designing service systems using systems thinking approach on the development of SDMs work identity and behaviour. ...
Article
Strategies used for regulating and improving service departments’ managers’ (SDMs) valued identity at work through viable and sustainable models of operation are relatively missing. This is particularly true when one considers the paucity of previous studies that have explored the linkages of service operations designs and the construct of SDMs’ work identity. This paper, using the lens of identity theory, explores the impact of creating an appropriate service operations design, using systems thinking principles, on the restoration of SDMs’ work identity and behaviour. Using multiple-case study approach in three organisations’ service Departments in the UK, the results demonstrate that the systems thinking for service operations design is an enabler for promoting dramatic changes to the role of SDMs in the workplace. These dramatic changes are resembled by the creation of a transformational management style, changing the role of SDMs from employees’ monitors to supporters, and adoption of new discursive practices that are embracing more people-cantered perspective. While the paper introduces an interesting theorisation of manager’s identity with systems thinking methodology, it also contributes, for the first time, a discussion of manager’s identity theory to the service system design literature in a highly-demanding business environment.
... We further argue that authentic self-expression might increase psychological well-being. According to SDT, authentic self-expression is any self-aspect that feels internally caused and self-determined, which is in concordance with intrinsic basic psychological needs of competency, autonomy, and relatedness [40]. A variety of psychological perspectives suggest that a happy and meaningful life is the product of acting in accord with one's self. ...
... For example, a laboratory experiment by Cable et al. [41] revealed that socialization emphasizing newcomers' authentic self-expression leads to significantly higher employee engagement and job satisfaction. Other studies using similar measures of authenticity examined the importance of the authentic self-expression to psychological functioning [40,42]. Because when people think about their true selves, they feel a greater increase in self-esteem. ...
... Organizational scholars have also started paying attention to authenticity in the workplace and have focused on two critical issues. First, from the standpoint of psychology, studies have found that the experience of authenticity contributes to psychological well-being by satisfying the need for self-determination (Leroy et al., 2015), creating a sense of work meaningfulness (Ménard and Brunet, 2011), and decreasing negative emotions (Wood et al., 2008). In contrast, the experience of inauthenticity, such as inauthentic emotional displays, involves suppressing and disguising genuine feelings and thoughts (Morrison and Milliken, 2000), which leads to anxiety and stress (Hackman, 1992). ...
... These findings have several important theoretical implications. First, authenticity has long been theorized as a personality trait, and researchers have suggested that acting with authenticity helps promote psychological well-being (Leroy et al., 2015;Ménard and Brunet, 2011). Despite broad recognition of the social implications of authenticity, it was not until recently that research attention has been paid to the display of authenticity in social interactions (e.g. ...
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Authenticity has long been held as a virtue. However, is it beneficial for employees to be true to themselves in coworker interactions? Drawing on social penetration theory, we argue that a focal employee’s exhibited authenticity at work helps the employee penetrate the interpersonal boundaries of an interacting coworker and as a result, the employee is more likely to be included in this coworker’s social circles and receive help from the coworker. Accordingly, we propose a dyadic-level model and test this model in two survey studies using a round-robin design. The results of both studies consistently demonstrated that the focal employee’s exhibited authenticity is positively related to help received from the coworker via inclusion in the coworker’s social circle. Further, this positive indirect relationship is moderated by the coworker’s perception of organizational politics, such that the relationship is weaker when the coworker’s perception of organizational politics is high. These findings help advance the understanding of when and how employees can gain relational benefits from displaying authenticity at work.
... Empirisch zeigen sich zum einen positive Korrelationen in Zusammenhang mit Authentizität, beispielsweise mit dem subjektiven, dem psychologischen Wohlbefinden sowie mit dem Selbstwertgefühl (Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Wood et al., 2008). Außerdem steht das Führen eines authentischen Lebens in Zusammenhang mit der Fähigkeit, Glück und Freude auszudrücken (Robbins, 2006). ...
... Außerdem vergrößerte sich der Zugang zu den Emotionen sowie die Einstellung und der authentische Ausdruck dieser. Dies könnte mit dem Zusammenhang zwischen dem Führen eines authentischen Lebens und der Fähigkeit Glück und Freude auszudrücken, verknüpft werden (Robbins, 2006 (Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Wood et al., 2008). ...
Thesis
Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie besteht darin, ein Verständnis des subjektiven Erlebens der Anwendung des Human Design Systems (HDS) zu vermitteln. Da es an wissenschaftlicher Forschung zu diesem Thema mangelt, war eine vertiefende empirische Auseinandersetzung notwendig. Hierfür wurde anhand einer Heuristic Self-Search Inquiry (HSSI) das persönliche Erleben der Forschenden im Anschluss an zwei Human Design-Sitzungen innerhalb von zwei Phasen und einer Follow-up-Phase erhoben. Darauf folgten eine Auswertung der Daten anhand der Kategorien Entscheidungen, Identitätsgefühl und Emotionen mit jeweiligen Unterkategorien sowie eine kreative Verarbeitung des Erlebens im Rahmen der kreativen Synthese. Die Ergebnisse vermitteln u. a. anhand der Aspekte wahrgenommene Selbsterkenntnis, Lebenssinn, Selbstakzeptanz, erhöhtes Authentizitätserleben, Integration von Selbstaspekten sowie verstärkter emotionaler Ausdruck einen Überblick über das subjektive Erleben des HDS und geben Aufschluss über Entwicklungschancen sowie Herausforderungen, die mit der Anwendung des HDS einhergehen können. Hieraus kann ein erstes psychologisches Verständnis des HDS abgeleitet werden, das in zukünftigen Forschungen genutzt werden könnte, um die Anwendung des HDS noch engmaschiger zu untersuchen. Zudem sind weiterführende Studien mittels quantitativer Messinstrumente zur Untersuchung der subjektiven Effekte denkbar, die aus der Anwendung hervorgingen. The aim of the present study is to provide an understanding of the subjective experience of using the Human Design System (HDS). Since there is a lack of scientific research on this topic, an in-depth empirical investigation was necessary. For this purpose, a Heuristic Self-Search Inquiry (HSSI) was used to collect the personal experience of the researchers following two Human Design sessions within two phases and a follow-up phase. This was followed by an analysis of the data using the categories of decisions, sense of identity, and emotions with respective subcategories, as well as a creative processing of the experience within the creative synthesis. The results provide an overview of the subjective experience of the HDS on the basis of the aspects of perceived self-knowledge, meaning in life, self-acceptance, increased experience of authenticity, integration of self-aspects, and increased emotional expression, among others, and provide information about development opportunities as well as challenges that can accompany the application of the HDS. From this, an initial psychological understanding of the HDS can be derived, which could be used in future research to more closely examine the use of the HDS. In addition, further studies using quantitative measurement instruments to examine the subjective effects that emerged from its use are conceivable.
... Similarly, a longitudinal study indicates that the authenticity-well-being link is unidirectional; authenticity predicts later life satisfaction, but not vice versa (Boyraz, Waits, & Felix, 2014). Ménard and Brunet's (2011) work suggests that authenticity leads to meaning, which in turn results in happiness, and Wood et al. (2008) note that while they found a strong positive relationship between authenticity and well-being, there is no overlap in the items used to measure them. ...
... For example, some equate hedonic with SWB and happiness, and eudaimonic with PWB and meaning in life (e.g. Joseph et al., 2012;Ménard & Brunet, 2011). In contrast, Pisarik and Larson (2011) distinguish SWB from Rogers' eudaimonic concepts of self-acceptance, growth and selfactualisation and use PWB as an umbrella term for both components. ...
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The ‘good life’ is described by philosophers and psychologists as consisting of authentic expression of self, a sense of well-being, and active engagement in life and work. Well-being and employee engagement are outcomes of value in themselves to work organisations, but also improve performance and reduce turnover. This meta-analysis tests the relationships between authenticity and well-being, and authenticity and engagement, investigating the impact of several moderators: age, gender, sample type, conceptual measure and individualism-collectivism. Systematic searches identified 75 studies (well-being = 65, engagement = 10) with a total N == 36,533. Analysis revealed a positive relationship between authenticity and well-being (r == 0.40) and between authenticity and engagement (r == 0.37). Individualism and type of measure were significant moderators, but age, gender and sample type were not. Specific recommendations are made for researchers choosing measures of authenticity, well-being and engagement. The study also highlights the need for further research on the interaction of culture and authenticity, as the majority of studies rely on Western / individualist conceptualisations and measures. Overall, the meta-analysis demonstrates that authenticity has positive implications for individual well-being and work engagement and could provide an important path to building healthy work organisations.
