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Specificity phenomena in mycorrhizal symbioses: Community-ecological consequences and practical implications

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... The term "Mycorrhiza" was coined by Frank (1885) for highly evolved, mutualistic associations between soil fungi (Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes and Zygomycetes) and plant roots (most vascular plants). About 90% of the world's present species of vascular plants belong to different families that are characteristically mycorrhizal (Molina et al., 1992). Basically mycorrhizae are of two types ectotrophic and endotrophic (Frank, 1885), later they were named as ectomycorrhiza and endomycorrhiza (Peyronel et al., 1969). ...
... Numerous fungi have been identified as forming ectomycorrhizae. Molina et al. (1992) reported 6000 species of fungi that form ectomycorrhizae. The fungi that form ectomycorrhizae primarily belong to Basidiomycotina and Ascomycotina, which include many of the common forest mushrooms, puffballs and truffles respectively. ...
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Book Available online at: https://www.bhumipublishing.com/books/ PREFACE Life Sciences have always been a fundamental area of science. The exponential increase in the quantity of scientific information and the rate, at which new discoveries are made, require very elaborate, interdisciplinary and up-to-date information and their understanding. Enhanced understanding of biological phenomenon incorporated with interdisciplinary approaches has resulted in major breakthrough products for betterment of society. To keep the view in mind we are delighted to publish our book entitled "Frontiers in Life Science Volume VII". This book is the compilation of esteemed articles of acknowledged experts in the fields of basic and applied life science. This book is published in the hopes of sharing the new research and findings in the field of life science subjects. Life science can help us unlock the mysteries of our universe, but beyond that, conquering it can be personally satisfying. We developed this digital book with the goal of helping people achieve that feeling of accomplishment. The articles in the book have been contributed by eminent scientists, academicians. Our special thanks and appreciation goes to experts and research workers whose contributions have enriched this book. We thank our publisher Bhumi Publishing, India for taking pains in bringing out the book. Finally, we will always remain a debtor to all our well-wishers for their blessings, without which this book would not have come into existence. Editors CONTENT
... Because of their unique physiological interdependence with a continuity of living trees, many ectomycorrhizal species are considered species of conservation concern. Certain ectomycorrhizal species are considered specialists on particular species of trees, while other ectomycorrhizal species are considered generalists due to their association with a wide range of tree species (Molina et al. 1992). When conservation values are accessed, ericoid mycorrhizal species are disregarded, and we essentially know very little in terms of conservation. ...
... Many studies have followed with varying degrees of agreement, although many lacking true replication (Johnson et al. 2005). Mason's succession hypothesis was formulated while studying stands of aging birch trees (Betula pendula) on previously used cropland, and this is why it has been argued to only hold true for early succession tree species, such as birch (Molina et al. 1992). Furthermore, Molina and others (1992) go on to say that natural forest systems have a variety of more important factors that affect ectomycorrhizal succession, such as tree host identity. ...
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The immense diversity and biomass of ericoid-, ectomycorrhizal, and saprotrophic fungal guilds in boreal forest soils make them vital components of conservation and ecosystem processes, and in particular, many ectomycorrhizal fungi are considered species of conservation concern. However, amalgamated information on the functions and relationships of soil fungi to perceived forest conservation values, and how inter and intra-guild interactions affect the accretion and decomposition of soil organic matter is lacking. In a long-term factorial shrub removal and pine root exclusion experiment, I assessed guild contributions to soil respiration and decomposition of organic substrates guided by ecological theory. Then in the northern and southern boreal forest, I evaluated whether forest conservation values are aligned with the diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Overall, the ericoid guild makes a significant contribution to total soil respiration (11 ± 9%), and ericoid activities appeared to be more sensitive to periods of drought compared to ectomycorrhizal (43 ± 1%) and saprotrophic (53 ± 5%) guilds. Saprotrophic-ectomycorrhizal interactions during decomposition led to a modest, yet inconsistent Gadgil effect (10%) for early-stage litter decomposition. Ericoid and ectomycorrhizal guilds interactions were determined to be more important for late-stage organic matter balance in boreal forest soils. Ectomycorrhizal species richness was significantly higher in the southern boreal forest compared to the north. Furthermore, forest conservation values across the boreal forest were not adequately related to ectomycorrhizal diversity through DNA-metabarcoding. Instead, soil fertility, corresponding to tree species basal area, was the clearest indicator of ectomycorrhizal diversity and composition in both regions. Mycorrhizal guilds may be underappreciated and understudied in terms of conservation, but their functional roles in the accumulation and decomposition of organic matter in long-term soil carbon pools emphasizes the importance of evaluating the many dimensions of fungal conservation in boreal forests.
