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What headteachers need to know about teaching and learning

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Abstract

Over the last quarter of a century, the emphasis on accountability for student learning outcomes, and the findings from effective schools research, have served to draw attention to the role of heads as educational leaders. At the same time, the growing complexity of the role of the school head has meant that they have often been diverted into other roles associated with the running of the school and have had less time to devote to the core business of schools, namely teaching and learning. With the emergence of the knowledge society it is likely that schools will come under constant pressure to find ways of improving learning outcomes for all students, and headteachers will be expected to provide the leadership required to bring about the needed transformation. This paper briefly considers what heads need to know about teaching and learning to be effective educational leaders. The discussion is structured around three key roles of school leaders, namely:

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... The advent of the constructivist approach in education (Kirschner et al., 2006;Rowe, 2006;Westwood, 2008) ...
... Minimizes the load, breaks tasks down into manageable steps (Westwood, 2008) Gives learner autonomy and control over the choice of subject matter, pace of learning, and learning methods (Gibbs, 1992) Based on lecture notes, handouts, and audio-visual media prepared in advance Incorporates more student input and ideas, enables students to show initiative Presents important concepts and organized, and meaningful manner (Heath, 2014) Increases critical thinking skills in students (Heath, 2014) "Robs" students of active engagement Koschmann, 1996) High demands on learners' information processing capabilities, in particular on working memory (overload) (Kirschner et al., 2006) Assumes that everyone shares similar prior knowledge (Porcaro, 2011) Does not assume similar background knowledge among students (Westwood, 2008) Considering that the author has been adopting a more instructivist approach in the past to and student involvement in the course, the decision was taken to attempt applying a more constructivist approach in the classroom of a RM course taught with a particular focus on experiential learning. There are several models of experiential learning introduced by researchers such as Lewin (1951), Dewey (1958), Friere (1970, Kolb (1984), Perry (1999), and Moon (2004). ...
... Minimizes the load, breaks tasks down into manageable steps (Westwood, 2008) Gives learner autonomy and control over the choice of subject matter, pace of learning, and learning methods (Gibbs, 1992) Based on lecture notes, handouts, and audio-visual media prepared in advance Incorporates more student input and ideas, enables students to show initiative Presents important concepts and organized, and meaningful manner (Heath, 2014) Increases critical thinking skills in students (Heath, 2014) "Robs" students of active engagement Koschmann, 1996) High demands on learners' information processing capabilities, in particular on working memory (overload) (Kirschner et al., 2006) Assumes that everyone shares similar prior knowledge (Porcaro, 2011) Does not assume similar background knowledge among students (Westwood, 2008) Considering that the author has been adopting a more instructivist approach in the past to and student involvement in the course, the decision was taken to attempt applying a more constructivist approach in the classroom of a RM course taught with a particular focus on experiential learning. There are several models of experiential learning introduced by researchers such as Lewin (1951), Dewey (1958), Friere (1970, Kolb (1984), Perry (1999), and Moon (2004). ...
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This volume contains a selection of nineteen articles that focus on skills and strategies for advancing English language teacher education in several contexts where English is taught to speakers of other language. The volume focuses on the teachers and learners as the prime participants in the learning process. The papers selected for inclusion represent the diverse backgrounds, experiences, and research interests of EFL educators and showcase contribution that document theory, research and pedagogy. The volume comprises six sections: Teacher Education and Professional Development; Young Learners; Testing and Assessment; Teaching of Writing Skills; Context-Specific Issues in EFL; and Teaching, Learning, and Pedagogy
... Leaders define a vision and set direction by converting said vision into achievable goals (Day & Sammons, 2013;Gurr, Drysdale & Mulford, 2010;Hallinger, 2003;Hill, 2002;Hattie, 2011;Kotter, 2001;Leithwood & Riehl, 2003;Leithwood, Tomlinson, & Genge, 1996;Leithwood et al., 2006;Leithwood, Seashore Louis, Anderson & Wahlstrom, 2004;Mulford & Silins, 2003;Murphy, 1990;'Wallace Foundation', 2013). A successful vision is clearly articulated (Gurr, 2008), and sets high performance expectations that are grounded in achievement (Leithwood & Riehl, 2003;Hill, 2002). ...