... Wood et al. (2008) and Toor and Ofori (2009) point out that authenticity is positively correlated with life satisfaction, self-esteem (similarly Vannini & Franzese, 2008), autonomy, happiness, self-acceptance, personal growth and gratitude in a relationship to others. Ménard and Brinet (2011) expand on a positive correlation between authenticity and well-being (similarly, see also Toor & Ofori, 2009) and authenticity and job satisfaction. Van Horn et al. (2004) add that authenticity reduces emotional exhaustion. ...
... Es konnte ein Zusammenhang zwischen positiven Emotionen charismatischer Führungskräfte und positiven Emotionen von Teammitgliedern gefunden werden (Bono & Ilies, 2006) (Kernis & Goldman, 2006) wie im organisationalen Kontext (Menard & Brunet, 2011;Knoll & van Dick, 2013) ...
Chapter
Mit dem Fokus auf der weiteren Aufklärung des Zusammenhangs zwischen Führung und (psychosozialem) Befinden und Gesundheit, diskutieren wir in diesem Beitrag sieben Forschungsdesiderate und tragen so Anregungen für weitere Forschung auf diesem Gebiet zusammen. Dabei gehen wir (1) der Frage der Kausalität von Beziehungen nach, diskutieren (2) mögliche Mediatoren und (3) Moderatoren, (4) gehen auf die Passung zwischen Führungskonzept und Kriterium ein, (5) verweisen auf nicht lineare Zusammenhangsmuster, besprechen (6) Prädiktoren des Führungsverhaltens, und (7) Aus- und Rückwirkungen auf Führungskräfte selbst. Basierend auf Daten aus dem Projekt Re-Su-Lead (Rewarding and Sustainable Health Promoting Leadership) berichten wir über erste Analysen in Bezug auf zeitversetzte Effekte von Führung auf Gesundheitsindikatoren und Evaluationsergebnisse hinsichtlich der Veränderbarkeit authentischen Führungsverhaltens.
... State authenticity is "the sense or feeling that one is currently in alignment with one's true or genuine self; that one is being their real self" (Sedikides et al., 2017, p. 521). People who feel authentic at work experience increased well-being, work engagement, job satisfaction, and performance (Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Metin et al., 2016). To achieve state authenticity, one's sense of "fit," or the matching of characteristics of the environment with internal characteristics of the self, may be crucial (Schmader & Sedikides, 2018). ...
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Although diversity approaches attempt to foster inclusion, one size may not fit all. In five studies, African Americans (N = 1,316), who varied in strength of racial identification, contemplated interviewing at a company with a multicultural or colorblind approach. Participants in the multicultural condition anticipated pressure to be prototypical group members relative to colorblind and control conditions. Only weakly identified participants reacted to this pressure, experiencing more anxiety and inauthenticity in the multicultural relative to colorblind (not control) company. Strongly identified participants experienced less anxiety and inauthenticity in the multicultural relative to colorblind and control companies. Inauthenticity among weakly identified participants was apparent in self-descriptions and linked with worse hiring outcomes in multicultural relative to colorblind and control contexts. Despite predictions, there were no self-stereotyping effects. Diversity approaches that make some group members more comfortable may prove simultaneously constraining for others, highlighting the complexity in how diversity approaches affect individuals.
... Workplace authenticity researches have been focused more on from employees' perspective like relation between authenticity and organizational culture (Reis et al., 2016), work engagement and job satisfaction (Metin et al., 2016), employees' well-being (Ménard & Brunet, 2011). From the different perspective, some studies have been done about leadership that make authentic decisions of leaders and act in an authentic moral manner (May et al., 2003;Leroy et al., 2015). ...
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Organizational attractiveness is an important subject of employer branding and has five main factors that listed social, market, application, brand and economic value. These are mainly common factors about that which criteria can be more effective on employees. Authenticity at work can be generally defined that being your true self and acting like that. Authenticity is also an important issue for people's physiological needs at work. Therefore, workplace authenticity and organizational attractiveness dimensions could be related with each other and may authenticity could be a new factor of attractiveness. Because, workplace authenticity affects work engagement and satisfaction in a positive way. In Turkey, there has been no study in this area to provide any empirical evidence about that authenticity is one of the effective factors of organizational attractiveness. This research has focused on to investigate authenticity with its importance level of employees' perspective. The relevant studies and literature review on organizational attractiveness and workplace authenticity are critically reviewed and analyzed. 235 professionals participated in an online survey from top three big cities which are Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir in Turkey. From the age of 22 to 55, in many different sectors and hierarchical level of professionals were participated in this survey. The results showed that authenticity could be an effective dimension of organizational attractiveness as perceived by professionals. Therefore, authenticity may be a beneficial factor and can be used in employer branding strategies.
... In Barrett-Lennard's model, the one most widely discussed, authenticity was measured by the ''consistency between three levels of (a) people's primary experience, (b) their symbolized awareness, and (c) their outward behavior and communication" (1998, p. 82). However, using the model often met some problems, such as item redundancy and unstable factor construct (Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014). To improve the model, Knoll, Meyer, Kroemer, and Schröder-Abé (2015) reconstructed the model and simplified into two components: authentic selfawareness and authentic self-expression. ...
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Authenticity is generally indicated to be an important predictor to subjective well-being. However, remarkably few empirical researches investigated possible psychological mechanism underlying the process. The purpose of the current research is to explore whether mindfulness can explain one pathway between authenticity and subjective well-being. By conducting a cross-sectional study and a time-lagged study, we verified that higher authenticity associated higher subjective well-being via higher mindfulness. Furthermore, the effect of authenticity on subjective well-being was specifically through two facets of mindfulness–describing and acting-with-awareness. These results contribute to a better understanding of the association of authenticity and subjective well-being. Moreover, these findings suggest that mindfulness training may be a useful technique to accelerate the transformation from being thyself to being happy.
... Emotions and emotional regulation have been discussed as a common thread that connects both (Adler and Matthews, 1994). Research offers evidence that supports this claim insofar that authenticity and displaying authentic emotions is beneficial for both psychological and physical health, while suppressing felt emotions is harmful (Appleton et al., 2013;Cloitre et al., 2019;Grandey, 2003;M enard and Brunet, 2011). Consequently, we regard PCA as positively related to employees' health. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of authentic leadership (AL) on employees' health via employees' perception of climate of authenticity (PCA) across two studies. In study 2, the authors additionally explore the moderating role of employees' neuroticism. Design/methodology/approach The hypotheses were tested across two studies using two-wave survey data. In study 1 ( n = 104), the mediation hypothesis was tested. Study 2 ( n = 146) extended study 1 and examined the moderated mediation model. Findings Across both studies, AL is positively related to employee health, and employees' perceived climate of authenticity mediates this relationship. Study 2 additionally shows that employees' neuroticism moderates this indirect effect such that perceived climate of authenticity instigated by AL is particularly conducive for employees high in neuroticism as opposed to those low in neuroticism. Practical implications Findings emphasize the health-promoting effect of AL. It is recommended that organizations cascade, through their leaders, emotional display rules that encourage genuine emotional expression. Originality/value This paper addresses gaps in the leadership literature through investigating perceived climate of authenticity, a mediating variable that lies at the heart of AL, and integrating the role of employees' personality in the leadership process.
