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The Five Sexes: Why Male and Female are not Enough

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Author(s): Anne Fausto-Sterling | Ен Фаусто-Стерлинг Title (English): The Five Sexes: Why Male and Female Are Not Enough Title (Macedonian): Петте пола: Зошто машкиот и женскиот не се доволни Translated by (English to Macedonian): Žarko Trajanoski | Жарко Трајаноски Journal Reference: Identities: Journal for Politics, Gender and Culture, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Summer 2004) Publisher: Research Center in Gender Studies - Skopje and Euro-Balkan Institute Page Range: 191-205 Page Count: 14 Citation (English): Anne Fausto-Sterling, “The Five Sexes: Why Male and Female Are Not Enough,” Identities: Journal for Politics, Gender and Culture, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Summer 2004): 191-205. Citation (Macedonian): Ен Фаусто-Стерлинг, „Петте пола: Зошто машкиот и женскиот не се доволни“, превод од англиски Жарко Трајаноски, Идентитети: списание за политика, род и култура, т. 3, бр. 1 (лето 2004): 191-205.
... A T LEAST 1.7 per cent of people have intersex variations that may be physically apparent preceding or at birth, or discovered later in life through testing (Carroll, 2005;Fausto-Sterling, 1993; Intersex Human Rights Australia (IHRA), 2012). Given that sex development is complex and some elements of sex are not apparent without testing and many people never test for them, current estimates of the incidence and types of intersex variations may be conservative. ...
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Several large-scale surveys around the world show the most frequently reported mental health diagnoses among people with intersex variations include depression, anxiety and PTSD. Wellbeing risks are also high, with individuals with intersex variations citing suicidal thoughts or attempts across their life-course – specifically on the basis of issues related to having congenital sex variations. The population mostly attributed their wellbeing risks to negative social responses from others, difficulties around having undergone interventions or issues around gender/identity. In the Canadian context, there is a lack of formalized, charitable Canadian wide intersex networks, advocacy groups, universal mental health care approaches, or provincial signposting to services similar to those developed elsewhere. Using a life-cycle lens, a group of international researchers came together in a collaborative Canadian study to explore health care transitions that people with intersex variations might need or desire, at various stages of their life. A key finding highlights that transition phases have the capacity to be especially difficult in the context of mental health. Three themes in the data identified mental health impacts: worthlessness, alienation and self-esteem. However a final theme drew on integrated medicine to celebrate emerging emotional intelligence; a positive experience that had emancipatory benefits across the lifespan.
... Their variations can include for example having 47XXY chromosomal Karyotypes (47XXY), Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS), Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), and over 40 other variations (Jones, 2016). Whilst all humans have the potential for both male and female sex development traits in the first seven weeks in the womb, it is generally estimated that 1.7-4% of people are born intersex (Carroll, 2005;Dreger, 2015;Fausto-Sterling, 1993), and this may be a conservative estimation given the more frequent incidence of extreme physical hyperandrogenism from hormonal conditions such as Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (Huang, Brennan, & Azziz, 2010) is rarely included in any estimation. ...
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... The incidence of intersexuality is disputed, and it may now be more prevalent than before due to environmental chemicals that mimic estrogen and interfere with fetal genital development (Dumoski, Myers, Colborn, 1997). At the high end of estimates, Brown gender theorist Anne Fausto-Sterling (1993 has estimated that the incidence of intersexuality may be as high as 1.7% of the population, if all genital abnormalities are included. However other scholars argue that intersexuality should be reserved for conditions in which the person's chromosomes are a different sex than their phenotypic sex characteristics, or in which they have truly ambiguous genitalia. ...
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Postgenderism is an extrapolation of ways that technology is eroding the biological, psychological and social role of gender, and an argument for why the erosion of binary gender will be liberatory. Postgenderists argue that gender is an arbitrary and unnecessary limitation on human potential, and foresee the elimination of involuntary biological and psychological gendering in the human species through the application of neurotechnology, biotechnology and reproductive technologies. Postgenderists contend that dyadic gender roles and sexual dimorphisms are generally to the detriment of individuals and society. Assisted reproduction will make it possible for individuals of any sex to reproduce in any combinations they choose, with or without "mothers" and "fathers," and artificial wombs will make biological wombs unnecessary for reproduction. Greater biological fluidity and psychological androgyny will allow future persons to explore both masculine and feminine aspects of personality. Postgenderists do not call for the end of all gender traits, or universal androgyny, but rather that those traits become a matter of choice. Bodies and personalities in our postgender future will no longer be constrained and circumscribed by gendered traits, but enriched by their use in the palette of diverse self-expression.
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We live in a world which is organized around the idea that sex role stereotypes are the rigid fixed ideas of what is appropriate to masculine and feminine behavior. They imply a belief that "masculine" and "feminine" are two distinct and mutually exclusive categories and that an individual's behavior must be one or the other. These ideas pervade nearly in every culture. In a society, the notion of the two sexes (male and female) have been stereotyped and revolves round the preoccupied notion that men and women have different bodies, different capabilities, different needs and desires which is depicted in terms of different tasks, privileges and role patterns that are traditionally assigned to them. Despite the fact that every society gives affirmation to only two types of gender and their prescribed roles. But what about those who confirm the worldwide acceptance under the terminology used as transgender. It is often used as an umbrella term to signify individuals who defy rigid, binary gender constructions and who express or present a breaking and blurring culturally prevalent stereotypically gender roles. Children are put under strong social pressure to conform to these sex-role stereotypes, regardless of their natural dispositions. During the process of socialization, boys and girls are reared differently. Boys are encouraged and reinforced to develop masculine characteristics that is in terms of aggression, dominance, independence, sense of adventure, high risk taking behavior, freedom of space, and achievement oriented outlook whereas, girls are encouraged to acquire feminine characteristics as such in terms of submissiveness, nurturance, dependence, and low achievement orientation. The purpose of this research paper is to throw light on how and why the social world is arranged around gender distinctions. The paper also highlights the various problems faced by transgender community in Kashmir especially Male to Female (MTF) transgender. The paper attempts to examine to what extent gender is imposed on individuals as a result of the material conditions and social structures in which they live. The present paper relies entirely on the secondary sources of data. Certain suggestions will be recommended in this paper on promoting equality as a fundamental human right and basic principle of social justice.
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El manuscrito expone un recorrido por las perspectivas teóricas centradas en lo interseccional y el cruce, las que han abierto debates sobre las intersecciones, hibridaciones, mixturas y fluideces. Se propone sumar al campo de los estudios de género las trayectorias teóricas del entrecruzamiento para ponerlas en diálogo y aplicarlas de manera crítica y creativa a éste. Revisando los planteamientos de intelectuales de diversas áreas del conocimiento: Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw, Néstor García Canclini, Hommi Bhabha y Nancy Fraser, se plantea tensionar las normatividades sexogenéricas que imperan en el orden de la cultura y a partir de las cuales se excluyen las pluralidades propias de la vida social. Las referencias comparten su crítica al pensamiento binario, una des-idealización de lo puro, lo nativo, la identidad, la fijeza, del sujeto monolítico; no creen en las categorías fijas de lo moderno; más bien comparten la perspectiva del dinamismo, de los flujos, de la permanente reconfiguración de la alteridad/otredad. La visita a intelectuales se traduce en algunas propuestas ―y también preguntas― para ampliar el cuerpo teórico-conceptual en el campo de los Estudios de género.
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