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A pattern language which generates multi-service centers

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... According to Lynch (1960), a city is the more legible the more it is divided into different, internally homogeneous, regions. Such view is also shared by Alexander, Silverstein, Angel, Ishikawa, and Abrams (1977), whose Patterns 8 (Mosaic of subcultures) and 13 (Subculture boundary) contend: "The mosaic of subcultures requires that hundreds of different cultures live, in their own way, at full intensity, next door to one another. But subcultures have their own ecology. ...
... Christopher Alexander, the main author of "The pattern language" (Alexander et al., 1977), when asked what is specific about his approach, said: ...
... I have tried to show that the recurring theme in the relevant literature is the distinction between the 'close' vs. the 'open' character of places, that their coexistence in physical space is achieved through various principles of designing objects, buildings, and urban spaces. Relevant categories are available in the existing theories of environmental aesthetics (reviewed and integrated with planning principles in Porteous, 1996), in the urban and architectural theories of order suggested by Alexander (Alexander et al., 1977;Alexander, 2002) and developed in the form of mathematical principles by Salingaros (1999Salingaros ( , 2006, in works of humanistic architects engaged in environment-behavior studies (Jacobs, 1999;Rapoport, 1990), and in the works of the New Urban planners (Duany et al., 2000). Note that most of these categories can probably be reinterpreted in terms of affordances and hence action possibilities (see Heft, 2010). ...
Article
This paper reviews research in place attachment and organizes the material into three sections: research, method, and theory. A review of several hundred empirical and theoretical papers and chapters reveals that despite mobility and globalization processes, place continues to be an object of strong attachments. The main message of the paper is that of the three components of the tripartite model of place attachment (Scannell & Gifford, 2010a), the Person component has attracted disproportionately more attention than the Place and Process components, and that this emphasis on individual differences probably has inhibited the development of a theory of place attachment. Suggestions are offered for theoretical sources that might help to fill the gaps, including theories of social capital, environmental aesthetics, phenomenological laws of order, attachment, and meaning-making processes that stem from movements and time-space routines.
... A compreensão das partes envolvidas e também da natureza da conexão entre as partes que culminam no todo, traz uma série de abordagens, que vem impactando na revisão dos processos do homem em diversas áreas de trabalho, incluindo o projeto. Um exemplo de revisão de processo nesse contexto é o apresentado por Christopher Alexander em seu livro o Pattern Language (ALEXANDER et al., 1968). O autor claramente propõe uma metodologia que considere as interações das soluções de pequena escala até larga escala. ...
... "Esta é uma visão fundamental de mundo, uma visão que nos diz que quando construímos uma coisa não podemos limitar-nos a construí-la isoladamente, se não que também temos que intervir no mundo que a rodea, e dentro dela, de modo que esse mundo mais amplo se torne mais coerente nesse lugar, seja mais um todo; e essa coisa que fazemos tem um lugar na rede da natureza, tal como a fazemos. " Alexander et al. (1968). Pág.11. ...
... "Se nós assumimos que o jeito da natureza é por definição, sustentável, e se nós temos provas (...) de que na natureza não existe separação entre processos de modelagem, análise e fabricação, então tal desintegração pode ser eliminada e, refeita a partir de uma nova abordagem para projeto que suporte tal integração." Oxman (2010) 5 ; traduzido pela autora. ...
Thesis
A dissertação tem como objetivo investigar potencial da integração entre parametrização da forma, prototipagem rápida e preceitos biomiméticos, em resposta a questões bioclimáticas apresentadas por um artefato gerador de microclima para o clima quente e úmido. Este artefato funcionaria como sombreador paramétrico e concomitantemente, é inspirado na mitigação do efeito de ilha de calor através do balanço da água e do efeito de resfriamento evaporativo. O universo de estudo é a região metropolitana de Recife-PE. Os procedimentos metodológicos desta pesquisa são baseados no método desenvolvido pelo Biomimicry Group 3.8 (2011). A pesquisa utiliza métodos qualitativos e quantitativos em um estudo de caso dividido em cinco etapas. Primeiro é realizado uma contextualização através de uma revisão bibliográfica e do estudo de modelos naturais que evoluíram de forma a mitigar o calor. Segundo, é estabelecido princípios e critérios de design utilizando técnicas de brainstorm. Terceiro, estabelece um modelo paramétrico/algorítmico que colabora com a produção de modelos responsivos a partir da inclusão de uma simulação de incidência de radiação. Quarto, utiliza prototipagem rápida e técnicas de formação para materializar o protótipo idealizado. Quinto, apresenta uma avaliação comparativa do desempenho térmico dos materiais aplicados nos protótipos. Como resultado, o trabalho apresenta estratégias e abordagens para mitigação do calor na escala da arquitetura e do material. O teste de desempenho térmico comparativo obteve resultado melhores que o de superfícies refletantes brancas. O trabalho contribui com a compreensão do elo que pode ser estabelecido entre abordagens como a biomimética, bioclimatologia, parametrização da forma e prototipagem rápida aplicados ao design de edifícios. Palavras-chaves: Bioclimatologia, Biomimética, Parametrização, Fabricação digital, Ilha de calor.