... Leaders define a vision and set direction by converting said vision into achievable goals (Day & Sammons, 2013;Gurr, Drysdale & Mulford, 2010;Hallinger, 2003;Hill, 2002;Hattie, 2011;Kotter, 2001;Leithwood & Riehl, 2003;Leithwood, Tomlinson, & Genge, 1996;Leithwood et al., 2006;Leithwood, Seashore Louis, Anderson & Wahlstrom, 2004;Mulford & Silins, 2003;Murphy, 1990;'Wallace Foundation', 2013). A successful vision is clearly articulated (Gurr, 2008), and sets high performance expectations that are grounded in achievement (Leithwood & Riehl, 2003;Hill, 2002). Effective principals prioritise objectives and values, which helps teachers, students and support staff understand what is important (Day & Sammons, 2013). ...
... To act on a vision, an organisation's staff need to have a shared belief in the vision, believe it can be achieved, and see structural and cultural evidence that senior leadership are also committed to the vision (Day & Sammons, 2013;Hill, 2002;Kotter, 2001;Leithwood & Riehl, 2003;'Wallace Foundation', 2013in Mendels, 2012. To achieve a great vision, the staff and students must trust management and each other (Hill, 2002). ...
... This idea also mentioned the role of the classroom teacher and he added that the teacher could do modelling and give examples to ensure effectiveness of a feedback activity. Furthermore, Westwood (2008) advised the classroom teacher has to provide appropriate modelling and demonstration so his or her students can mimic. ...
... Finally, as this study provides the feedback training for the students, the researchers also take the ideas of ; Rollinson (2005); Westwood (2008) and Kroll (2001) to guide the training. They said the classroom teacher needs to carefully design the peer feedback procedure, provide students with sufficient training, and adjust the training procedure according to their own teaching contexts. ...
Article
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Writing is one of the four important skills in learning a foreign language. However, most high school students find it uneasy to write due to many different both objective and subjective reasons. Finding effective solutions to this problem is always appreciated. This study, therefore, hopes to investigate whether peer feedback has any positive effect on this group's writing performance. In order to support this investigation, the authors attempted to deploy a writing teaching strategy using peer feedback as the main instrument to foster students' ability to write their paragraph. Two groups of the participants were recruited: 37 control students and 39 experimental ones in a high school in a rural district in Vietnam. After six weeks of intervention with this strategy, most students in the experimental group were awarded a better score than their counterparts in the control groups in general. The authors applied a 10-scale rating rubric with three paragraph rating domains to measure their paragraph writing performance. Then, the authors also made an attempt to see the experimental students' attitudes towards peer feedback after their application in class and they were satisfied with it afterwards. It revealed that overall they showed positive attitudes towards peer feedback.
... They also develop their four skills naturally, namely listening, speaking, reading and writing (Sheppard & Stoller, 1995). Also, Blank (1997), Harwell (1997), Dickinson et al. (1998), andWestwood (2008) claim that PBL learners mainly put into practice their higher-order thinking skills in order to investigate, plan, judge, examine, make decisions, draw conclusions, synthesize and evaluate their projects on the basis of real-life issues. PBL encourages communication and collaboration because they are two essential elements that help learners to find solutions to various real-life issues. ...
... and "do."; (2) helps students to learn and put into practice their skills in problem solving, communication, and self-management; (3) fosters the development of the mind in relation to lifelong learning, social responsibility, and personal or career achievement; (4) includes curriculum areas, thematic teaching, and civic issues; (5) assesses the product and skills performance using the same criteria used in the professional world; therefore, accountability, aim setting, and improved performance are stimulated; (6) builds constructive interactions and collaborative partnerships between different groups of learners; (7) responds to learners' needs, taking into account their skill levels and their style of learning; and (8) boosts uninterested learners' engagement and motivation. Westwood (2008) suggests that the project approach is beneficial, and it can be integrated into the curriculum for some reasons: ...
