Tenofovir-Associated Nephrotoxicity in Two HIV-Infected Adolescent Males
We report two cases of tenofovir (TDF)-associated nephrotoxicity in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents. The first case, a 16-year-old African American male with an absolute CD4+ cell count of 314 cells/mm(3), presented with an abrupt rise in serum creatinine leading to irreversible renal failure while on TDF-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). While the patient had evidence of underlying kidney disease, the timing of his renal failure indicates that TDF played a central role. The second case, a 16-year-old African-American male with an absolute CD4+ cell count of 895 cells/mm3, presented with rickets and hypophosphatemia while receiving TDF-based HAART. To our knowledge, these cases represent the first reports of TDF-associated irreversible renal failure and rickets in pediatric patients. We believe these cases highlight important and potentially irreversible side effects of this agent and emphasize the need for further studies of the renal safety of TDF in pediatric patients.
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