... Turner used case histories as a foundational element in his research (ibid., 94). My research shows that Rosaldo, Geertz, and Turner's work with processual analysis can also be supported by the work of architect Christopher Alexander et al. (1968). His team employs the pattern language approach, which works beyond traditional, systematic architectural design methodologies to include voice and input from the communities of end users in the planning and design of built spaces (ibid.). ...
... His team employs the pattern language approach, which works beyond traditional, systematic architectural design methodologies to include voice and input from the communities of end users in the planning and design of built spaces (ibid.). The pattern language approach and newly adopted integrative design approach realign power dynamics and create insurgent space for voice and dialogue to be listened to and acknowledged within planning and design processes (Alexander et al. 1968;Kuhn 1999;and International Initiative for a Sustainable Built Environment 2007). The application of pattern languages requires a paradigm shift from product-driven to process-oriented planning and design (Kuhn 1999). ...
... However, I reflected on the "Godspace" document and reminded myself that indeed it is a "slower process" than productionoriented planning when the community is actively involved in decision making that is traditionally completed by technical experts. I reminded myself of architects like Christopher Alexander, whose concept of "patterned languages" demonstrated the incorporation of a multitude of social experiences and meanings into the design of a unified and multi-use built environment (Alexander, Ishikawa, and Silverstein 1968). As it states in "Godspace," "Changes should not be made on a personal basis of personal tastes or of majority votes without due study" (Architectural Resource Group 1993). ...
... In other words, this style could be seen as one approach to Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design planning. Radburn-style neighborhood design continued to be used because it also fit the "socially sensitive" or "socially responsive" approach (Alexander, Ishikawa, & Silverstein, 1977;Hodge, 1982;Paget & Rabnett, 1979;Vischer, 1986), to neighborhood design, popularized in the early 1980s. These designs are ones that integrate elements of both the social and physical environment, and that consider, and could potentially influence, the attitude and behavior of residents (Alexander et al., 1977). ...
... Radburn-style neighborhood design continued to be used because it also fit the "socially sensitive" or "socially responsive" approach (Alexander, Ishikawa, & Silverstein, 1977;Hodge, 1982;Paget & Rabnett, 1979;Vischer, 1986), to neighborhood design, popularized in the early 1980s. These designs are ones that integrate elements of both the social and physical environment, and that consider, and could potentially influence, the attitude and behavior of residents (Alexander et al., 1977). For example, the walkable streets of Radburn-style neighborhoods can reduce residents' dependency on automobiles and increase physical activity. ...
... Thus, federal regulations external to the city itself have the potential to create more affordable housing. More affordable housing means, theoretically, that more opportunities for permanent residence exist, a condition that would alleviate problems of social disruption that Alexander et al. (1977) document. ...
Article
Between 2000 and 2010, the population of the city of Fort McMurray, Alberta increased by 80%, mainly due to the expansion of oil extraction projects and subsidiary industries. Population growth of this magnitude has significant consequences for city planning. While Fort McMurray struggles to keep up with enormous numbers of in-migrants, the cost of living in the city has skyrocketed. Using interviews with city planners and field experience in the city, in this paper I examine the current challenges faced by urban planners in Fort McMurray against the backdrop of global economic decision-making, corporate influence, and commodity dynamics. While the recession of 2008 gave city planners some breathing room, they still struggle with gathering accurate census information and predicting population growth, providing affordable housing, and balancing short-range planning with their long-term goals. Attempts by city planners to address these challenges could provide a contemporary model for urban planning in rapidly growing, resource-dependent communities.
... Furthermore, the concept of enclosure was also given due attention (Relph, 1976;Tuan, 1974). It is important to stress, however, that "enclosure" was not understood as a total isolation of place from the outside but as a relationship between the inside and the outside (Alexander, Silverstein, Angel, Ishikawa, & Abrams, 1977;. Good places have "windows" into the outer world through which they communicate, they are not walled and fenced fortresses (see also Kunstler, 1993, p. 249). ...
