Treatment of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression in Adolescents

Department of Psychiatry, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1759, USA.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.26). 02/2009; 48(3):330-9. DOI: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181977476
Source: PubMed


To advance knowledge regarding strategies for treating selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-resistant depression in adolescents, we conducted a randomized controlled trial evaluating alternative treatment strategies. In primary analyses, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) combined with medication change was associated with higher rates of positive response to short-term (12-week) treatment than medication alone. This study examines predictors and moderators of treatment response, with the goal of informing efforts to match youths to optimal treatment strategies.
Youths who had not improved during an adequate SSRI trial (N = 334) were randomized to an alternative SSRI, an alternative SSRI plus CBT, venlafaxine, or venlafaxine plus CBT. Analyses examined predictors and moderators of treatment response.
Less severe depression, less family conflict, and absence of nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior predicted better treatment response status. Significant moderators of response to CBT + medication (combined) treatment were number of comorbid disorders and abuse history; hopelessness was marginally significant. The CBT/combined treatment superiority over medication alone was more evident among youths who had more comorbid disorders (particularly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorders), no abuse history, and lower hopelessness. Further analyses revealed a stronger effect of combined CBT + medication treatment among youths who were older and white and had no nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior and longer prestudy pharmacotherapy.
Combined treatment with CBT and antidepressant medication may be more advantageous for adolescents whose depression is comorbid with other disorders. Given the additional costs of adding CBT to medication, consideration of moderators in clinical decision making can contribute to a more personalized and effective approach to treatment.

Download full-text


Available from: Benedetto Vitiello
  • Source
    • ":// Data also suggest that ABFT is effective with populations that have not responded well to cognitive behavioral treatment and or medication, including adolescents who are severely depressed, have a history of sexual trauma (HST), or have parents who are depressed themselves (Asarnow et al., 2009; Barbe, Bridge, Birmaher, Kolko, & Brent, 2004; Curry et al., 2006; Diamond, Creed, Gillham, Gallop, & Hamilton, 2012; Diamond et al., 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article describes the application of Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) to the treatment of a 13-year-old female adolescent presenting with high risk of suicide, complicated by a history of depression and sexual trauma. The article begins with an overview of ABFT, including (a) how attachment theory guides treatment; (b) the structure of the clinical model; and (c) the data that provide empirical support. A case example is then presented that exemplifies the primary clinical procedures used to reach therapeutic goals in ABFT, including attachment repair and autonomy/competence promotion. Weekly changes in suicide ideation and depression scores are presented. The article concludes with a discussion about implications for family-based treatment of suicidal youth.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
  • Source
    • "Design, methods, and results of treatment efficacy, as well as predictors and moderators of response, in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescence (TORDIA) study at 12 and 24 weeks, have been reported in detail in previous publications (Brent et al. 2008; Asarnow et al. 2009; Emslie et al. 2010). In summary, the TORDIA study was a six site randomized, controlled trial using a 2 · 2 balanced factorial design (Brent et al. 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Depression and obesity are associated, but the impact of obesity on depression treatment outcome, or, conversely, the impact of treatment on body mass index (BMI) in depressed adolescents has not been reported. In this article, we examine the bidirectional relationships between BMI and treatment response in adolescents with treatment-resistant depression. Method: Participants in the Treatment of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study had height and weight assessed at baseline, weekly for the first 6 weeks, biweekly for the next 6 weeks, and monthly from weeks 12 through 24. The impact of baseline BMI as a predictor and moderator of treatment response was assessed. In addition, participants' changes in BMI were assessed as a function of specific treatment assignment and treatment response. Results: Participants assigned to SSRIs had a greater increase in BMI-for-age-sex z-score and weight than did those assigned to venlafaxine. Post-hoc, those treated with paroxetine or citalopram had the biggest increases in BMI, relative to fluoxetine or venlafaxine. Overweight or obesity was neither a predictor nor a moderator of treatment outcome, nor of subsequent BMI change. Conclusions: Overweight status does not appear to affect treatment response in adolescents with resistant depression. The successful treatment of depression does not appear to favorably affect weight or BMI. Fluoxetine and venlafaxine are less likely to cause an increase in BMI than paroxetine or citalopram.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology
  • Source
    • "At week 12, responders [those with a Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) rating of B2, denoting much or very much improved) continued in their assigned blinded treatment arm, while non-responders or responders who required additional intervention received open treatment (medication and/or CBT) for 12 more weeks. Treatment groups were similar in their baseline demographic, clinical characteristics, and rates of treatment completion (Asarnow et al. 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Show more