... Authenticity measures have a broad array of adaptive correlates , including healthy personality traits such as high extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, low neuroticism (Fleeson & Wilt, 2010;Grégoire, Baron, Ménard, & Lachance, 2014;Pinto et al., 2012;Sheldon et al., 1997;Wood et al., 2008), well-being/self-esteem (Davis, Hicks, Schlegel, Smith & Vess, 2015;Grandey, Foo, Groth, & Goodwin, 2012;Heppner et al., 2008;Kifer, Heller, Perunovic, & Galinsky, 2013;Knoll et al., 2015;Lenton et al., 2012;Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Rivera et al., 2019;Sheldon et al., 1997;Thomaes et al., 2017;Wood et al., 2008), enhanced metacognition (Chiaburu, Cho, & Gardner, 2015), greater autonomy (Hodgins & Knee, 2002), and reduced stress/distress (Goldman & Kernis, 2002;Grégoire et ...
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We established realness as the relatively stable tendency to act on the outside the way one feels on the inside, without regard for proximal personal or social consequences. In nine studies, we showed that realness is a) a core feature of individual differences in authenticity, b) generally adaptive but largely unrelated to agreeableness, c) highly stable, d) reliably observable in dyadic behavior, and e) predictive of responses to situations with potential for personal or social costs. Informants both perceive agreeable motives in real behavior and recognize that being real can be disagreeable. We concluded that realness represents an important individual difference construct that is foundational for authentic social behavior, and that being real comes with both costs and benefits.
... Authenticity is a social virtue (Nicholson & Carroll, 2013) that represents the consistency between one's external expressions and internal psychological experiences (Roberts et al., 2009). Previous literature has shown positive consequences of leadership authenticity like psychological well-being (Ménard & Brunet, 2011). Despite the call for identification of factors that foster authenticity at the workplace (e.g., Reis, Trullen, & Story, 2016), there are still limited studies investigating 'how organizational leaders can foster authentic behaviors at the workplace (Gardner et al. 2009;Roberts et al., 2009). ...
... The embodiment of those values not only gives rise to authenticity and integrity at work (Meyer and Parfyonova, 2010) but also guides behaviour towards successful experiences at work (Schwartz, 2007;Ménard and Brunet, 2011). Furthermore, it helps to cultivate hope for what is to come (Anandarajah and Hight, 2001), as well as gratitude to any opportunity to combat any adversity (Wood et al., 2010). ...
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Stress at work motivated by pressures and labour control can alter the behaviour of workers. Since the 2008 economic crisis, banking in Spain has suffered a series of massive lay-offs to adjust to the new market situation. This new financial restructuring has meant greater labour pressure to achieve the required results. Faced with this adversity, employees have experienced greater stress at work. This work analyses the effect of reinforcing employees' spiritual dimension to transcend and correctly manage work pressure and stress at work. In so doing, 601 employees from 294 financial entities of five large IBEX banks participated in this pilot project. Through a participatory methodology based on a review of the literature, the study indicators have been delimited. The data obtained have been treated using the SEM-PLS method. The results propose the incorporation of a series of tools to reinforce values and transcendent employee behaviour.
... Authenticity and integrity can also have a motivating effect in generating happiness (Meyer and Parfyonova, 2010). These values guide behaviour towards successful experiences in the search for happiness (Ménard, and Brunet, 2011;Schwartz, 2007). Aligned with the influence of monetarist culture at companies, van Hoorn, (2017) shows how that culture influences the employees' self-enhancement and transcendence values. ...
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Purpose A model is proposed to develop happiness in the banking sector based on an improvement in the spirituality of employees. Design/methodology/approach Following the Schwartz’s model for behavioural transformation, a new path has been proposed based on the development of the transcendent vision of work. The data obtained were analysed using the partial least squares-structural equation modeling (SEM) method. Findings Contrary to the widespread idea that happiness is orientated towards the enjoyment of goods, bank employees prefer to develop spiritual values and resources that allow them to respond adequately to massive layoffs and pressures at work. Research limitations/implications The bank employees’ schedules made it difficult to organise group sessions. Multiple sessions prevented us all from interacting. Practical implications It is established a training strategy for the pursuit of happiness, to propose an engine for actions orientated towards happiness and to introduce transcendence and spirituality as requirements for finding happiness during daily work. Social implications There is a need to return to traditional values and principles in daily work. This will have a positive effect on communities and society. Originality/value A new concept has been coined: spiritual resources. This new variable can help to combat adversity by exploring the meaning of transcendence at work.
... Seminal work by Ménard and Brunet (2011) highlights the value of authenticity at work as a way of advancing employee wellbeing. The body of research linking authenticity to various types of wellbeing in the workplace is growing and signifies the essential role thereof in coping with challenging or difficult work circumstances (Ariza-Montes et al., 2019;Sutton, 2020). ...
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Law enforcement poses a difficult work environment. Employees’ wellbeing is uniquely taxed in coping with daily violent, aggressive and hostile encounters. These challenges are compounded for women, because law enforcement remains to be a male-dominated occupational context. Yet, many women in law enforcement display resilience and succeed in maintaining a satisfying career. This study explores the experience of being authentic from a best-self perspective, for women with successful careers in the South African police and traffic law enforcement services. Authenticity research substantiates a clear link between feeling authentic and experiencing psychological wellbeing. The theoretical assumption on which the study is based holds that being authentic relates to a sense of best-self and enables constructive coping and adjustment in a challenging work environment. A qualitative study was conducted on a purposive sample of 12 women, comprising 6 police officers and 6 traffic officers from the Western Cape province in South Africa. Data were gathered through narrative interviews focussing on experiences of best-self and were analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. During the interviews, participants predominantly described feeling authentic in response to work-related events of a conflictual and challenging nature. Four themes were constructed from the data to describe authenticity from a best-self perspective for women in the study. These themes denote that the participating women in law enforcement, express feeling authentic when they present with a mature sense of self, feel spiritually congruent and grounded, experience self-actualisation in the work–role and realign to a positive way of being. Women should be empowered towards authenticity in their world of work, by helping them to acquire the best-self characteristics needed for developing authenticity.
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The current work presents the first inquiry into the conversations people seek to avoid. We introduce the Topic Avoidance Process Model, proposing two distinct processes when an interaction partner brings up a topic one wishes to avoid. When topic avoidance is motivated by concern for creating a conflict, one is more likely to leave the conversation, through increased activating emotions (e.g., annoyance). When motivated by concern for privacy, one is more likely to remain quiet, through increased inhibiting emotions (e.g., anxiety). In addition, these pathways predicted whom individuals focused on during the conversation (others vs. the self) as well as authenticity felt during conversations in the workplace. Three data-driven studies identified people’s experiences with unwanted conversation topics, yielding the present model, then supported by five studies (Ntotal = 3200) using multiple methods, including retrospective recall, live conversations, and studies online and in the field as well as text analysis and machine learning.
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Background: There had been little focus on the well-being of intensive care nurses until a recent programme of research found work well-being to be best described as a collection of elements, a multifaceted construct. Strengtheners of intensive care nurses' work well-being were found to extend across individual, relational, and organizational resources. Actions such as simplifying their lives, giving and receiving team support, and accessing employee assistance programmes were just a few of the intensive care nurses' identified strengtheners. Aims and objectives: To synthesize intensive care nurse perceptions of work well-being characteristics and strengtheners to identify opportunities for job crafting and redesign. Design: This was a qualitative secondary analysis. Methods: Intensive care nurse work well-being characteristics and strengtheners were explored using applied thematic analysis and pre-design, open card-sort technique. Results: Five facets were identified in the analysis: (a) healthy, (b) authentic, (c) meaningful, (d) connected, and (e) innovative. These five facets were described from a theoretical perspective and illustrated as a conceptual model for intensive care nurse job crafting and redesign. Conclusions: The proposed conceptual model contributes new knowledge to be explored in meaningful discussions about intensive care nurse work well-being and empirically investigated in terms of construct validity and theory development. Furthermore, the model provides practical opportunities to explore individual and collaborative ways to enhance intensive care nurse work well-being across a range of levels. Relevance to clinical practice: Opportunities for job crafting and redesign were identified and presented in a conceptual model of intensive care nurse work well-being. This model provides individual nurses, intensive care teams, health care organizations, and workers' well-being programme and policy developers practical opportunities to explore individual and collaborative ways to enhance intensive care nurse work well-being.
