Whole exome sequence analysis of serous borderline tumors of the ovary
Objective: Serous borderline tumor (SBT) is a unique histopathologic entity of the ovary, believed to be intermediate between benign cystadenoma and invasive low-grade serous carcinoma. While somatic mutations in the KRAS or BRAF, and rarely ERBB2, genes have been well characterized in SBTs, other genetic alterations have not been described. Toward a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular genetic architecture of SBTs, we undertook whole exome sequencing of this tumor type. Methods: Following pathologic review and laser capture microdissection to enrich for tumor cells, whole exomes were prepared from DNA of two independent SBTs and subjected to massively parallel DNA sequencing. Results: Both tumors contained an activating mutation of the BRAF gene. A total of 15 additional somatic mutations were identified, nine in one tumor and six in the other. Eleven were missense mutations and four were nonsense or deletion mutations. Fourteen of the 16 genes found to be mutated in this study have been reported to be mutated in other cancers. Furthermore, 12 of these genes are mutated in ovarian cancers. The FBXW7 and KIAA1462 genes are noteworthy candidates for a pathogenic role in serous borderline tumorigenesis. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a very small number of somatic genetic mutations are characteristic of SBTs of the ovary, thus supporting their classification as a relatively genetically stable tumor type. The mutant genes described herein represent novel candidates for the pathogenesis of ovarian SBT.