... The term "Mycorrhiza" was coined by Frank (1885) for highly evolved, mutualistic associations between soil fungi (Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes and Zygomycetes) and plant roots (most vascular plants). About 90% of the world's present species of vascular plants belong to different families that are characteristically mycorrhizal (Molina et al., 1992). Basically mycorrhizae are of two types ectotrophic and endotrophic (Frank, 1885), later they were named as ectomycorrhiza and endomycorrhiza (Peyronel et al., 1969). ...
... Numerous fungi have been identified as forming ectomycorrhizae. Molina et al. (1992) reported 6000 species of fungi that form ectomycorrhizae. The fungi that form ectomycorrhizae primarily belong to Basidiomycotina and Ascomycotina, which include many of the common forest mushrooms, puffballs and truffles respectively. ...
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Bees are excellent friend of nature as well as of human beings because bees are not only providing pollination services to wild flora but also playing pivotal role in pollination of domesticated crops which is increasing chances of reproduction and helps in maintaining floral diversity as well as crop productivity. But various biotic and abiotic stressors are acting on these tiny creatures and are associated with the decline of their population day by day. Various factors like industrialization, urbanization and conversion of wild habitat into agricultural lands led to the destruction of their natural habitat. Similarly, Intensive agricultural practices like, monoculture affecting their nutritional quality and use of pesticides disrupting their cognitive memory and causing reproductive impairment. Changing climatic condition is also one of the major stressors which is affecting bees both phenologically and spatially by shifting them towards more elevated regions and by disrupting synchrony between bee emergence with flower blooming. other factors like introduction of alien species intentionally or unintentionally increased the competition for limited resources, domestication increased the pathogen load and electromagnetic rays emitted from cellphones hamper their navigational skills and negatively affect their foraging behavior. All these biotic and abiotic stressors individually or in interaction not only affecting bees individually but showing some additive effect on colony level. So it has become important to come out with necessary steps to support their population before we lose them completely.
... The reduction of tree production caused by drought stress may exceed the total reduction caused by other environmental stresses, resulting in incalculable social and economic losses [7]. At present, the mycorrhizal afforestation technology which can improve the resistance of forest ecosystem to abiotic stress has attracted more and more attention [8][9][10][11]. ...
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With global warming, drought has become one of the major environmental pressures that threaten the development of global agricultural and forestry production. Cenococcum geophilum (C. geophilum) is one of the most common ectomycorrhizal fungi in nature, which can form mycorrhiza with a large variety of host trees of more than 200 tree species from 40 genera of both angiosperms and gymnosperms. In this study, six C. geophilum strains with different drought tolerance were selected to analyze their molecular responses to drought stress with treatment of 10% polyethylene glycol. Our results showed that drought-sensitive strains absorbed Na and K ions to regulate osmotic pressure and up-regulated peroxisome pathway genes to promote the activity of antioxidant enzymes to alleviate drought stress. However, drought-tolerant strains responded to drought stress by up-regulating the functional genes involved in the ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis and sphingolipid metabolism pathways. The results provided a foundation for studying the mechanism of C. geophilum response to drought stress.
... We constructed an identification key for the Turkish Rhizopogon taxa, excluding R. obtextum, with the relevant literature [11,21]. R. obtextum is accepted by many authors as a synonym of R. luteolus [24]. ...
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In this study, Rhizopogon pumilionum (Ade) Bataille is recorded from Turkey for the first time. The new record is described and illustrated. New record was proved by utilizing from its rDNA ITS data. Also, phylogenetic position of R. pumilionum was detected in the phylogenetic tree constructed using the sequences of rDNA ITS.
... Among these, only Cantharellus cibarius was found in four out of five experimental plots, being absent only from the purely deciduous habitat P1 at Vzganica, Vidlič Mt. These results confirm the findings of other authors, which demonstrated that aforementioned species have a broad prevalence and a wide host range [76,79,100,112,115]. ...
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Fungal diversity is one of the most important indicators of overall forest biodiversity and its health. However, scarce information exists on the state of macrofungal communities of mountain forests in Serbia, making it one of the countries with the least-published mycological data in the Mediterranean and Balkan region of Europe. This paper presents the results of the first comprehensive, long-term study of macrofungal communities in some of the most important mountain forest ecosystems in Serbia (Tara, Kopaonik and Vidlič). In the course of three consecutive years, the sampling of five permanent experimental plots resulted in 245 species of macrofungi, classified into three functional groups (terricolous saprothrophs, lignicolous, and mycorrhizal fungi). Special attention was given to protected and indicator species, which point out the great value of studied forest habitats and the importance of their conservation. It was found that precipitation, habitat humidity, and temperature significantly influence the occurrence and distribution, primarily of mycorrhizal and lignicolous group of fungi. Thus, the continuation of long-term monitoring is crucial in order to more precisely determine which groups/species of macrofungi would, and to what extent they would, adapt to a rapidly changing climate.
