Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Cultured Adipocytes Results in an Inflammatory Phenotype

Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 3.73). 10/2008; 16(9):1992-7. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2008.331
Source: PubMed


Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease is accompanied by an intense inflammatory reaction. Our laboratory group has identified adipose tissue as one of the major sites of inflammation during disease progression. Because adipose tissue is composed of many cell types, we were interested in investigating whether the adipocyte per se was a source of inflammatory mediators in this infection. Cultured adipocytes were infected with the Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi for 48-96 h. Immunoblot and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses demonstrated an increase in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin (IL)-1 beta, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, CCL2, CCL5, and CXCL10 as well as an increase in the expression of Toll-like receptors-2 and 9 and activation of the notch pathway. Interestingly, caveolin-1 expression was reduced while cyclin D1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression was increased. The expression of PI3kinase and the activation of AKT (phosphorylated AKT) were increased suggesting that infection may induce components of the insulin/IGF-1 receptor cascade. There was an infection-associated decrease in adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma). These data provide a mechanism for the increase in the inflammatory phenotype that occurs in T. cruzi-infected adipocytes. Overall, these data implicate the adipocyte as an important target of T. cruzi, and one which contributes significantly to the inflammatory response observed in Chagas disease.

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Available from: Mahalia S Desruisseaux, May 08, 2014
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    • "Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America, where the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is transmitted by the triatomine bug. In the initial steps of infection, T. cruzi enters subcutaneous adipose tissue , a mechanism readily confirmed in infected 3T3-L1 adipocyte culture (Combs et al., 2005; Nagajyothi et al., 2008). Adipose tissue can host T. cruzi for decades, protecting the infected from Chagas disease progression to cardiovascular death (Ferreira et al., 2011; Nagajyothi et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue is a complex, multicellular organ that profoundly influences the function of nearly all other organ systems through its diverse metabolite and adipokine secretome. Adipocytes are the primary cell type of adipose tissue and play a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis. The efficiency with which adipose tissue responds to whole-body energetic demands reflects the ability of adipocytes to adapt to an altered nutrient environment, and has profound systemic implications. Deciphering adipocyte cell biology is an important component of understanding how the aberrant physiology of expanding adipose tissue contributes to the metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity. © 2015 Rutkowski et al.
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    • "Levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ) were decreased in the infected cells, which may have led to the decreased secretion of adiponectin and increased inflammatory reactions. These findings suggest that infection of adipocytes with T. cruzi may contribute to the systemic proinflammatory immune responses as well as metabolic dysregulation [8] (Figure 1(b)). "
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    ABSTRACT: Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease. Approximately 8 million people are thought to be affected worldwide. Several players in host lipid metabolism have been implicated in T. cruzi-host interactions in recent research, including macrophages, adipocytes, low density lipoprotein (LDL), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and high density lipoprotein (HDL). All of these factors are required to maintain host lipid homeostasis and are intricately connected via several metabolic pathways. We reviewed the interaction of T. cruzi with each of the relevant host components, in order to further understand the roles of host lipid metabolism in T. cruzi infection. This review sheds light on the potential impact of T. cruzi infection on the status of host lipid homeostasis.
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    • "This alteration decreases the inhibition of GSK3, leading to marked aberrations in the post-translational modification of tau protein. The aberrance in Akt/GSK3β signaling observed in PbA-infected mice may not only be etiologic in the abnormal neuronal profile detected in our model, including tau phosphorylation leading to conformational changes in the protein, but may contribute to the memory impairment demonstrated in these mice [43], [44]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neurological and cognitive impairment persist in more than 20% of cerebral malaria (CM) patients long after successful anti-parasitic treatment. We recently reported that long term memory and motor coordination deficits are also present in our experimental cerebral malaria model (ECM). We also documented, in a murine model, a lack of obvious pathology or inflammation after parasite elimination, suggesting that the long-term negative neurological outcomes result from potentially reversible biochemical and physiological changes in brains of ECM mice, subsequent to acute ischemic and inflammatory processes. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that acute ECM results in significantly reduced activation of protein kinase B (PKB or Akt) leading to decreased Akt phosphorylation and inhibition of the glycogen kinase synthase (GSK3β) in the brains of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) compared to uninfected controls and to mice infected with the non-neurotrophic P. berghei NK65 (PbN). Though Akt activation improved to control levels after chloroquine treatment in PbA-infected mice, the addition of lithium chloride, a compound which inhibits GSK3β activity and stimulates Akt activation, induced a modest, but significant activation of Akt in the brains of infected mice when compared to uninfected controls treated with chloroquine with and without lithium. In addition, lithium significantly reversed the long-term spatial and visual memory impairment as well as the motor coordination deficits which persisted after successful anti-parasitic treatment. GSK3β inhibition was significantly increased after chloroquine treatment, both in lithium and non-lithium treated PbA-infected mice. These data indicate that acute ECM is associated with abnormalities in cell survival pathways that result in neuronal damage. Regulation of Akt/GSK3β with lithium reduces neuronal degeneration and may have neuroprotective effects in ECM. Aberrant regulation of Akt/GSK3β signaling likely underlies long-term neurological sequelae observed in ECM and may yield adjunctive therapeutic targets for the management of CM.
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