... Jane Jacobs (1961) defines good places through a combination of the anti-essentialist (emphasis on urban diversity and a fierce criticism of gated communities) and essentialist elements (neighborhood stability, establishment of daily routines). Another example is Alexander's et al. (1977) pattern language: while strongly on the essentialist side, his theory is actually dialectical and it assumes a co-existence of opposite elements as preconditions of good places: closed-open, inside-outside, stability-change, communityprivacy etc. Similarly, Relph (2008) theorizes about the mutual relations between distinctiveness (place) and sameness (placelessness): the one without another cannot exist and it is their different proportions that determine whether a setting can be called a place or a non-place. ...
Article
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Psychological essentialism is a widely studied concept within the social sciences, including the field of psychology. However, this concept has not been empirically explored when applied to perception of places. In this paper, we show that the essentialism vs. anti-essentialism philosophical controversy underlies the discussion carried out in human geography over what constitutes a place, understood as a meaningful location. In a series of three studies, we tested: (a) which places that conform to either essentialist or anti-essentialist criteria are judged by people as more meaningful and are preferred as living places, (b) what the structure of perceived place essentialism is, and (c) whether there exist affective markers of perceived place essentialism (emotions triggered by the essentialist vs. anti-essentialist features of places). In all three studies, pictures of respective locations were used. The studies showed that the places which conform to essentialist criteria were perceived to be more meaningful and were preferred to the anti-essentialist places. A two-dimensional essentialism vs. anti-essentialism structure described the perceived places the best. Affective reactions ordered along the dimensions of valence and arousal were systematically correlated to the perceived essentialism vs. anti-essentialism. The results confirm the claims made by cognitive psychologists that humans are psychological essentialists. The findings may contribute to the rising interest in the essentialism of artifacts.
... By the term prototype, we understand 'a generic scheme that conveys certain essential ideas to designers of a family of buildings, and which can be applied many times over to specific cases... Its purpose is to provide guidelines which will generate a large number of specific buildings.' (Alexander et al. 1968). In more technical terms, design prototype is 'a schemata chunking together knowledge about a design class experience. ...
... Design in GIMS system is characterized by existence of the ready-made catalogues components and rules, seemingly belonging to a closed building system. Such design has already been called just a 'selection' (Alexander 1968). However, unearthing of the conceptually 'pre-made' solutions with certainity is possible only if the system that contains those solutions were completely closed. ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper the product modeling is considered as a design procedure. Consequently, the type of the product model is determined by its function (i.e., for what purpose the model was made), its genesis (how, why and by whom the model was made), and its context application (i.e., by whom, when and where it is applied). The paper describes a distributed, process-oriented design system in which design agents communicate messages on actions affecting the product model. The illustrations are related to some possible applications of the GIMS-DDS system in design of system-built houses.
... Identifying pattern languages in sustaining an ecosystem can provide a framework that structures information so that practitioners can gain a deeper insight into specific problems to develop solutions . Although first coined, in relation, to architecture and planning by Christopher Alexander and written about by Alexander and his team at the Center for Environmental Structure (Alexander et al. 1968, Alexander 1977), the term pattern language is now used across a range of disciplines relating to different concepts. By using terminology that is not discipline specific, pattern languages have the potential to facilitate interdisciplinary communication by transfer of information between fields, such as biology and engineering (Hoeller et al. 2007). ...
Article
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Sustainable development has become a central part of the agenda in the building design professions; however, in recent years, the concept of ecologically sustainable development has gained ground which aims to balance both economic and environmental facets of sustainability. This has necessitated new approaches to ecological sustainable design that includes ecological facets to design. Such a design approach that draws from ecology as a model in terms of architecture remains elusive. This research explores Biomimicry as a potential approach that help integrate ecological sustainability to design by understanding the natural processes to comprehend its form and the environment within an ecosystem. This study examines Biomimicry theory, and introduces an ecological model, which is most applicable to architecture. This model leads to a theoretical framework that proposes two ways of emulating nature: direct and indirect that identify naturally occurring adaptation and integration processes. The aim and outcome of the framework will ultimately be a design process that enhances ecological sustainability by increasing the applicability of Biomimicry theory into architectural practice.