... Allen [17] described the fungal-plant interaction from a more neutral or microbially oriented aspect stating that 'Mycorrhiza is a mutualistic symbiosis between plant and fungus localized in a root or root-like structure in which energy moves primarily from plant to fungus and inorganic resources move from fungus to plant' . The group of fungi and plants, which are involved in the interaction, determines the type of mycorrhiza they form [18]. Recently, there have been significant advances in the understanding of physiological processes and taxonomy of these fungi [19,20]. ...
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The 20thcentury witnessed an augmentation in agricultural production, mainly through the progress and use of pesticides, fertilizers containing nitrogen and phosphorus, and developments in plant breeding and genetic skills. In the naturally existing ecology, rhizospheric soils have innumerable biological living beings to favor the plant development, nutrient assimilation, stress tolerance, disease deter-rence, carbon seizing and others. These organisms include mycorrhizal fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, etc. which solubilize nutrients and assist the plants in up taking by roots. Amongst them, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have key importance in natural ecosystem, but high rate of chemical fertilizer in agricultural fields is diminishing its importance. The majority of the terrestrial plants form association with Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) or Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). This symbiosis confers benefits directly to the host plant's growth and development through the acquisition of Phosphorus (P) and other mineral nutrients from the soil by the AMF. They may also enhance the protection of plants against pathogens and increases the plant diversity. This is achieved by the growth of AMF mycelium within the host root (intra radical) and out into the soil (extra radical) beyond. Proper management of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi has the potential to improve the profitability and sustainability of agricultural systems. AM fungi are especially important for sustainable farming systems because AM fungi are efficient when nutrient availability is low and when nutrients are bound to organic matter and soil particles.
This paper describes for the first time in vitro mycorrhization between the two wild edible boletes (Boletus edulis and Suillus sibiricus) with Pinus gerardiana. The synthesis was carried out in a controlled growth chamber using peat, vermiculite, fungal medium and mycelial inoculum of each fungi in test tubes. The test tubes were regularly observed for mycorrhization. The seedlings of P. gerardiana were picked after five months of inoculation to examine symbiotic association between its root system with B. edulis and S. sibiricus. The B. edulis formed dark reddish brown whereas S. sibiricus synthesized light brown orange coloured mycorrhizae. The transverse sections of synthesized mycorrhizae showed a well developed fungal mantle and Hartig net for both (B. edulis and S. sibiricus) ectomycorrhizal fungi tested. The mycorrhization has significant effect on the overall growth of seedlings as compared to control.
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Mycorrhizae are mutualisms between plants and fungi that evolved over 400 million years ago. This symbiotic relationship commenced with land invasion, and as new groups evolved, new organisms developed with varying adaptations to changing conditions. Based on the author's 50 years of knowledge and research, this book characterizes mycorrhizae through the most rapid global environmental changes in human history. It applies that knowledge in many different scenarios, from restoring strip mines in Wyoming and shifting agriculture in the Yucatán, to integrating mutualisms into science policy in California and Washington, D.C. Toggling between ecological theory and natural history of a widespread and long-lived symbiotic relationship, this interdisciplinary volume scales from structure-function and biochemistry to ecosystem dynamics and global change. This remarkable study is of interest to a wide range of students, researchers, and land-use managers.
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Beneficial soil microbes, such as mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, can improve plant nutrient acquisition and increase plant resilience to stressors. Yet, the waste materials left behind following major disturbances, such as mining, have negligible biological activity and fresh topsoil availability for reclamation is often limited. We tested if small-volume additions of native forest topsoil can improve early seedling survival and growth, and promote colonization of beneficial root symbionts. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew seedlings representing different functional groups in tailings and glacial-till overburden from the Mount Polley Mine, Canada. We applied 5 % (38 mL) and 25 % (188 mL) forest-soil additions for comparison with tailings/overburden controls and reference forest soil. The experiment was replicated with sterilized soil to isolate the biological effects of the forest soil from the physical and chemical effects. Willow (Salix scouleriana) and spruce (Picea engelmannii x glauca) seedling survival and growth increased with proportion of forest soil, which corresponded with increased ectomycorrhizal fungal colonization. Forest soil additions benefited seedlings grown in both overburden and tailings, with ~200 mL (25 %) forest soil additions generally supporting initial seedling growth comparable to seedlings grown in reference forest soil. Alder (Alnus viridis) showed minimal benefit from forest soil additions, likely due to a lack of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the forest soil, highlighting the importance of matching the plant and microbial communities of the soil donor site with the target plant species. Differential results among plant species in sterilized soil indicated that plants exhibiting greater dependence on microbial symbionts (spruce and alder), benefited from the biological component of the inoculum, while willow, an early successional species with low mycorrhizal dependence, benefited from the physical and chemical properties of the forest soil. This research showed that targeted additions of small volumes of topsoil from native ecosystems can improve initial seedling survival and growth, and promote recovery of limiting soil microbial communities, making it a promising approach for mine reclamation when topsoil availability is limited.
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