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A growing area of research is beginning to examine the state‐like nature of authenticity. The current study builds on this research by examining the (dis)continuity in state authenticity across two different social contexts: work and home. We surveyed 154 full‐time employees twice a day for 5 consecutive workdays. Results showed that state authenticity at work and at home shared a relatively strong positive relationship that appeared to be mediated by the spillover of affect from one context to the next. This is consistent with prior work that affect tends to “spillover” from one context to the next and work that suggests a causal impact of affect on authenticity judgments. Implications for the study of state authenticity as well as work‐home interaction are discussed.
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At the heart of psychosocial risks: Critical organizational factors for managers’ Burnout Cases of burnout are on the rise. It is therefore urgent to analyze the causes of this syndrome in order to carry out effective prevention. These causes are often seen as individual. On the contrary, our research endeavors, as some researchers suggest, highlighting the factors relating to work organization. The in-depth qualitative study of a real case allows us to propose a model that highlights, in particular, the relation to the immediate supervisor.
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When approaching interpersonal first meetings (e.g., job interviews), people often cater to the target’s interests and expectations to make a good impression and secure a positive outcome such as being offered the job (pilot study). This strategy is distinct from other approaches identified in prior impression management research (Studies 1A, 1B and 1C), and does not produce the benefits people expect. In a field study in which entrepreneurs pitched their ideas to potential investors (Study 2), catering harmed investors’ evaluations, while being authentic improved them. People experience greater anxiety and instrumentality when they cater to another person’s preferences than when they behave authentically (Studies 3A and 3B). Compared to behaving authentically or to a control condition, catering harms performance because trying to anticipate and fulfill others’ preferences feels instrumental and increases anxiety (Studies 4 and 5). Taken together, these results suggest that although people believe using catering in interpersonal first meetings will lead to successful outcomes, the opposite is true: catering creates undesirable feelings of instrumentality for the caterer, increases anxiety, and ultimately hinders performance.
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Purpose Work-life research has been critiqued for focusing on the experiences of middle and upper class, younger, White, western and heterosexual women. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical lens to conceptualizations that take an intersectionality approach, or at least consider multiple identities, in examining work-life conflict and balance. Design/methodology/approach A brief review of the current status of intersectionality research within the work-life realm is provided before discussing the implications of primarily using a single-identity approach to work-life issues. The advantages and challenges of adopting a multiple identity approach are discussed. Findings This paper highlights the problems of a lack of an intersectional focus in terms of unidentified needs, ignored values, unresolved conflicts and unhelpful advice. Tensions inherent in trying to adopt an intersectional perspective when dealing with practice and policy issues, particularly with regard to visibility and authenticity, are noted. The paper concludes with a discussion of how considerations of identity and power in work-family research connect to the broader concept of inclusion in the workplace, noting the possible challenges of stereotyping and ambiguity in doing so. Originality/value Applying an intersectionality lens to efforts to promote work-life balance in organizations can increase inclusivity, but there are tensions and pitfalls associated with this that are particularly of note for practitioners and policy. A research agenda is outlined as a starting point for addressing these issues.
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This paper reviews the individual and organizational implications of gig work using the emerging psychological contract between gig workers and employing organizations as a lens. We first examine extant definitions of gig work and provide a conceptually clear definition. We then outline why both organizations and individuals may prefer gig work, offer an in-depth analysis of the ways in which the traditional psychological contract has been altered for both organizations and gig workers, and detail the impact of that new contract on gig workers. Specifically, organizations deconstruct jobs into standardized tasks and gig workers adapt by engaging in job crafting and work identity management. Second, organizational recruitment of gig workers alters the level and type of commitment gig workers feel towards an employing organization. Third, organizations use a variety of non-traditional practices to manage gig workers (e.g., including by digital algorithms) and gig workers adapt by balancing autonomy and dependence. Fourth, compensation tends to be project-based and typically lacks benefits, causing gig workers to learn to be a “jack-of-all trades” and learn to deal with pay volatility. Fifth, organizational training of gig workers is limited and they adapt by engaging in self-development. Sixth, gig workers develop alternative professional and social relationships to work in blended teams assembled by organizations and/or adapt to social isolation. Challenges associated with these practices and possible solutions are discussed and we develop propositions for testing in future research. Finally, we highlight specific areas for further exploration in future research.
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“Women who have sex with women” or WSW have unique perspectives within the LBGTQ spectrum. The purpose of this study included documenting perceptions, feelings, and experiences among WSW. Thirty-seven women participated in six focus groups, ages ranged from 20–64 years. Responses were transcribed and thematically coded. Four themes emerged as influencing factors: shame and fear, community, gender roles, and normalcy. Each major theme produced minor themes providing a context within major themes. Results offer valuable insights that can assist community members, health professionals, and scientists to better appraise the disparities and stigma impacting social and emotional well-being among WSW.
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Purpose In the service industry, there is an involvement of the human factor which comprises continuous interpersonal interactions. Sometimes, these interactions create incongruence between displayed and felt emotions which distract the employees from their authentic self and impair their well-being. This paper aims to made an attempt to review different studies to identify an association between authenticity at the workplace and employee well-being with reference to emotional work. Design/methodology/approach The different studies have been reviewed mentioning the association between authenticity at the workplace and employee well-being with reference to emotional work published during the period of 1983–2020. The database which is used to identify and extract the research papers includes APA PycNET, Business Perspectives, Elsevier, Emerald Insight, Inderscience Publishers, SAGE, Taylor and Francis, etc. The keywords used for shortlisting the studies include employee well-being, emotional work, emotional dissonance, job satisfaction, surface acting, authenticity, burnout, authentic living, self-alienation. Findings The study has determined that emotional work influences the authenticity of an employee which further impacts the well-being of employees. Research limitations/implications The present review would aid the researchers in explaining the relevance of authenticity at the workplace for enhancing the employee well-being specifically in emotional work settings. Social implications Promoting well-being at the workplace requires an action-oriented approach from the national level also. Hence, the present study may help in drawing inferences for framing well-being policies for employees at the national level. Originality/value The paper is amongst the few reviews which have analysed the substantial role of authenticity in the context of emotional work to improve employee well-being.
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Otantik yaşam, alan yazında bireyin kendi yaşamındaki kendi gerçek benliğine uygun şekilde hareket etme yeteneği olarak açıklanmaktadır. Otantik yaşam kavramı, birey için motivasyon kaynağı olmasının yanında bireyin özel yaşamı ve iş yaşamındaki ilişkisiyle son zamanlarda büyük ilgi gören kavramlardan biri olmuştur. Bu araştırmada Denizli’de sağlık sektöründe çalışanların otantik yaşam düzeylerinin kariyer tatmini, bağlamsal performans ve iş tatmini üzerinde etkisi olup olmadığını; ayrıca işe adanmışlığın otantik yaşam ile söz konusu bağımlı değişkenler arasında aracı rolünün olup olmadığını ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Toplam 254 sağlık çalışanından çevrimiçi anket formları aracılığıyla toplanan veriler yapısal eşitlik modeli ile analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonunda elde edilen bulgulara göre otantik yaşamın kariyer tatmini, bağlamsal performans ve iş tatmini üzerinde pozitif yönde ve anlamlı etkisinin olduğunu; ayrıca işe adanmışlığın otantik yaşam ile söz konusu bağımlı değişkenler arasında aracılık rolü üstlendiği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
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Is “be yourself” always the best advice? We suggest that interpersonal consequences of behaving authentically depend on the extent to which individuals identify with the social environment where they behave authentically. Bridging the research on authenticity, social identity, and conflict, we propose that for high identifiers, authentic behavior reveals how similar they are to others, thereby reducing dyadic relationship conflict. When social identification is low, behaving authentically increases the salience of how different the individual is from others, increasing relationship conflict. In a multi-source time-lag sample of professional work teams (Study 1), we found that authentic behavior indeed reduced relationship conflict and enhanced task performance for high identifiers, but had an inverse, detrimental effect for low identifiers. In a sample of student teams (Study 2), we only found an attenuating effect of authentic behavior on relationship conflict for high identifiers, and no effect for low identifiers. These results suggest that the advice “to be yourself” applies in educational contexts involving younger adults, but has to be prescribed with care in professional work contexts. Our findings emphasize the importance of social context for the consequences of authentic behavior and call for more research on the contextual effects of authenticity.