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Educational institutions all around the world are presently concerned by the introduction of critical thinking and project pedagogy into education. The Algerian educational system is not exempt from that global concern. The evidence, in this case, is clearly stated in the first, second and third-year secondary school English syllabuses. All of them stipulate that English teaching involves the acquisition of linguistic and communicative competencies and the development of a critical mind (MNE, 2006a, 2005c & d). In this context, the present study aims to examine the extent of implementation of project work pedagogy for the enhancement of critical thinking in the secondary-school English classes as recommended by the Ministry of National Education and to explore the role of the third-year secondary school syllabus, the accompanying document and the textbook in nurturing critical thinking. It also investigates whether the current classroom practices embrace a diverse range of active learning and problem-solving strategies and tasks that increase learners' involvement in high-quality discussions and develop their critical thinking skills. For the collection of data, the study has employed a mixed methods research approach in which a variety of data collection tools were used and directed to only a sample of research subjects so as to narrow the scope of the study: (a) questionnaires were handed both to third-year English teachers to identify their attitudes towards critical thinking and project work and to learners to investigate their opinions on English class projects; (b) classroom observation sessions were organized to observe the classroom practices; (c) a sample experiment was conducted to identify the impact of project work in fostering critical thinking; and (d) a sample analysis of the third-year English textbook and syllabus was done to find out whether they embed the core principles of project-based pedagogy and critical thinking. The results of the data analysis of the above-mentioned tools revealed that EFL teachers were reasonably knowledgeable but lacked professional development training on classroom practices, and EFL learners were interested but not motivated to do projects because of inadequate classroom practices such as the lack of active learning strategies and the predominance of the teacher-centredness approach in classrooms. Within this context, the study highlights the importance of project work in fostering and enhancing critical thinking by using the syllabus and the textbook, which are substantially project based. If they were used methodically, they could help teachers implement the Project-Based Learning approach properly and thus enhance learners’ critical thinking. To that end, and since this research is evidence-based rather than content-based, its implications could be generalized to benefit teachers and policymakers and thus help our learners to enhance their higher-order skills and be critical thinkers capable of overcoming the 21st-century challenges to succeed not only in the workplace but also in life.
... There are a lot of advantages of PBL which can improve students' skills in the learning process. According to Westwood (2008), there are some advantages in applying PBL. First, students can improve their collaborative learning and team working skills through PBL. ...
... Since this project is one of the implementations of PBL model, there are some statements which support the finding. This is similar to Westwood's (2008) opinion which stated that through PBL, students can improve their team working and collaborative learning skills. It happens because they have to work together with their friends in a group to produce good results. ...
Article
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English Fun Fair is one of the implementation models in Project-Based Learning (PBL) which involves learning through various tasks and collaborative learning. Particularly, the project was implemented in Speaking for Social Purposes classes at an English Language Education Program, at a private university in Central Java, Indonesia. The study aimed to investigate students' perceptions of the influence of English Fun Fair which consisted of the benefits and challenges of the project. The participants of the study were fifty (50) students from 2016, 2017, and 2018 Academic Year who had taken Speaking for Social Purposes course and had done English Fun Fair. To gain data more deeply, the researchers used a qualitative method. The instruments used were open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. In the questionnaires, the participants answered some questions related to this study. After that, as a follow-up of the answers in the questionnaires, the researcher did interviews. Besides that, the data showed that improving speaking skills was the most dominant benefit mentioned by the participants. However, problems in speaking skills also became a challenge which they experienced a lot. Expectantly, the findings from this study can give views for EFL teachers about the benefits of this project and for EFL students can develop their speaking and other skills.
... Besides that, it will also help students to find solutions to problems that exist in the real world through critical thinking skills. Learning with a problembased leaning approach provides students the opportunity to learn to solve problems in real life (Westwood, 2008). Thus learning will be more meaningful. ...
... In addition, problem based learning has several advantages, including encouraging self-direction in the learning process, preparing students to think critically and analytically, empowering students to identify, find and use appropriate resources, the problems studied are closely related to the real world and motivate. students, active involvement in integrating information and skills in expressing ideas or opinions, improve communication skills and social skills necessary for cooperation and teamwork (Westwood, 2008). ...