... In his seminal work on patterns, Christopher Alexander repeatedly considers patterns as laws or hy potheses, i.e. as morphological laws: " Each one of these patterns is a morphological law, which establishes a set of relationships in space. This morphological law can always be expressed in the same general form: X -> r (A, B, …), which means: Within a context of type X, the parts A, B, … are related by the relationship r. " [3, p. 90] More compact: IF: X THEN: Z / PROBLEM Y " [2] Because we do not know laws a-priori, we have to formulate hypotheses about the laws. And a network of well corroborated hy potheses or accepted empirical laws is exactly what the kernel of theories is [10]. ...
Article
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This paper presents a theoretical perspective on patterns derived from epistemology and theory of science. We argue that patterns are specific kinds of theories and that the process of pattern mining is similar to scientific discovery. Exploring the concepts of induction, deduction and abduction with respect to patterns, we reflect upon common methods of pattern mining in the pattern community. This allows for a critical discussion of the level of confidence and corroboration of patterns. We suggest new research questions on the mining and evaluation of patterns. For the scientific scholar the paper offers arguments that pattern mining is a research process with outcomes as reliable and sound as other scientific procedures. This justification is needed to establish the pattern approach as a scientific methodology beyond the scope of the pattern community. For the pragmatic pattern practitioner, e.g. users and authors of patterns, this paper encourages the critical reflection on the pattern concept. Patterns are not tried-and-true per se, just like theories they have to be subjected to empirical tests. Understanding the epistemological nature of patterns is crucial to derive criteria for pattern quality, e.g. the degrees of corroboration, and the limits of objectivism – especially since patterns are not only descriptive documentation but normative instructions, designed to have an impact on shaping our environments.
... Gulick employed a sequence to his list [Fitch 1996], as do other pattern scholars, (e.g. [Alexander et al. 1968;1977;Kerievsky 2005]). Accordingly, he made up the word POSDCORB, "designed to call attention to the various functional elements of the work of a chief executive" [Gulick 1937a, p. 13]. ...
Conference Paper
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This manuscript extends Luther Gulick's organizational patterns. Patterns are a way to integrate complex theories and practices. Yet adminis-trative, legal and constitutional contexts may not always be clear. Gulick gave voice to POSDCORB within a notable pattern-based discussion. The respective elements, consistent with the designs of Christopher Alexander, are suggested as being true invariants. A careful reading of Gulick's work reveals techniques of design when he planned the reorganization of New York City and the Executive Office of the President. From his lineage, it is suggested that Gulick practiced a newly coined technique called multiple social inheritance. The application of other techniques, such as organizational polymorphism and socio-encapsulation, are also discussed. The Hillside Group's patterns community is dedicated to developing patterns. Their refined structure was used to document the POSDCORB-based patterns, both in parts and as a whole. While the POSDCORB elements are certainly not the only administrative patterns, they may be representative of the core. ACM Reference Format: Chalekian, P. 2014. POSDCORB: Core Patterns of Administration. jn 0, 0, Article 0 (May 2014), 20 pages.
... Sociability in public spaces is based on the need of people to social be longing sense and interact with each other, and this is possible in a supportive social space, along with providing physiological comfort (Lang, 1994), claiming the realm, sense of ownership, and getting justice in space. (Alexander, Ishikawa, & Silverstein, 1968) We can summarize the necessity of paying attention to sociability in open space of university in the following terms: ...
Conference Paper
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Place/Space related discussion in urbanism and the associated “user experience” are the main concerns in urban public interactions. Meanwhile, it gets problematic when we look at it through the lens in which cutting edge technology becomes an inseparable part of daily activities. In this regard, “Place Experience” or “Place Attachment” is an integrated object explaining how a human interacts with his surrounding environment containing three dimensions developing an interlinked triangle phenomenon: Cognitive, Behavioral and Emotional interactions. Nevertheless, it is always a vague concept among all stockholders, especially regarding the “cutting-edge technologies”. In this sense, there is a gap in linking cognitive, behavioural, and emotional interactions (with the mentioned emerging technologies; this paper adopting “gamification” introduces a human-centred approach toward enhancing the urban public experience. The mentioned adoption of gamification would link heterogeneous aspects of cognition and knowledge saturated with the needed technology motivating the user’s behaviours and emotions. In the end, this paper suggests implementing “gamification” as a human-friendly approach to improve the experience of place for citizens.
... Gulick employed a sequence to his list [Fitch 1996], as do other pattern scholars, (e.g. [Alexander et al. 1968;1977;Kerievsky 2005]). Accordingly, he made up the word POSDCORB, "designed to call attention to the various functional elements of the work of a chief executive" [Gulick 1937a, p. 13]. ...