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Authenticity is an indicator of psychological well-being. Until recently, studies on this construct has been scarce. This study aimed to fill this gap by culturally adapting a Sinhala version of the Authenticity Scale and using it o examine authenticity and selected demographic correlates among Sri Lankan undergraduates. The Sinhala version of the Authenticity Scale showed favourable psychometric properties. The survey results on 1235 Sri Lankan undergraduates indicate that this group is comparable to their counterparts in some dimensions of authenticity. The results also indicate that women report higher authenticity than men. Implications of this study are discussed, whilst emphasising the need to take into account variations that may occur in relation to authenticity in demographic factors such as gender.
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This study examines the relationship between cognitive awareness and perceived knowledge of sports fans’ social media engagement behaviors. Data were collected through an online survey of 236 adults from India who were identified as Indian Premier League (IPL) fans. The findings of the study suggest that perceived knowledge and cognitive awareness of sports are precursors to social media engagement behaviors of sports fans. Further, sports fandom mediates links between perceived knowledge and cognitive awareness with social media engagement. The findings hold special significance for contemporary COVID scenarios because physical interaction of athletes and fans are increasingly being substituted by their digital engagement through social media platforms
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The understanding of adopting to fast information flow and the adaptation of employees to changing environmental conditions have led to the birth of new approaches in organization psychology. One of these approaches is the employees‟ finding their jobs meaningful. It is estimated that the employees‟ finding their jobs, which they deal with along the day in their workplaces, might be related with various individual and organizational outcomes, and it is believed that the levels of the employees‟ finding their work meaningful may affect their life qualities and organizational outcomes. Based on this, this study has the aim of determining whether or not the banking sector employees‟ finding their works meaningful predict their psychological well-being. The study was conducted with 162 employees working at an international bank in Istanbul. The “Job and Meaning Inventory” and “Psychological Well-being Scale” were used as data collection tools in the study. As a result of the analyses of the relations between the points received from the scale applied simultaneously to the study group, it was determined that the employees‟ finding their works meaningful were high and this predicted their psychological well-being levels. The limitations of the study are discussed with recommendations for future rearch.
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Over the last few decades, social networking sites (SNS) have evolved as an effective medium of communication for the world. They are instrumental in connecting people across time and space with just a click. However, the darker side of SNS has resulted in a deteriorated human connection between individuals in real life. The current study is an attempt to examine the compulsive usage of SNS in detail. It utilizes a sequential mixed method design to examine the negative outcome of compulsive SNS usage and the effect of mindfulness in overcoming them. Findings of the moderated mediation model suggest that compulsive usage mediates the relationship between mindfulness and exhaustion; this relationship is moderated by extroversion personality traits.
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Purpose- In the service industry, soft skills are considered as a key skill which involves continuous interpersonal interactions. These interpersonal interactions induce the employees to modify their real emotions with the adoption of surface acting and deep acting strategy which further leads to burnout. The present study is aimed to identify the relationship between acting strategies and burnout. Further, the study has also investigated the mediating role of emotional dissonance and authenticity at workplace between surface acting and burnout and deep acting and burnout respectively. Design/Methodology/Approach - The study has been conducted on employees of Civil Aviation Industry of North India working on different frontline profiles. Data has been collected from 600 employees through a pretested questionnaire. For testing the hypothesis, Hayes Process mediation model has been applied. Findings- Findings have revealed that emotional work in both forms of strategies are significantly and positively related to burnout however deep acting is relatively weakly associated with burnout. Further, emotional dissonance has been identified as a significant mediator between surface acting and burnout with full mediation effect. Similarly, authenticity at workplace has been identified as a significant mediator with a partial mediation effect between deep acting and burnout. Practical/Research Implications- The study has implicated for organisations which are engaged in emotional work to encourage deep acting emotional work through various interventions in the form of training programmes. Originality/Value- The study has empirically explored the reason behind the relative differences of effect of surface acting strategy and deep acting strategy on burnout which has not been done earlier in Indian emotional work settings.
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Background: The study highlighted the issue of the engagement of nurses in the public hospital sector. Objectives: The objective of the current study was to determine the impact of authentic leadership on the engagement of nurses in the mediating role of moral emotions. The perceived threat of coronavirus was considered to be a boundary condition of the relationship. Design Method: The study was conducted in accordance with the Positivism Research Philosophy Guidelines, followed by a deductive approach and data was collected through self-directed questionnaires. 134 responses were collected from nurses working in various public sector hospitals operating in twin cities in Pakistan, in particular public sector hospitals where coronavirus patients are being treated. There are 277,402 confirmed cases of Coronavirus, being treated in 11 designation hospitals in twin cities of Pakistan. Results: The result was produced with the help of Amos. Path diagrams for mediation and moderation hypotheses were obtained and interpreted accordingly. The results showed that compassionate individuals were selfless even in the Covid-19 pandemic. Elevation and gratitude as a moral emotion have a more serious effect on the perceived threat to coronavirus. Conclusion: In the current scenario, the organization should identify the nursing staff with full compassion as it has been identified that the compassionate individual performs his or her duties even in the worst situation or during the Covid-19 pandemic. What is already known about the topic? Authentic Leadership are having the potential to influence their followers through personal and organizational Identification and then effect their cognitions. What this paper adds: The current study add novelty and expanded the knowledge about authentic leadership and theory of authentic leadership since it add: · Perceived coronavirus threat as boundary condition · Moral Emotions · Engagement
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Purpose Purpose- This study aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between waiters’ professional identity and its antecedents such as work interaction, identity interferences, stigma, standardisation brand, authenticity, extroversion and education. “Salience” will be used as a moderator of this relationship to explain the prominence of the stimuli. The consequences of professional identity on passion and turnover intention will be analysed. Design/methodology/approach This study used a qualitative methodology, which encompassed 3 focus group discussions (18 participants) and 11 in-depth interviews. Participants will be based on Michelin-starred restaurants in London. Founded on analysis of the qualitative data, the antecedents and consequences of professional identity were formulated. Findings Findings demonstrate that the main factors of the formation of waiters’ professional identity are work interaction, identity interferences, stigma, standardisation brand, authenticity, extroversion and education, its consequences (passion and turnover intention) and salience as a moderator of this relationship to clarify the relevance of the stimuli. These factors have been demonstrated to have an effect on the formation of professional identity. Originality/value This study is relevant because the repercussion of perceptions, such as identity and identification for emerging exclusive job roles, is still under-examined in certain conditions. Restaurateurs need to work with and comprehend the quality individual framework of waiters in job roles because these have a stimulus on the fundamental interests, such as passion for work and turnover of the waiting workforce. Moreover, within the hospitality industry, there has been a predisposition to prominence more on chefs than waiting staff.
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Employees withholding their opinions is pervasive in organizations. However, the individual outcomes of employee silence have not been frequently investigated. Previous studies have found that there are detrimental effects of employee silence and building on this research stream, the study viewed perceived stress as an underlying mechanism linking employee silence to task performance and deviant behavior. Moreover, this study explored the moderating effect of interpersonal trust in the relationship between employee silence and perceived stress. Using a sample of 231 white-collar employees from China, this study found perceived stress to mediate the relationships between employee silence and task performance and deviant behavior. Also, coworker trust was found to moderate the relationship between employee silence and perceived stress. As coworker trust moderated the relationship, supplementary analyses further found mediated moderation for the model.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence mechanism of job satisfaction and positive affect on knowledge sharing among project members in Chinese construction industry, and test the moderating role of organizational commitment between them in order to find a new approach from the perspective of psychology to improve the knowledge sharing performance within project management organizations in China constantly. Design/methodology/approach An empirical study was used based on confirmatory factor analysis and hierarchical regression analysis with a sample of 540 project members from 80 project management organizations in China. Findings Research results showed that job satisfaction and positive affect of project members both have a significant positive impact on knowledge sharing; organizational commitment could moderate the influence of job satisfaction and positive affect on knowledge sharing among project members partially within the Chinese context. Research limitations/implications A questionnaire study from China only represents the relationship and regular pattern within a shorter time interval in the Chinese context. It is necessary to continue to implement a longitudinal study in a relatively long period in future research. Practical implications Knowledge sharing among project members can be enhanced through improving job satisfaction and positive affect, and strengthening project members’ organizational commitment can amplify the influence effect of job satisfaction and positive affect on knowledge sharing. Originality/value This paper clarifies the direct influence mechanism of project members’ job satisfaction and positive affect on explicit knowledge sharing (EKS) and tacit knowledge sharing (TKS), and further tests the partial moderating effect of organizational commitment on the influence relationship of job satisfaction and positive affect on EKS and TKS.
