Risks and Predictors of Readmission for a Mental Disorder During the Postpartum Period
National Centre for Register-Based Research, University of Aarhus, Taasingegade 1, Aarhus C, Denmark. Archives of general psychiatry
(Impact Factor: 14.48).
03/2009; 66(2):189-95. DOI: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2008.528
It has been suggested that the risk of inpatient psychiatric readmissions is elevated during the postpartum period. To our knowledge, no prior study has compared mothers and nonmothers to determine whether the risk of readmission differs between these 2 groups of women.
To compare mothers and nonmothers to assess whether childbirth increases the risk for psychiatric readmission and to identify predictors of psychiatric readmission during the postpartum period.
A population-based cohort study merging data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register.
The population of Denmark.
Two partly overlapping study populations included a total of 28 124 women, 10 218 of whom were mothers, who were followed up from January 1, 1973, through June 30, 2005. Main Outcome Measure Readmission rates to psychiatric hospitals during the 12 months after childbirth (first live-born child).
The period of highest risk of psychiatric readmission in new mothers was 10 to 19 days post partum (relative risk [RR], 2.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68-4.37), and the period of lowest risk was during pregnancy (0.54; 0.43-0.69). Childbirth was associated with an increased risk of readmission during the first postpartum month, after which risk for readmission was higher among nonmothers (RR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.31-1.80). A previous diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder was the strongest predictor of readmissions 10 to 19 days post partum (RR, 37.22; 95% CI, 13.58-102.04). In all, 26.9% of mothers with this diagnosis were readmitted within the first postpartum year.
Mothers with mental disorders have lower readmission rates compared with women with mental disorders who do not have children. However, the first month after childbirth is associated with increased risk of psychiatric readmission, and women with a history of bipolar affective disorder are at particular risk of postpartum psychiatric readmissions.
Available from: Peta M Forder
- "Our results indicate that there has been significant penetration of some components of psychosocial assessment in Australia both in antenatal and postnatal periods, including assessment of current mental health. Disappointingly, however, rates decreased markedly for reported assessment of mental health history – one the most predictive factors for perinatal relapse [31-34] – and for assessment of domestic violence or abuse, despite experience of violence and abuse being associated with serious health consequences, including postnatal depression . These findings suggest that although investigation of current emotional health has been broadly embraced, much less examination is occurring in terms of more in depth assessment of a women’s psychosocial health during the perinatal period. "
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ABSTRACT: Psychosocial assessment and depression screening is now recommended for all women who are pregnant or have recently given birth in Australia. Existing studies which have examined the extent of participation by women in such population-based programs have been primarily concerned with depression screening rather than a more comprehensive examination of psychosocial assessment, and have not been sufficiently inclusive of the 30% of women whose maternity care is provided in the private sector. Whether there are disparities in equity of access to perinatal psychosocial assessment is also unknown.
A sub-sample of women (N = 1804) drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health participated in the study. Overall rates of assessment across five psychosocial domains (current emotional health; mental health history; current level of support; current drug or alcohol use; experience of domestic violence or abuse), as well as receipt of mental health promotion information, were examined. Log binomial regression was performed to investigate whether there were socio-demographic or health system inequalities among women who are and are not assessed across each domain.
Two-thirds of women (66.8%) reported being asked about their current emotional health in the antenatal period, increasing to 75.6% of women in the postnatal period. Rates decreased markedly for reported assessment of mental health history (52.9% during pregnancy and 41.2% postnatally). Women were least likely to be asked about their experience of domestic violence or abuse in both the antenatal and postnatal periods (in total, 35.7% and 31.8%, respectively).In terms of equity of access to psychosocial assessment, women who gave birth in the public hospital sector were more likely to report being assessed across all domains of assessment in the antenatal period, compared with women who gave birth in the private sector, after adjusting for other significant covariates. State of residence was associated with reported rates of assessment across all domains in both the antenatal and postnatal periods. Women from non-English speaking backgrounds and women with more than one child were less likely to be assessed across various domains.
This study provides an important insight into the reported overall penetration of and access to perinatal psychosocial assessment among a sample of women in Australia. Opportunities to minimise the current shortfall in assessment rates, particularly in the private sector, and for ongoing monitoring of assessment activity at a national level are discussed.
Available from: Per-Einar Binder
- "An estimated 5% of all new mothers experience MDD and many of these remain undetected and untreated (Gavin et al., 2005; Glavin, Smith, & Sorum, 2009). Also, studies have shown an increased incidence of depression during the first 5 months postpartum (Eberhard-Gran, Tambs, Opjordsmoen, Skrondal, & Eskild 2003; Gavin et al., 2005; Munk-Olsen et al., 2009). Subsequently, it is not (page number not for citation purpose) "
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ABSTRACT: The association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and major depression disorder (MDD) gives reason to suspect that many mothers with postpartum depression (PPD) have a history of CSA. However, few studies have investigated how CSA and PPD are related. In this case study we explore how the experience of incest intertwines with the experience of postpartum depression. We focus on participant subject "Nina," who has experienced both. We interviewed her three times and we analysed the interviews with Giorgi's phenomenological descriptive method to arrive at a contextualised meaning structure. Nina's intruding fantasies of men who abuse her children merge with her recollections of her own incest experiences. She may succeed in forcing these fantasies out of her consciousness, but they still alter her perceptions, thoughts, and emotions. She feels overwhelmed and succumbs to sadness, while she also is drawn towards information about CSA, which in turn feeds her fantasies. The psychodynamic concepts of repetition compulsion, transference, and projection may provide some explanation of Nina's actions, thoughts, and emotions through her past experiences. With our phenomenological stance, we aim to acknowledge Nina's descriptions of her everyday life here and now. With reference to Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, and Minkowski, we show that Nina's past is not a dated memory; rather it determines the structure of her consciousness that constitutes her past as her true present and future. Incest dominates Nina's world, and her possibilities for action are restricted by this perceived world. Any suspension of action implies anguish, and she resolves this by incest-structured action that in turn feeds and colours her expectations. Thus anxiety and depression are intertwined in the structure of this experience.
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