Data
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... Gulick employed a sequence to his list [Fitch 1996], as do other pattern scholars, (e.g. [Alexander et al. 1968;1977;Kerievsky 2005]). Accordingly, he made up the word POSDCORB, "designed to call attention to the various functional elements of the work of a chief executive" [Gulick 1937a, p. 13]. ...
Data
Full-text available
... Indeed, this may become a central function of architects. Efforts in other areas have already examined some existing patterns, in both office buildings and bridge design (17). A lesser kind of design intelligence, but one of more importance to a draftsman is the knowledge of and ability to apply a variety of patterns to a particular context. ...
Article
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8.1 This paper examines the intelligence required by a computer to successfully collabo-rate in design. It focuses in two areas where design augmentation is justified, in the production of working drawings and in the storing and accessing of design related information. The semantics of line drawings, operations for locating an element, the sequencing of elements to be located, planning considerations, and graphical com-munication are reviewed as necessary intellectual capabilities for an automated drafts-man. The capabilities of an extended architectural information system are suggested by an example, and some of its desired structural properties are suggested. Introduction Almost all building today would be vastly improved if the time available for planning and design were doubled. The implication is that architects already have more to consider than they have time to resolve in an integrated way. New information is being made available continuously to guide design decisionmaking. As information proliferates, such as in the behavioral sciences, and the opportunity grows to plan facilities which adapt to different uses OVer their lifetime, the gap can only increase between the potential of design and what will be realizable within the professional timeframe.
... Svarbus ryšys tarp raštų -kiekviena maža struktūra yra susijusi su didele, ir atvirkščiai, mažos struktūros užpildo dideles. Kiekviena struktūra, raštas negali egzistuoti uždarai, jie egzistuoja palaikomi kitų struktūrų, ir tai yra fundamentalus požiūris (Alexander et al. 1977). ...
Article
The article analyses modular artistic forms that emerge in all scale structures of contemporary architecture. Module, as a standard unit of measure has been in use since antiquity. It gained even more significance amid innovative building and computing technologies of the 20th and 21st centuries. Static and fixed perceptions of a module were supplemented with concepts of dynamic and adaptable modular units, such as fractals, parameters and algorithms. Various expressions and trends of modular design appear in contemporary architecture of Lithuania, where modular forms consist of repetitive spatial and planar elements. Spatial modules as blocks or flats and planar modular wall elements are a characteristic expression of the contemporary architecture in Lithuania.
... There are different types of programmes. For instance, the earlier form of pattern language (Alexander, Ishikawa, and Silverstein, 1968) has interacted with and contributed to the growing process of Environment-Behaviour studies. Today environmental programming covers various activities ranging anywhere from studies of economic feasibility, activity analysis, user requirements, space layouts, consumer participation, and design guidelines, to the decision of whether to build, what to build, the size to build, and where to build (Lindheim, 1983). ...
Article
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Summary This essay is an epistemological critique of Environment-Behaviour studies in relation to the current discourse on environmental design. The critique examines Envi- ronment-Behaviour discursive practice and its epistemological presuppositions. First, the evolution of Environment-Behaviour studies is reviewed in its social and historical context. Then, the author elaborates upon the substance of Environment-Behaviour theoretical discourse to see how Environment-Behaviour studies deal with three different issues: spatial form, form-context relationship, and application. Finally, a social critique concentrates on two methodological aspects: (1) The Environment- Behaviour problematique in the ideological framework of environmental discourse, and (2) the lacunae of Environment-Behaviour applications in planning and design.
... Home is a very individualized and subjective concept, hence identification of common factors that facilitate home attachment in all or most of people may be difficult although no doubt worth trying. For example, a number of architectural factors that should convert house (or apartment) into a home, and hence produce attachment, were described in detail in the monumental work of one of the most psychologically-minded architects, Christopher Alexander (Alexander, Silverstein, Angel, Ishikawa, & Abrams, 1977). Some basic features of this ''timelessly good home'' include the proper balance of privacy and community, ownership of a dwelling and hence control over the area, small size of buildings (not more than four floors), location in a clearly distinguishable neighborhood composed of buildings with diverse shapes, ability to accommodate and create comfortable living conditions for people representing different stages of life cycle, windows that give views onto lively places, and many others. ...