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The performance of five methods for determining the number of components to retain (Horn's parallel analysis, Velicer's minimum average partial [MAP], Cattell's scree test, Bartlett's chi-square test, and Kaiser's eigenvalue greater than 1.0 rule) was investigated across seven systematically varied conditions (sample size, number of variables, number of components, component saturation, equal or unequal numbers of variables per component, and the presence or absence of unique and complex variables). We generated five sample correlation matrices at each of two sample sizes from the 48 known population correlation matrices representing six levels of component pattern complexity. The performance of the parallel analysis and MAP methods was generally the best across all situations. The scree test was generally accurate but variable. Bartlett's chi-square test was less accurate and more variable than the scree test. Kaiser's method tended to severely overestimate the number of components. We discuss recommendations concerning the conditions under which each of the methods are accurate, along with the most effective and useful methods combinations.
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Translating questionnaires for cross-cultural research is fraught with methodological pitfalls that threaten research validity. Some flaws are difficult to detect, leading to the erroneous conclusion that cultural differences are substantive when, in fact, they stem from semantic inconsistencies. We describe the process of translation and validation of the Hebrew version of an American questionnaire for cross-cultural comparisons of medical students' attitudes toward preventive medical services. The results provide evidence to support the validity of the Hebrew instrument for cross-cultural comparisons. Although it is always possible to contend that differences in cross-cultural comparisons result from metiodological flaws rather than actual differences, we believe that the arduous step-by-step process of validation described here reduces that possibility to an acceptable minimum.
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introduce and elaborate upon a critical distinction between what [the authors] call "contingent" and "true" self-esteem / contingent self-esteem involves feelings of self-worth that are dependent on matching standards of excellence or expectations (i.e., ego involvement) / it is thought to be associated with various narcissistic and defensive processes that reveal less than optimal psychological well-being / true self-esteem is more solidly based and stable, and it reflects positive mental health / discuss how this distinction fits into [the authors'] well-known theory of self-determination / describe in detail various self-regulatory processes that are thought to promote either contingent or true self-esteem / discuss how these various self-regulatory processes are related to mental health, and . . . describe the social conditions that are thought to promote self-determination and the development of true self-esteem (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Studied the validity of the Canadian-French version of a self-report instrument designed to measure global life satisfaction in 2 population groups. Human subjects: 871 male and female French-Canadian adults (mean age 18.93–21.34 yrs) (college and university students). 313 male and female French-Canadian old adults (mean age 76.34–76.70 yrs). The scores on the French version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (1985) by E. Diener et al—a 5-item self-report scale—were analyzed statistically, using factorial analysis and the LISREL statistical software package (K. G. Joreskog and D. Sorbom, 1984). Psychometric properties and reliability and validity indices were determined and compared with those of the original English version. Norms for college students and elderly Ss are presented. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Aristotle's concept of eudaimonia and hedonic enjoyment constitute 2 philosophical conceptions of happiness. Two studies involving combined samples of undergraduate and graduate students (Study 1, n = 209; Study 2, n = 249) were undertaken to identify the convergent and divergent aspects of these constructs. As expected, there was a strong positive correlation between personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Analyses revealed significant differences between the 2 conceptions of happiness experienced in conjunction with activities for the variables of (1) opportunities for satisfaction, (2) strength of cognitive-affective components, (3) level of challenges, (4) level of skills, and (5) importance. It thus appears that the 2 conceptions of happiness are related but distinguishable and that personal expressiveness, but not hedonic enjoyment, is a signifier of success in the process of self-realization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We examined the organization of individual differences in pleasant affect, unpleasant affect, and six discrete emotions. We used several refinements over past studies: a) systematic sampling of emotions; b) control of measurement error through the use of latent traits; c) multiple methods for measuring affect; d) inclusion of only affects that are widely agreed to be emotions; e) a statistical definition of "independence"; and f) a focus on the frequency and duration of long-term affect. There was strong convergence between the two pleasant emotions (love and joy) and between the four unpleasant emotions (fear, anger, sadness, and shame). The results indicated, however, that individual differences in the discrete emotions cannot be reduced to positive and negative affect. The latent traits of pleasant and unpleasant affect were correlated –.44, and a two-factor model accounted for significantly more variance than a one-factor model. This finding indicates that long-term pleasant and unpleasant affect are not strictly orthogonal, but they are separable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In 2 studies, college students evidenced differing levels of the "Big-Five" traits in different roles, supporting social-contextualist assumptions regarding trait expression. Supporting organismic theories of personality, within-subject variations in the Big Five were predictable from variations in the degree of psychological authenticity felt in different roles. In addition, two concepts of self-integration or true selfhood were examined: 1 based on high consistency of trait profiles across roles (i.e., low-self-concept differentiation; E. M. Donahue, R. W. Robins, B. W. Roberts, & O. P. John, 1993) and 1 based on high mean levels of authenticity felt across roles. The 2 self-integration measures were found to be independent predictors of psychological and physical well-being indicating that both self-consistency and psychological authenticity are vital for organized functioning and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Counseling psychologists often work with clients to increase their well-being as well as to decrease their distress. One important aspect of well-being, highlighted particularly in humanistic theories of the counseling process, is perceived meaning in life. However, poor measurement has hampered research on meaning in life. In 3 studies, evidence is provided for the internal consistency, temporal stability, factor structure, and validity of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), a new 10-item measure of the presence of, and the search for, meaning in life. A multitrait-multimethod matrix demonstrates the convergent and discriminant validity of the MLQ subscales across time and informants, in comparison with 2 other meaning scales. The MLQ offers several improvements over current meaning in life measures, including no item overlap with distress measures, a stable factor structure, better discriminant validity, a briefer format, and the ability to measure the search for meaning.
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We sought to examine the concept of authentic leadership and discuss the influences of authenticity and authentic leadership on leader and follower eudaemonic well-being, as well as examine the processes through which these influences are realized. This was accomplished in four ways. First, we provide an ontological definition of authentic leadership, rooted in two distinct yet related philosophical approaches to human well-being: hedonism and eudaemonia. Second, we develop a multi-component model of authentic leadership based on recent theoretical developments in the area of authenticity. The resulting model consists of self-awareness, unbiased processing, authentic behavior/acting and authentic relational orientation. Third, we discuss the personal antecedents (leader characteristics) of authentic leadership as well as the outcomes of authentic leadership for both leaders and followers and examine the processes linking authentic leadership to its antecedents and outcomes. Fourth, we discuss the implications of this work for authentic leadership theory and then provide some practical implications for developing authentic leaders.
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Investigated the performance of 5 methods for determining the number of components to retain—J. L. Horn's (see record 1965-13273-001 ) parallel analysis, W. F. Velicer's (see record 1977-00166-001 ) minimum average partial (MAP), R. B. Cattell's (see PA, Vol 41:969) scree test, M. S. Bartlett's (1950) chi-square test, and H. F. Kaiser's (see record 1960-06772-001 ) eigenvalue greater than 1 rule—across 7 systematically varied conditions (sample size, number of variables, number of components, component saturation, equal or unequal numbers of variables for each component, and the presence or absence of unique and complex variables). Five sample correlation matrices were generated at each of 2 sample sizes from the 48 known population correlation matrices representing 6 levels of component pattern complexity. Results indicate that the performance of the parallel analysis and MAP methods was generally the best across all situations; the scree test was generally accurate but variable; and Bartlett's chi-square test was less accurate and more variable than the scree test. Kaiser's method tended to severely overestimate the number of components. (65 ref)
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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A theoretical model of psychological well-being that encompasses 6 distinct dimensions of wellness (Autonomy, Environmental Mastery, Personal Growth, Positive Relations with Others, Purpose in Life, Self-Acceptance) was tested with data from a nationally representative sample of adults (N = 1,108), aged 25 and older, who participated in telephone interviews. Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the proposed 6-factor model, with a single second-order super factor. The model was superior in fit over single-factor and other artifactual models. Age and sex differences on the various well-being dimensions replicated prior findings. Comparisons with other frequently used indicators (positive and negative affect, life satisfaction) demonstrated that the latter neglect key aspects of positive functioning emphasized in theories of health and well-being.
