Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae: Asymptomatic cortical venous drainage portends less aggressive clinical course

Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.
Neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 3.62). 03/2009; 64(2):241-7; discussion 247-8. DOI: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000338066.30665.B2
Source: PubMed


Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (dAVF) with cortical venous drainage (CVD) (Borden Types 2 and 3) are reported to carry a 15% annual risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit (NHND). The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical course of Type 2 and 3 dAVFs that present with ICH or NHND with those that do not.
Twenty-eight patients with Type 2 or 3 dAVFs were retrospectively evaluated. CVD was classified as asymptomatic (aCVD) if patients presented incidentally or with pulsatile tinnitus or orbital phenomena. CVD was classified as symptomatic (sCVD) if patients presented with ICH or NHND. Occurrence of new ICH or new or worsening NHND between diagnosis and disconnection of CVD or last follow-up (if not disconnected) was noted. Overall frequency of events was compared using Fisher's exact test. Cumulative, event-free survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank testing.
Of 17 patients with aCVD, 1 (5.9%) developed ICH and none experienced NHND or death during the median 31.4-month follow-up period. Of 11 patients with sCVD, 2 (18.2%) developed ICH and 3 (27.3%) experienced new or worsened NHND over the median 9.7-month follow-up period. One of these patients subsequently died. Overall frequency of ICH or NHND was significantly lower in patients with aCVD versus sCVD (P = 0.022). Respective annual event rates were 1.4 versus 19.0%. aCVD patients had significantly higher cumulative event-free survival (P = 0.0016).
Cranial dAVFs with aCVD may have a less aggressive clinical course than those with sCVD.

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    • "However, dAVFs are rare vascular lesions and large institutional series published so far are seldom [8, 18]. This explains why no clear consensus exists on treatment modality (surgery and/or embolization) and, if surgery is performed, on the best surgical strategy [7, 8, 12, 16, 18, 22, 23, 26, 28, 32–35, 37, 40, 44, 46, 48]. After having treated 42 dAVFs microsurgically, we feel encouraged to report our results and to present our surgical strategies. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is consensus that intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (dAVF) with direct (non-sinus-type) or indirect (sinus-type) retrograde filling of a leptomeningeal vein should be treated due to the high risk of neurological deficits and hemorrhage. No consensus exists on treatment modality (surgery and/or embolization) and, if surgery is performed, on the best surgical strategy. This series aims to evaluate the role of surgery in the management of aggressive dAVFs. Forty-two patients underwent surgery. Opening and packing the sinus with thrombogenic material was performed in 9 of the 12 sinus-type dAVFs. In two sinus-type fistulae of the cavernous sinus and 1 of the torcular, microsurgery was used as prerequisite for subsequent embolization by providing access to the sinus. In the 30 non-sinus-type dAVFs, surgery consisted of interruption of the draining vein at the intradural entry point. In 41 patients undergoing 43 operations, elimination of the dAVF was achieved (97.6%). In one case, a minimal venous drainage persisted after surgery. The transient surgical morbidity was 11.9% (n=5) and the permanent surgical morbidity 7.1% (n=3). Our surgical strategy was to focus on the arterialized leptomeningeal vein in the non-sinus-type and on the arterialized sinus segment in the sinus-type dAVFs allowing us to obliterate all but one dAVF with a low morbidity rate. We therefore propose that microsurgery should be considered early in the treatment of both types of aggressive dAVFs. In selected cases of cavernous sinus dAVFs, the role of microsurgery is reduced to that of an adjunct to endovascular therapy.
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    ABSTRACT: This article presents a modification to the existing classification scales of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas based on newly published research regarding the relationship of clinical symptoms and outcome. The 2 commonly used scales, the Borden-Shucart and Cognard scales, rely entirely on angiographic features for categorization. The most critical anatomical feature is the identification of cortical venous drainage (CVD; Borden-Shucart Types II and III and Cognard Types IIb, IIa + b, III, IV, and V), as this feature identifies lesions at high risk for future hemorrhage or ischemic neurological injury. Yet recent data has emerged indicating that within these high-risk groups, most of the risk for future injury is in the subgroup presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage or nonhemorrhagic neurological deficits. The authors have defined this subgroup as symptomatic CVD. Patients who present incidentally or with symptoms of pulsatile tinnitus or ophthalmological phenomena have a less aggressive clinical course. The authors have defined this subgroup as asymptomatic CVD. Based on recent data the annual rate of intracerebral hemorrhage is 7.4-7.6% for patients with symptomatic CVD compared with 1.4-1.5% for those with asymptomatic CVD. The addition of asymptomatic CVD or symptomatic CVD as modifiers to the Borden-Shucart and Cognard systems improves their accuracy for risk stratification of patients with high-grade dural arteriovenous fistulas.
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    ABSTRACT: The suboccipital lateral or retrosigmoid approach is the main neurosurgical approach to the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). It is mainly used in the treatment of CPA tumors and vascular decompression of cranial nerves. A prospective study using navigation registered with anatomical landmarks in order to identify the transverse and sigmoid sinuses junction (TSSJ) was carried out in a series of 30 retrosigmoid craniotomies. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy of this navigation technique and to establish the relationship between the location of the asterion and the TSSJ. From March through November 2008, 30 patients underwent a retrosigmoid craniotomy for removal of CPA tumors or for surgical treatment of neurovascular syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1 sequences with gadolinium (FSPGR with FatSst, 1.5 T GE Signa) and frameless navigation (Vector vision, Brainlab) were used for surgical planning. Registration was performed using six anatomical landmarks. The position of the TSSJ indicated by navigation was the landmark to guide the craniotomy. The location of the asterion was compared with the position of the TSSJ. After craniotomy, the real TSSJ position was compared with the virtual position, as demonstrated by navigation. There were 19 cases of vestibular schwannomas, 5 petroclival meningiomas, 3 trigeminal neuralgias, 1 angioblastoma, 1 epidermoid cyst and 1 hemifacial spasm. In all cases, navigation enabled the location of the TSSJ and the emissary vein, with an accuracy flaw below 2 mm. The asterion was located directly over the TSSJ in only seven cases. One patient had a laceration of the sigmoid sinus during the craniotomy. Navigation using anatomical landmarks for registration is a reliable method in the localization of the TSSJ for retrosigmoid craniotomies and thereby avoiding unnecessary sinus exposure. In addition, the method proved to be fast and accurate. The asterion was found to be a less accurate landmark for the localization of the TSSJ using navigation.
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