Article
Several years ago Hidalgo and Hernandez reported a curvilinear, U-shaped, relationship between scale of place (apartment, neighborhood, city) and strength of attachment to the place. In this paper four studies are presented, carried out in four Central-European cities, that (1) confirmed the reported curvilinear relationship using five places (apartment, building, neighborhood, city district, city) in three out of four cities and for five items of the Place Attachment Scale, (2) revealed a consistent curvilinear, inverse U-shaped relationship between scale of place and percentage of variance of place attachment predicted by three groups of factors: physical (type of housing, size of building, upkeep and personalization of house precincts, etc.), social (neighborhood ties and sense of security in the residence place), and socio-demographic (age, education, gender, length of residence, family size), and (3) identified strength of direct and indirect effects of the three groups of predictors on attachment to the five types of places. The curvilinear relationship between place scale and place attachment was particularly strong in highly attractive cities and in those scale items that described people's emotional reactions to places whereas a linear relationship was obtained in the least attractive city and in the items that referred to sense of security, amount of control and knowledge of place. In all four cities the best predicted variable was attachment to middle ranges of the place scale (building and neighborhood). The overall best direct predictor of place attachment was neighborhood ties, followed by direct and indirect effects of length of residence, building size, and type of housing. In conclusion it is argued that the usual choice of predictors of place attachment is biased by researchers' interest in the middle scales of place (neighborhood) at the expense of other place scales. In the paper a claim is made that attachments to smaller (apartments, homes) and larger (city) scales of place along with their unique predictors deserve more attention from environmental psychologists.
... It seems that the idea of patterns is fundamental to human thought. In architecture Alexander, Ishikawa, and Silverstein (1977) collected 253 patterns of successful environments. The book created a new language, what the authors called a pattern language derived from timeless entities called patterns. ...
Book
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The academic discipline Information Design (ID) has incorporated important influences from more than fifty already established disciplines. After many years I have now been able to divide the many “external contributors” into the following six groups of supporting sciences. Primary supporting sciences are: 1) Design disciplines, 2) Communication disciplines, and 3) Information disciplines. Secondary supporting sciences are: 4) Language disciplines, 5) Cognitive disciplines, and 6) Art and aesthetic disciplines. This book will soon be uploaded at the IIID Public Library < http://www.iiid.net/public-library/iiid-library/ > (almost at the bottom of the page). In the meantime you can send your e-mail-address to me./Rune Pettersson
... 10 See Fathi (1986) and Masahiro (199 l) for social and cultural aspects of such space-use patterns. 11 A lot of research has been done on use-patterns and their utilisation as a design methodology (Alexander 1968(Alexander , 1969(Alexander and 1977. ...
Thesis
This study investigates thermal comfort conditions in traditional courtyard houses in Khartoum, Sudan. The aim is to compare these conditions to the predictions and recommendations of international standards to assess the existence of any discrepancy between the two. It also studies occupants’ space-use patterns and the effect of utilising spatial variability offered by traditional houses on occupants’ thermal satisfaction level. The study follows established methodologies in thermal comfort fieldwork research. The fieldwork, conducted in Khartoum, lasted for six-month (January to June 2000) covering winter, spring and summer months and collecting data from eleven subjects in four houses. Eleven experiments were conducted each lasting between 5-14 days producing 1772 data sets. Comparison of the findings of the thermal comfort survey with international standards highlighted a significant discrepancy, which has direct implications on energy consumption in air-conditioned buildings. Examining occupants’ space-use patterns revealed that people were going about their daily life inside traditional houses in a manner that ensured low levels of thermal discomfort. However, a range of social, functional and cultural factors took precedence over thermal comfort in certain situations/times. An observational study showed that occupants of traditional courtyard houses adopted a wide range of adaptive behavioural responses in their quest for comfort in hot conditions (e.g. traditional costumes, use of evaporative cooling, drinking cold/hot drinks, change of activity level and posture, etc.). The study concluded that applying passive design principles in Sudan will not only ensure good levels of thermal comfort in naturally-ventilated buildings, but will also reduce energy consumption. https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/339358
... They are usually represented as very schematic drawings so that there is enough ambiguity and freedom in the solution to allow designers to adapt the scheme to the specific limitations of site conditions, client needs, local cultural context, etc. The general purpose of a prototype, then, is to provide guidelines that will generate a large number of specific buildings or environments (Alexander, 1968). ...