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Personal Projects Analysis (B. R. Little, 1983) was adapted to examine relations between participants' appraisals of their goal characteristics and orthogonal happiness and meaning factors that emerged from factor analyses of diverse well-being measures. In two studies with 146 and 179 university students, goal efficacy was associated with happiness and goal integrity was associated with meaning. A new technique for classifying participants according to emergent identity themes is introduced. In both studies, identity-compensatory predictors of happiness were apparent. Agentic participants were happiest if their goals were supported by others, communal participants were happiest if their goals were fun, and hedonistic participants were happiest if their goals were being accomplished. The distinction between happiness and meaning is emphasized, and the tension between efficacy and integrity is discussed. Developmental implications are discussed with reference to results from archival data from a sample of senior managers.
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Well-being is a complex construct that concerns optimal experience and functioning. Current research on well-being has been derived from two general perspectives: the hedonic approach, which focuses on happiness and defines well-being in terms of pleasure attainment and pain avoidance; and the eudaimonic approach, which focuses on meaning and self-realization and defines well-being in terms of the degree to which a person is fully functioning. These two views have given rise to different research foci and a body of knowledge that is in some areas divergent and in others complementary. New methodological developments concerning multilevel modeling and construct comparisons are also allowing researchers to formulate new questions for the field. This review considers research from both perspectives concerning the nature of well-being, its antecedents, and its stability across time and culture.
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A qualitative and quantitative review of the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance is provided. The qualitative review is organized around 7 models that characterize past research on the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance. Although some models have received more support than have others, research has not provided conclusive confirmation or disconfirmation of any model, partly because of a lack of assimilation and integration in the literature. Research devoted to testing these models waned following 2 meta-analyses of the job satisfaction-job performance relationship. Because of limitations in these prior analyses and the misinterpretation of their findings, a new meta-analysis was conducted on 312 samples with a combined N of 54,417. The mean true correlation between overall job satisfaction and job performance was estimated to be .30. In light of these results and the qualitative review, an agenda for future research on the satisfaction-performance relationship is provided.
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We hypothesized that semester goal attainment provides a route to short-term psychological growth. In an attempt to enhance this process, we randomly assigned participants to either a goal-training program or to a control condition. Although there were no main effects of program participation on later goal attainment, important interactions were found. Consistent with a "prepared to benefit" model, participants already high in goal-based measures of personality integration perceived the program as most useful and benefited the most from the program in terms of goal attainment. As a result, they became even more integrated and also increased in their levels of psychosocial well-being and vitality. Implications for theories of short-term growth and positive change are discussed, as is the unanswered question of how to help less-integrated persons grow.
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Subjective well-being (SWB) is evaluation of life in terms of satisfaction and balance between positive and negative affect; psychological well-being (PWB) entails perception of engagement with existential challenges of life. The authors hypothesized that these research streams are conceptually related but empirically distinct and that combinations of them relate differentially to sociodemographics and personality. Data are from a national sample of 3,032 Americans aged 25-74. Factor analyses confirmed the related-but-distinct status of SWB and PWB. The probability of optimal well-being (high SWB and PWB) increased as age, education, extraversion, and conscientiousness increased and as neuroticism decreased. Compared with adults with higher SWB than PWB. adults with higher PWB than SWB were younger, had more education, and showed more openness to experience.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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Are occupational and work conditions associated with work-to-home conflict? If so, do those associations vary by gender? Among a sample of adults in Toronto, Canada, we found that men and women in higher-status occupations reported higher levels of work-to-home conflict than workers in lower-status jobs. In addition, we observed higher levels of work-to-home conflict among workers who are self-employed and among those with more job authority, demands, involvement, and longer hours. The only significant gender-contingent effect was found for nonroutine work, which is associated positively with work-to-home conflict among men but not women. Higher levels of job demands, involvement, and hours among individuals in higher-status occupations significantly contribute to occupation-based differences in work-to-home conflict. Moreover, despite some overlap, these work conditions have largely independent associations with work-to-home conflict. Results generally support the "stress of higher status " hypothesis among both women and men. Although higher-status positions yield many rewards, such positions are not impervious to inter-role stress, and this stress may offset those rewards.
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Two studies examine the relations of self-complexity (Linville, 1987) and the authenticity of self-aspects to well being. Study 1 results show that self-complexity is largely unrelated to well being, whereas the authenticity of the self-aspects that constitute it is associated with greater well being. Study 2 uses a two-week, prospective design to replicate Linville's finding of a buffering effect of complexity on the negative outcomes associated with stressful events. In addition, study 2 results revealed either null or negative relations of complexity to well being, whereas the authenticity of self-aspects was again positively related to well being. The findings are discussed with respect to the meaning of self-complexity for personality functioning, and the importance of having one's self-aspects be authentic.
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Cross-cultural studies are necessary for the complete development of theories in environmental research since no one culture contains all environmental conditions that can affect human behavior. Likewise, no one country contains all possible types of man-made changes of the physical environment, nor all of the man-made adaptations to natural conditions such as climate, noise, air quality, and potential hazards. In addition, many places in which environmental researchers might be asked to work are in parts of the world where “development” is seen as a necessity or at least a desideratum. These places are often in countries where empirical research is not a well-established entity, hence the necessity for importing advisers from other countries. Although frequently forgotten (Fahvar & Milton, 1972), environmental assessments prepared by such advisers should include analyses of how a development project will affect a culture and even the behavior of people for whom the project was designed.
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The literature on subjective well-being (SWB), including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect, is reviewed in three areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Psychometric data on single-item and multi-item subjective well-being scales are presented, and the measures are compared. Measuring various components of subjective well-being is discussed. In terms of causal influences, research findings on the demographic correlates of SWB are evaluated, as well as the findings on other influences such as health, social contact, activity, and personality. A number of theoretical approaches to happiness are presented and discussed: telic theories, associationistic models, activity theories, judgment approaches, and top-down versus bottom-up conceptions.
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The authors investigated why some managers work extreme hours, defined as 61 or more hours per week. The authors tested explanations drawn from theories including the work-leisure tradeoff, work as an emotional respite, social contagion, and work as its own reward. In a demographically homogeneous sample of male managers, the best explanations for why some worked 61 or more hours per week were the financial and psychological rewards they received from doing so. The hypothesis derived from A. Hochschild's (1997) research that managers who work long hours seek relief at work from pressures at home was not supported. Findings in a small sample of managerial women were consistent with the work-leisure trade-off hypothesis, the social contagion hypothesis, and the work as its own reward hypothesis.
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After summarizing the literature on the various models for the role of social support in the process of work stress, two studies are reported. In the first study, correlations between (1) social support and workplace stressors and (2) between social support and strains as well as (3) incrementalR2s across 68 studies, when the interaction term of stressors and support was added to the regression of strain on stressors and support, were meta-analytically cumulated. Potential moderators of these relationships were weak, suggesting the presence of three general constructs of stressors, strains, and social support. In the second study, the various models for the role of social support in the process of workplace stress were tested for the general constructs identified in the first study. Results indicated that social support had a threefold effect on work stressor–strain relations. Social support reduced the strains experienced, social support mitigated perceived stressors, and social support moderated the stressor–strain relationship. Evidence for mediational and suppressor effects of social support on the process of work stress was weak. In addition, the argument that social support is mobilized when stressors are encountered was not consistent with the available empirical evidence. A similar lack of support was found for the arguments that support is mobilized when strains are encountered and that support is provided when individuals are afflicted with strains.