Article
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This study aims to develop interactive multimedia based on problem-based learning and to find out its effectiveness against increasing critical thinking skills. This research uses a Research and Development approach. The research data was obtained through the media validation sheet instrument by experts and the critical thinking skills test instrument. Data analysis in this study used the independent t-test. Based on the results of the media validation test by the expert shows that the interactive multimedia that has been developed has the criteria of "Good". Then the product effectiveness test results using the independent t-test showed that interactive multimedia based on problem-based learning proved to be able to improve critical thinking skills in students. The results of this discovery have implications in learning, namely to improve critical thinking skills in students, it can be done by using interactive multimedia based on problem-based learning.
... They search for meaning in the task and integration of task aspects into a whole.‖ This also confirms Westwood's (2008) argument that student-centred teaching strategies are necessary to empower learners with great autonomy and to establish collaborative work with others. ...
... These findingsuphold Cummins' (2007) report that a learner-centered pedagogy raises student achievement, promotes democratic classrooms, complex thinking, joint production, and meets student communication goals. The results are also in congruence withWestwood's (2008) argument that student-centred teaching strategies are necessary to empower learners with great autonomy and to establish collaborative work with others.It also emerged from the study that non-participatory techniques (i.e. dictation and lecturing) were perceived: as boring; tiring; to have had restricted learning from tutors only and not from fellow students; and to have reduced the spirit of team work. ...
... Metode ceramah konvensional dilakukan dengan menggunakan media Power Point (PPT), sedangkan metode SCL dilakukan dengan tiga cara. Yang pertama adalah Small Group Discussion, yaitu membuat rancangan bahan diskusi berupa tema atau materi dan penjelasan aturan diskusi, yang kedua adalah Cooperative Learning, yaitu menyiapkan suatu masalah atau kasus untuk didiskusikan oleh mahasiswa secara berkelompok, ketiga adalah Project-Based Learning, yaitu merancang suatu tugas proyek terkait dengan penerapan Enterprise Architecture perusahaan menggunakan berbagai framework yang ada (Westwood P., 2008;Suryo S.K., 2018;Sayyidatul, E. P. R., Nurissaidah, U., Dwi, R., 2018;Talizaro, T., 2018;Yahdi, S., 2018). ...
... Metode SCL memberikan kontribusi besar terhadap kemampuan mahasiswa, baik dari sisi teori maupun keahlian soft skill (Westwood P., 2008). Akan tetapi, penerapan metode ini memunculkan banyak kendala terutama dalam kelas besar. ...
... For a particular teaching method to be appropriate and efficient it has to be in relation with the characteristics of the learner and the type of learning it is supposed to bring about. Suggestions are there to design and selection of teaching methods must take into account not only the nature of the subject matter but also how students learn (Westwood, 2008). Teaching methods are an important aspect of teaching and learning: determine the activities of teachers and students, the quality of the teaching process, implicitly sending a message about what teaching is, how children learn, what knowledge is. ...
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This study covered nineteen senior secondary schools in the Northern region of Sierra Leone. The study is aimed at assessing the comparative attainment of pupils in single-sex and co-educational schools. A desk study of secondary data wherein documents and records relating to appropriate data sources were studied to obtain background information on co-education and chemistry attainment. A sample size of eight hundred and fifty seven (857) pupils from nineteen (19) senior secondary schools in the Northern regions of Sierra Leone who sat to the chemistry papers in the WASSCE of 2019. The study revealed that the proportions of credit and above in chemistry for boys and girls in single-sex schools are significantly higher than those of their counterparts in co-educational schools, and that the proportion of bare pass for boys is higher than that of girls, irrespective of whether the pupils are in single-sex or co-educational schools. Girls should do better as well as boys in chemistry if given the opportunity to do it and if provided with adequate motivation.
... In this teaching method, students are passive and do not acquire new information and knowledge themselves, but the information is transmitted to them by the teacher, in which case their learning is superficial, and the material is forgotten after a short time. In the inclusive teaching method, learners, besides learning the subjects, are taught independent study skills, work and partnership with others, also learn to create knowledge through original resources, etc. (Westwood, 2017). Therefore, according to this teaching method, learners are active in the educational process and acquire information and build new knowledge, in which case the material learned by them becomes part of their existence. ...