Article
The quality of place in the American suburbs often inhibits peoples ability to have a sense of ownership and connection to the places they live. This is partly because the physical design of many suburban environments have repellent and disengaging characteristics. These characteristics have evolved alongside a basic structural transformation of American cities in the last century. In the end, the physical environment of the suburbs makes people feel like outsiders in their own homes because places can push people away through their confused organization and ugliness. In order to unlock the potential for suburban strip centers to be places that help us orient ourselves and connect to our world, I have developed a set of prototypes for the infill of existing strip malls in suburban strip commercial centers. These prototypes act as a systematic tool for the possible widespread densification and diversification of uses within these centers. The coherence and engaging vitality that will result from the application of this tool will improve the quality of place and enhance our sense belonging to our communities.
... Note that, in his development of design theory from [4] to [7], Alexander did not explicitly show the evaluation stage where the fitness of the spatial relation obtained by the combination process is evaluated, that is, there is no systematic way to tell whether the form in question and its context actually fits in his theory of design programming. ...
Article
In this paper, we describe the overall picture of the pattern language by examining the literature in the 1960s based on the correspondence to the formal systems of mathematics. First, we briefly show the outline of pattern language. Second, we analyze the syntactical structure of the pattern language and show that the generating system and the patterns correspond to the syntactical system and inference rules in the formal system, respectively. Third, we examine the semantics of pattern language and show that Alexander's definition of the design problems gives the semantic framework of the language. After describing the pattern language can be regarded as a syntactical object like proofs in the formal systems, we discuss the limit of the pattern language and give one possible reason why he needed to explore "geometric features" of forms generated by the patterns.
... Sociability in public spaces is based on people's need for a sense of social belonging and interaction, and this will be in a supportive social space along with supplying physiological comfort (Lang, 2004). Territory claim, a sense of ownership and receiving justice in space (Alexander et al., 1968). Social interactions and communications can be in physical manners like looking, talking and the relationship between people which needs to define events and activities suitable for their needs and the role of people in space and their membership in groups and social networks (Daneshpour & Charkhchian, 2008). ...
... It seems Alexander was influenced by the positivistic paradigm, insofar as he tried to make an objective body of design knowledge (Cross 1984: 101). Later, Alexander developed his theory of design on 'patterns' which people could use to make their own design of buildings (Alexander, Ishikawa and Silverstein 1968). Some years later he dissociated himself from the methods he developed in Notes. ...
... New "need-fulfilling territories" emerge, meaning places of singular relation between the user and the space, "a sense of belonging, a sense of inclusion and personal involvement, which in anthropological terms renders the space we inhabit the humanizing context of individual beings" [12]. According to this systemic, organic approachwhich connotes the research of a variety of scholars starting from the 1950s [13][14][15][16][17][18][19] the object of design is a "systemorganism". This idea raised by Ciribini [20] states that the object is no longer form/essence but rather the result of the interactions of the elements resulting from the internal organization of the conditions, pressures, and limitations of the environment [21]. ...
Chapter
The paper analyzes the evolutionof user-centered design in a variety of approaches that have been established in the history of architecture. It leads up to the current tendency to consider the designed environment as a physiologically prosthetic phenomenon inasmuch as it favors behavioral objectives while maintaining certain requested states that are physiological and behaviorally prosthetic due to the fact that the designed environment intentionally configures specific behavioral topographies. Therefore, the degree of a design’s quality and the various scales to which it is referred follow from its ability to interrelate on a human scale; that is to say, the capability of physical elements to confront the factors that characterize a design focused on well-being: inclusive, active, and adaptive.
... It seems that the idea of patterns is fundamental to human thought. In architecture Alexander et al. (1977) collected a series of 253 patterns of successful environments. The book created a new language, what the authors called a pattern language derived from timeless entities called patterns. ...
Book
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Reuse in Art and Design is about repurposing and reusing images. Throughout history people have reused images and sculptures, as well as parts of images and sculptures, in order to create new artistic expressions, and also new information. This book includes short presentations of some two- and three-dimensional images and found objects that have been reused and repurposed in architecture, art, books, design, learning, and sculpture.
... Community in public spaces is bonded with social interactions (Sennette, 1974, 215), people absorption, social security and encouragement to increase different groups' tolerance (Whyte, 1980) in a space leads to more sociability (Marcus & Francis, 1998) and creation of an active space. Sociability in public spaces is based on people's need of the sense of social belonging and interaction, and this can happen in a supportive social space with providing physiological comfort (Lnag, 1994), region claim, sense of possession and justice in the space (Alexander, 1968), social interaction and communication may be a physical issue, a look, a conversation and a communication that are needed to define the proper events and activities as a result of sociability and their membership in groups and social nets. On the other hand, community is affected by following forces and factors: 1. Geographical features of the public space site (climate…) 2. Physical characteristics and activities in public spaces 3. Economic aspects 4. Social health 5. Socialcultural features of the society 6. Political aspects Pattern for spending spare time (Car et al, 1992) and also it is related to feature such as: type of dominant social activities, culture, and the time of events that take place in the space. ...