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Four types of relationships were proposed between job stress and performance: curvilinear/U-shaped, negative linear, positive linear, and no relationship between the two. Data were collected from middle managers (N = 227) and blue-collar workers (N = 283) employed in a large Canadian organization. Bivariate multiple regression and hierarchical multiple regression analyses generally supported the prevalence of a negative linear relationship between job stress and supervisory ratings of performance. Employees' organizational commitment significantly moderated over 50% of the relationships between job stress and measures of job performance in both managerial and blue-collar samples. Implications of the findings are discussed for future research in the area of job stress.
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Reviews the literature since 1967 on subjective well-being (SWB [including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect]) in 3 areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Most measures of SWB correlate moderately with each other and have adequate temporal reliability and internal consistency; the global concept of happiness is being replaced with more specific and well-defined concepts, and measuring instruments are being developed with theoretical advances; multi-item scales are promising but need adequate testing. SWB is probably determined by a large number of factors that can be conceptualized at several levels of analysis, and it may be unrealistic to hope that a few variables will be of overwhelming importance. Several psychological theories related to happiness have been proposed; they include telic, pleasure and pain, activity, top–down vs bottom–up, associanistic, and judgment theories. It is suggested that there is a great need to more closely connect theory and research. (7 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reigning measures of psychological well-being have little theoretical grounding, despite an extensive literature on the contours of positive functioning. Aspects of well-being derived from this literature (i.e., self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth) were operationalized. Three hundred and twenty-one men and women, divided among young, middle-aged, and older adults, rated themselves on these measures along with six instruments prominent in earlier studies (i.e., affect balance, life satisfaction, self-esteem, morale, locus of control, depression). Results revealed that positive relations with others, autonomy, purpose in life, and personal growth were not strongly tied to prior assessment indexes, thereby supporting the claim that key aspects of positive functioning have not been represented in the empirical arena. Furthermore, age profiles revealed a more differentiated pattern of well-being than is evident in prior research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Exciting advances have been made in the study of psychological and subjective well-being. However, this literature has, curiously, had minimal impact on clinical/counseling practice or applied psychology, including counseling psychology--a subfield historically devoted to the concept of hygiology and the promotion of optimal human functioning. This article provides an overview and critique of various approaches to defining, conceptualizing, and studying well-being, including its correlates and presumed causes. Practical implications of the literature are considered. Provisional, integrative models of normative and restorative well-being are offered as vehicles for bridging the gap between basic research and practice. Suggestions are also offered for practice-friendly inquiry on well-being and for incorporating well-being as one ingredient of a multifaceted conception of mental health and positive adaptation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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And if by chance I wake at night and I ask you who I am, oh take me to the slaughterhouse I will wait there with the lamb. —Leonard CohenWhatever satisfies the soul is truth. —Walt WhitmanI prefer to be true to myself, even at the hazard of incurring the ridicule of others, rather than to be false, and to incur my own abhorrence. —Frederick DouglassIn this chapter, we present research and theory pertaining to our multicomponent perspective on authentic functioning. We begin with a historical account of various philosophical perspectives on authentic functioning and briefly review several past and contemporary psychological perspectives on authenticity. We then define and discuss our multicomponent conceptualization of authenticity and describe each of its components and their relationships to other constructs in the psychology literature. Next, we present an individual differences measure we have developed to assess dispositional authenticity and each of its components, and we report findings attesting to the adequacy of its psychometric properties. In addition, we present findings from a variety of studies we have conducted to examine how authenticity relates to diverse aspects of healthy psychological and interpersonal functioning. These studies pertain to a wide range of phenomena, including the following: verbal defensiveness, mindfulness, coping styles, self‐concept structure, social‐role functioning, goal pursuits, general well‐being, romantic relationships, parenting styles, and self‐esteem. Following this, we discuss potential downsides or costs for authentic functioning and describe some future directions for research on authenticity.
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The relationship between self-aspect congruence, subjective well-being (SWB), and personality was examined in two studies. In Study 1, the congruence between ‘real’ and ‘ought’ Q-sort self-descriptions was found to be positively related to measures of SWB and life satisfaction. Among the five personality factors of Costa and McCrae (1991), congruence was negatively related to neuroticism and positively related to agreeableness. In study 2, the congruence between ‘real’ and ‘ideal’ Q-sort self-descriptions was found to be positively related to both self- and non-self-report measures of SWB, and was significantly related to four of Costa and McCrae's five personality dimensions. Implications for research in the area of emotion and SWB are discussed.
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Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.
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We quantitatively integrated 169 samples ( N= 35,265 employees) that have been used to investigate the relationships of the following 7 work-related stressors with job performance: role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload, job insecurity, work–family conflict, environmental uncertainty, and situational constraints. Overall, we obtained a negative mean correlation between each job performance measure and each stressor included in our analyses. As hypothesized, role ambiguity and situational constraints were most strongly negatively related to performance, relative to the other work-related stressors. Analysis of moderators revealed that (a) the negative correlation of role overload and performance was higher among managers relative to nonmanagers; (b) publication year moderated the relation of role ambiguity and role overload with performance, although in opposite directions; (c) the correlations obtained for published versus unpublished studies were not significantly different; and (d) using the Rizzo et al. scale of role ambiguity and role conflict decreased the magnitude of the correlations of these stressors with performance, relative to other scales. Theoretical contributions, future research directions, and practical implications are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Personnel Psychology is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Virginia, 2003. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 192-197).
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Self-regulation is a complex process that involves consumers’ persistence, strength, motivation, and commitment in order to be able to override short-term impulses. In order to be able to pursue their long-term goals, consumers typically need to forgo immediate pleasurable experiences that are detrimental to reach their overarching goals. Although this sometimes involves resisting to simple and small temptations, it is not always easy, since the lure of momentary temptations is pervasive. In addition, consumers’ beliefs play an important role determining strategies and behaviors that consumers consider acceptable to engage in, affecting how they act and plan actions to attain their goals. This dissertation investigates adequacy of some beliefs typically shared by consumers about the appropriate behaviors to exert self-regulation, analyzing to what extent these indeed contribute to the enhancement of consumers’ ability to exert self-regulation.
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Coherence and congruence-based measures of personality integration were related to a variety of healthy personality characteristics. Functional coherence was defined as occurring when participants' "personal strivings" (R.A. Emmons, 1986) help bring about each other or help bring about higher level goals. Organismic congruence was defined as occurring when participants strive for self-determined reasons or when strivings help bring about intrinsic rather than extrinsic higher level goals. Study 1 found the integration measures were related to each other and to inventory measures of health and well-being. Study 2 showed that these goal integration measures were also related to role system integration and were prospective predictors of daily mood, vitality, and engagement in meaningful as opposed to distracting activities.
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An integrative model of the conative process, which has important ramifications for psychological need satisfaction and hence for individuals' well-being, is presented. The self-concordance of goals (i.e., their consistency with the person's developing interests and core values) plays a dual role in the model. First, those pursuing self-concordant goals put more sustained effort into achieving those goals and thus are more likely to attain them. Second, those who attain self-concordant goals reap greater well-being benefits from their attainment. Attainment-to-well-being effects are mediated by need satisfaction, i.e., daily activity-based experiences of autonomy, competence, and relatedness that accumulate during the period of striving. The model is shown to provide a satisfactory fit to 3 longitudinal data sets and to be independent of the effects of self-efficacy, implementation intentions, avoidance framing, and life skills.
Article
The authors investigated why some managers work extreme hours, defined as 61 or more hours per week. The authors tested explanations drawn from theories including the work-leisure tradeoff, work as an emotional respite, social contagion, and work as its own reward. In a demographically homogeneous sample of male managers, the best explanations for why some worked 61 or more hours per week were the financial and psychological rewards they received from doing so. The hypothesis derived from A. Hochschild's (1997) research that managers who work long hours seek relief at work from pressures at home was not supported. Findings in a small sample of managerial women were consistent with the work-leisure trade-off hypothesis, the social contagion hypothesis, and the work as its own reward hypothesis.
Researchers often conduct mediation analysis in order to indirectly assess the effect of a proposed cause on some outcome through a proposed mediator. The utility of mediation analysis stems from its a