Article
p class="Normal1">English language teaching in virtual environment the selection of effective and appropriate teaching methods according to the characteristics and capabilities of this type of education is one of the problems that teachers face. In reviewing and analyzing teaching methods in virtual education can help teachers to adopt effective teaching methods. This paper using descriptive-analytical method and using library resources, first the terms synonymous with virtual education and the time of origin of this type of education are presented. Then, the definitions of virtual education, methods of providing virtual education and the necessity of virtual education are discussed, and then some effective teaching methods in English virtual education are stated and analyzed and concludes with the advantages and disadvantages of virtual education. Virtual education can be considered as a kind of lifelong learning that focuses on the learner and among the effective and inclusive teaching methods in this type of training that is useful for teaching English can be problem solving, online discussion, small online groups and methods constructivism pointed out. It can be said that by using special methods, it is possible to teach English better through virtual education.</p
... PBL is considered as a learninng strategy organized with many various projects (Thomas, 2000), (Larmer, Markam, & Ravitz, 2003), (Bell, 2010). In reality, through PBL activities students can express their own ideas, adapt new knowledge in various real situations, reflect and give their assessment on their own learning strategy by working in collaborative teams with authentic tasks and learn how to solve problems on real life (Westwood, 2008). Blumenfeld, et al., (1998) claims that if the implementation of PBL in classrooms is successful, students will be motivated highly and fully engaged to the classroom activities. ...
Conference Paper
On a global scale, educational institutions are continuing to evolve the practice of teaching to provide the necessary skills and competencies for a modern world. There is widespread educational interest in adopting more experiential and collaboratively oriented pedagogies or what we term Experiential and Collaborative Learning (ECL). We use the term ECL as an overarching concept to capture a number of educational approaches or models, such as PBL, Inquiry-Based Learning or Reflective Practice-Based Learning. Despite the surge of interest in such educational approaches, assessment methods are still primarily based on a competitive and summative expression with a strong association to grading. Learning processes based on ECL are characterised by a responsive nature, which challenges the existing assessment methods. As learning processes change from something stationary to something that dynamically changes through analytical and reflective processes, it affects the way we assess learning outcomes. Therefore, there is a need for developing a new perspective on assessment activities to ensure that teaching methods applied for, e.g. PBL, are aligned with proper assessment methods. Also, the methods used for assessment can accommodate a focus on both process and elements of content. In this conceptual paper, we present a theoretical model for approaching authentic assessment with a specific focus on ECL based teaching.
... Various teaching methods (such as direct instruction, interactive whole class teaching, student-centered approaches [90]) can be supported or even completely managed by the use of AR/VR applications (e.g., a dancing tutor [91]). Each facet of the proposed taxonomy, except production technology, has impact on a teaching method employed by the educator: ...
Article
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This paper presents and analyses existing taxonomies of virtual and augmented reality and demonstrates knowledge gaps and mixed terminology which may cause confusion among educators, researchers, and developers. Several such occasions of confusion are presented. A methodology is presented to construct a taxonomy of virtual reality and augmented reality applications based on a combination of: a faceted analysis approach for the overall design of the taxonomy; an existing taxonomy of educational objectives to derive the educational purpose; an information systems analysis to establish important facets of the taxonomy; and two systematic mapping studies to identify categories within each facet. Based on the methodology a new taxonomy is proposed and implications of its facets and their combinations are demonstrated. The taxonomy focuses on technology used to provide the virtual or augmented reality as well as the content presented to the user, including the type of gamification and how it is operated. It also takes into account a large number of devices and approaches developed throughout the years and for multiple industries, and proposes and develops a way to categorize them in order to clarify communication between researchers, developers as well as educators. Use of the taxonomy and implications of choices made during theirits development is then demonstrated ion two case studies, a virtual reality chemical plant for use in chemical engineering education and an augmented reality dog for veterinary education.
... Dalam kaitannya dengan upaya pengembangan kemampuan metakognisi siswa, berbagai metode yang lebih berorientasi kepada siswa (student-centered methods) direkomendasikan untuk digunakan. Metode yang dimaksud adalah student-centred approaches, inquiry-based methods, discovery learning, problem-based learning, project-based learning, resourse-based learning, dan computerassisted learning (Westwood, 2008). Dalam Kurikulum 2013, Pemerintah Indonesia merekomendasikan penggunaan pendekatan ilmiah (scientific approach), yang meliputi lima langkah: mengamati, menanya, mengumpulkan informasi, menalar/mengasosiasi, dan mengomunikasikan. ...