... Community in public spaces is bonded with social interactions (Sennette, 1974, 215), people absorption, social security and encouragement to increase different groups' tolerance (Whyte, 1980) in a space leads to more sociability (Marcus & Francis, 1998) and creation of an active space. Sociability in public spaces is based on people's need of the sense of social belonging and interaction, and this can happen in a supportive social space with providing physiological comfort (Lnag, 1994), region claim, sense of possession and justice in the space (Alexander, 1968), social interaction and communication may be a physical issue, a look, a conversation and a communication that are needed to define the proper events and activities as a result of sociability and their membership in groups and social nets. On the other hand, community is affected by following forces and factors: 1. Geographical features of the public space site (climate…) 2. Physical characteristics and activities in public spaces 3. Economic aspects 4. Social health 5. Socialcultural features of the society 6. Political aspects Pattern for spending spare time (Car et al, 1992) and also it is related to feature such as: type of dominant social activities, culture, and the time of events that take place in the space. ...
... A pattern language is a structured method for describing design principles within a certain field, which consist of individual patterns that put emphasis on the context of a specific problem [44]. The idea of a pattern language was first coined by Christopher Alexander, an architect and author, in the 1960s [1]. In later times this form of design principles has become increasingly popular [44,43,38]. ...
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The task is in the research area of cooperation technologies. In particular the task will focus on support to co-located users. Cooperation technologies have traditionally been used to support geographically distributed users, with the exception for support in the context of meeting rooms. Ubiquitous and mobile technologies open for new scenarios and a growing number of applications are supporting cooperation among co-located users. The task is aiming at supporting designers of these applications. The master thesis will focus on creating a set of design guidelines for information sharing among co-located users within collaborative systems. The task is expected to result in a set of design guidelines, using a structured method called patterns. These guidelines should aid designers and developers in the creation of mechanisms for the support of information sharing between colocated users in collaborative work- and learning systems. The patterns should be based on a set of re-occurring problems within co-located sharing, identified by a review of relevant literature, research and existing solutions.
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Die Integration der neuesten Medien in das Lehren und Lernen stellt die Pädagogik immer noch vor große Herausforderungen. In den letzten 20 Jahren sind viele Modelle gekommen und gegangen und es wurde viel Geld in Cutting-Edge-Infrastruktu- ren investiert, die heute längst Elektroschrott der problematischeren Sorte sind. Dem Versprechen einer neuen Lehr- und Lernkultur allerdings sind wir durch Maßnahmen wie Schulen ans Netz und E-Learning noch nicht wesentlich näher gekommen.
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Sejima and Nishizawa have developed their work without explicitly referencing a theoretical discourse. However, they have stated that their housing projects describe their “architectural biography.” This study presents the hypothesis that systemic theories had influenced their housing projects at a spatial and constructive level. With the aim of testing it, the research produces four lines of results. Firstly, we observe that the word system is prominently current in a significant sample of their published texts. We describe how architects like Tominaga, Ito, Taki, and Shinohara, who influenced Sejima when she was still a student, discussed this concept inspired by Christopher Alexander's texts. The second line brings together all the couple's single-family housing projects published between 1987 and 2010 for the first time in a single document, as well as an original graphic-constructive reconstruction of the most outstanding ones. Thirdly, we unveil the emergence of four constructive patterns by applying these theories to the graphic material developed. Finally, we summarize the results in diagrams, showing the frequency, intensity, and continuity of the identified patterns in the four phases throughout the studied period. Verifying the hypothesis facilitates further research relate their domestic work and their other types of projects.
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A systematic framework for discussion of automation of the solution of architectural problems is established, based on an examination of the concepts of solution representation, generation, and testing. Some of the more important implications of various different techniques and principles of representation, generation, and testing are then illustrated by a discussion of procedures for solution of some simple spatial arrangement games and puzzles. It is shown that when we attempt to write procedures for solution of the rather larger and more complex problems encountered in practical architectural design, we discover some quite severe limitations on our current ideas about architectural design automation. The major limitations are outlined, and progress made towards overcoming them recounted.
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Collaborative activities are an important application of computer technology now that telecommunications infrastructure has been established to support it. There are many students in schools of architecture who are undertaking collaborative projects using the Internet and many practices who work together exchanging files and interacting on shared digital models. