SUSTAINABLE TOURISM TYPES
ION-DANUT JUGANARU, MARIANA JUGANARU, ANDREEA Anghel
Ion-Danut JUGANARU, Lecturer PhD
Mariana JUGANARU, Professor PhD
Andreea ANGHEL, Assistant Student PhD
Ovidius University of Constanta, Faculty of Economic Sciences
Key words: tourism, sustainable, ecotourism, equitable, solidarity
Abstract: Tourism development must be based on sustainability criteria, be long term
bearable economically and ethically and socially equitable for the local populations of the
Tourism forms identified by the literature as being “sustainable” are numerous: ecological
tourism (ecotourism), green tourism, soft, rural tourism and agrotourism, community tourism,
solidarity and responsible tourism, all these opposing to the traditional, mass tourism.
According to some specialists only tourism in natural reservations or national parks is
considered to be ecological. A larger concept of ecological tourism refers to that form of
responsible travel, developed in natural spaces, that contributes to environment protection and
local population life conditions improvement and wellbeing.
Equitable tourism is a form of sustainable tourism aiming at applying in the tourism sector
the principles of equitable commerce, respecting a series of criteria, that focus on respect of the
residents and their life style, as well as sustainability of tourism progress for local communities.
Solidarity tourism is about establishing a dialog, solidarity relationship between tourists and
The current strategy for tourism development in more and more countries aims at
orientating this sector toward a tourism that brings together respect for environment and
new jobs creation, and also holidays affordable by anyone (by most people).
Tourism development must be based on sustainability criteria, must be long term
economically bearable and ethically and socially equitable for the local population of
the tourism destinations.
Tourism must contribute to the sustainable development by integrating into the
natural, cultural and human environment it must respect the fragile equilibrium that is
characteristic to numerous tourism destinations .
The European Commission has adopted its own definition for sustainable tourism,
according to which it is „any form of development, improvement or tourism activity
that respects the environment, preserves in the long term the natural and cultural
resources and is socially and economically durable and equitable”.
Sustainable tourism allows the development of tourism and recreation activities in
a country, region or tourist destination by taking into account the basic principles of
sustainable development, showing respect for the environment, for the people and for
the economy and the local culture of the tourist receiving region .
From an ecological point of view, sustainable tourism refers to the multiplication of
responsible initiatives, to the permanent care for the preservation of the Earth as well as
to the dissemination of the good practice examples in the field.
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