... In that case, students can be involved in varied activities engagement, demonstration, presentation, memorization, or a mixture of activities. However, the determination of usage of a method and activities depends on the subject matter and nature of students and their way of learning (Westwood, 2008), and needed to be creative. ...
Article
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Nowadays, demands are growing for outcome-based and transferable learning, particularly in higher education. Being the terminal formal schooling, it needs facilitation of pupils’ achievement of problem-solving skills for real-life by teachers. To this end, this qualitative research employs a case study approach, which is suitable to test an event with small samples, and a phenomenological method to analyze respondents’ perceptions and activities thematically and descriptively to assess changes. In-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and class observations are used to collect data from two selected colleges to examine the extent of professional development and methodological shift in teaching as effects of training to include active learning strategies for better learning outcomes. The data though reveals that the selected flagship training program offers a bunch of pedagogical methods (not need-based) to imbibe, yet reject the idea that the nationally arranged training remains a successful effort to increase trainees’ knowledge, skills, and polish attitudes except disseminating a few concepts superficially. Moreover, trainees lack the motivation to shift their teaching habits and are unconvinced that the application of these newly learned strategies will transform anything. Likewise, they are discontented about training contents and unenthusiastic in consort with unfavorable opinions about training procedures and trainers to some extent. Therefore, the results suggest limited or no significant professional development and modification in teaching practice, rather teachers continue conventional teacher-centered method, and the effort stays insufficient, extraneous, ‘fragmented’, and ‘intellectually superficial’. Additionally, at the colleges, large class size, inappropriate sitting arrangement, pervasive traditionality, absenteeism, and other analogous challenges limited them to change their practice. Considering all these, this study suggests that alternations should be initiated at a micro (teachers & college) and macro-level (training providers & policymakers) to offer tailor-made, autonomous, and need-based training. Last but not the least, this endeavor is limited by being entirely qualitative with a small sample size and not eliciting the views of any of the trainers and policymakers and which can be an indication of points of departure for future study.
... Selain itu, kemampuan berkomunikasi pada kelas eksperimen yang lebih tinggi pada daripada kelas kontrol, juga didukung oleh Westwood (2008) yang menyatakan bahwa salah satu kelebihan dari model pembelajaran Problem Based Learning adalah meningkatkan kemampuan berkomunikasi dan sosial peserta didik. ...
Article
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This research aimed to examine the effectiveness of the implementation of Problem-based Learning with brainwriting method based on food diversification problem toward students' critical thinking and communication skills. This was a quasi-experimental research using a non-equivalent pretest posttest control group design, which involved two classes of 10 th-grade student that selected by cluster random sampling, in a public high school at Bantul regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta. One class was managed as the experimental group, and another one was as the control group. The data of critical thinking skill were collected using an essay test instrument which analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test, while communication skill data were collected through an observation protocol and analysed descriptively. The findings of this research revealed that the Problem-based Learning instruction with brainwriting method was significantly more effective in developing students' critical thinking and communication skills, as Mann-Whitney U test supported this result (p=0.00) as well as the descriptive analysis of the average scores of the skills. With this significance, Problem-based learning with the brainwriting method can be used as an example of a model and enrich the learning model implemented by teachers. These results are further discussed in this paper.
... 5 describes active learning techniques transform the passivity of a traditional lecture-based large class into a student-centered learning environment, capitalize on the diversity of the student population and reduce reliance on the lecture and professor as conveyer of all knowledge. 6 reports working in groups not only increases students' active participation, it also encourages social skill development, enhances communication and increases independence. But it's also important to make distinctions about group discussion and discussion in groups. ...
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This research aimed to know the application of Active Learning Activities in Students' Speaking Ability. The result of this research can be as a reference to the students in improving their speaking ability and help lecturer to become creative in teaching and make the students engaged in learning English. This research used pre-experimental method. The population of the research was the second semester students of English Department Faculty of Teacher Training and Education of Universitas Bosowa Makassar in 2017/2018 academic year which consisted of one class. In conducting the research, the researcher used total sampling technique because there is only one class of the second semester students. The data collection was done by using speaking test (pre-test and posttest). The results of the research and discussion that obtained by the researcher at Universitas Bosowa Makassar that there is improvement of students' speaking ability through Active Learning Activities. It can be concluded that the Active Learning Activities are effective to improve students' speaking ability at the Second Semester
... It was assumed that teaching methods and techniques may play the most important role in shaping students' creativity [14]. A teaching method was defined as a systematically and intentionally used way of working with students to complete the planned educational goals [49,50]. Didactic forms are the organizational aspect of teaching, which unlike teaching methods, involve the way teachers and students work. ...
Article
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Called the competence of the 21st century, creativity is one of the key competencies for sustainable development. There is no fixed path to achieve sustainability and it is subject to human creativity. However, integrated development of both is surely an under-researched topic. Creative thinking and creative problem solving should be a necessary and significant component of modern sustainable education. Students must learn to associate creativity with sustainability. Helping them understand sustainability by exposing them to the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and designing new creations that honor the planetary boundaries is crucial. The paper focuses on developing creativity by Polish teachers who work with adolescents. The assumption was that creativity can be developed using certain didactic methods and forms. The objective of the study was to explore and to describe which didactic methods and forms teachers use to shape the competence of creativity in students. The teachers took part in a survey and were asked what methods and forms they use to develop creativity in their students. The sample consisted of 337 teachers from the Małopolska region. The results of the analyses show that teachers use only a few of the methods recommended to facilitate creativity, which may lead to a low level of this competence among the students. They also use the most common didactic forms, which may not support the development of creativity competences. Moreover, the research results show that there are several factors, such as the teacher’s seniority and the location of the school, which determine the choice of individual teaching methods.
... Besides, there are clearly no opportunities to develop or to reinforce cross-curricular skills such as communication, collaboration, problem solving, critical thinking, and creativity (Larsen, 2008;Westwood, 2008). These same so-called 21 st century skills were emphasized by Bloom's taxonomy in the 1950's as higher order thinking processes that should be covered by any curriculum. ...
Conference Paper
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It is unquestionable that English–Arabic translation is increasingly becoming a topic of much concern over time. This paper highlights the problems that are likely to be encountered in English–Arabic translation of linguistic terminologies. In effect, it is important to understand and master the terms used in a given field in order to undergo effectively a research. Yet while some languages such as French or English have no problems with terms, Arabic has been confronted with the issue of how linguistic terminologies could be translated? As a matter of fact, many linguistic terms have been translated in different ways throughout the Arab world. For instance, the concept “linguistics” is translated: الألسنية - علم اللغة - فقه اللغة - -اللسانيات … In a sense, this problem is, primarily, due to the lack of coordination between Arab scholars, linguists and translators, and the sole solution to this dilemma is to unify these terminologies and extend their use amongst researchers.
... Besides, there are clearly no opportunities to develop or to reinforce cross-curricular skills such as communication, collaboration, problem solving, critical thinking, and creativity (Larsen, 2008;Westwood, 2008). These same so-called 21 st century skills were emphasized by Bloom's taxonomy in the 1950's as higher order thinking processes that should be covered by any curriculum. ...
Conference Paper
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The study aimed at investigating the effect of using educational games in teaching English language on the achievement and motivation of fourth students in public and private schools in Al- Karak Directorate of Education- Jordan. The researchers used an achievement test and a questionnaire to gather data about the effect of using educational games in teaching English language and about students’ motivation. The validity and reliability of the study instruments (pre-test-post-test, questionnaire) were verified. The sample of the study is comprised of (160) male and female students from fourth graders in public and private schools in Al- Karak Directorate of Education. The findings of the study indicated that there was statistically significant difference (α≤0.05) after applying the educational games strategy. The results showed the superiority of the experimental group over the control group, with the mean scores of (23.22 and 18.88) for both groups respectively. So Games strategy has a good effect on improving the achievement of students. Furthermore, at the front of motivation toward learning English Language, results revealed that the attitudes of the experimental group are more positive than their counterparts at the control group, with mean scores of (3.27 and 2.39) respectively. Thus, it can be concluded that teaching English language by using educational games could enhance the learners' motivation through a rich environment with fun and enjoyment. In the light of the results of the study, several recommendations were suggested, for instance; the Ministry of Education should give educational games a special attention in the curriculum through developing class activities that include educational games at the end of each unit and developing a guide for teachers to explain the use of educational games in classrooms. Keywords: Educational games, academic achievement, motivation. Introduction
... Besides, there are clearly no opportunities to develop or to reinforce cross-curricular skills such as communication, collaboration, problem solving, critical thinking, and creativity (Larsen, 2008;Westwood, 2008). These same so-called 21 st century skills were emphasized by Bloom's taxonomy in the 1950's as higher order thinking processes that should be covered by any curriculum. ...
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Abstract The study aimed at identifying the appropriateness of the general and specific outcomes for the 10th grade English language curriculum, and to identify any statically significant differences in teachers' perspectives related to the variables of gender, experience and the interaction between them. The sample of the study was consisted of (300) English language teachers (170) female and (130) male teachers. To achieve the goals of the study, a 53- items questionnaire was developed based on the learning outcomes items approved and adopted officially by Jordanian Ministry of Education to evaluate learning outcomes included in the tenth grade English language curriculum in Jordan from English language teachers' perspective. Results indicated the general outcomes were at a medium level of appropriateness, while it was with a high level of appropriateness for the specific outcomes. Results also indicated statistically significant differences at α ≤ 0.05 in the teachers’ estimations towards the general outcomes that could be attributed to the variable of experience and these differences were in favor of teachers with less than 5 years’ of experience, and statistically significant differences at in the teachers’ estimations toward the specific outcomes attributed to the variable of gender in favor of female teachers. Keywords: Learning Outcomes, Specific Outcomes, General Outcomes, English Language Teachers' Perspective.
... This statement is supported by some studies before. The steps that are used for learning activity based on discovery learning is generally can make students explore acquire a deeper understanding of the world because rather than just memorizing the concept, they discover it by themselves (Westwood, 2008). Based on Großmann and Wilde (2019), in their research about discovery learning, they found that students who worked with guided discovery had higher conceptual and procedural knowledge than the other who is not. ...
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... It has been suggested that the selection and design of TMs must take into account not only the nature of the subject matter but also how students learn [14]. ...
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... This method is very potential to improve critical thinking, because each learning syntax contains activities that can stimulate each indicator of critical thinking skills. The syntax of the GDL in question is (1) stimulus; (2) identification of problems; (3) collecting data; (4) analyze data; (5) verification; and (6) conclude (Shah, 2014;Westwood, 2008;& Markaban, 2006). ...
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... Thus a shift of focus in the teaching methodology is needed, and using PBL becomes a must. PBL, as a student centred approach, helps engineering students become independent learners (Thomas, 2000;Westwood, 2008) since they should no longer be considered as passive recipients of knowledge. Instead, they are supposed to have reached a maturational stage where they can be involved in the language learning process purposefully. ...
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This paper attempts to describe confused term of strategy and method learning. The key term in the field of education, especially in aspect learning, are approach , model, strategy, method, and technology. The five words have a conceptual distinction and two other terms cause confusion, i.e.: strategies and methods. Diversity and confusion of these terms occur both in learning practice and in the study of the theory. This study shows that the existence of the phenomenon of the use of the strategies and methods term that are relatively loose and even they are used interchangeable. There is no agreement in the literature that examined on applicative relationship between the two terms above. It was further confirmed that both terms have the same meaning field. Abstrak Paper ini berusaha mengurai kerancuan istilah strategi dan metode pembelajaran. Istilah kunci dalam bidang pendidikan, khususnya dalam aspek pembelajaran, muncul istilah pendekatan, model, strategi, metode, dan teknik. Kelima istilah tersebut memiliki perbedaan konseptual dan dua istilah yang lain menimbulkan kerancuan, yaitu: strategi dan metode. Keberbedaan dan kerancuan dua istilah tersebut terjadi baik dalam praktik pembelajaran maupun dalam kajian teori. Kajian ini menunjukkan bahwa adanya fenomena penggunaan istilah strategi dan metode yang relatif longgar dan bahkan keduanya digunakan secara saling menggantikan. Istilah metode dan strategi belum disepakati penggunaannya namun memiliki medan pengertian yang sama.
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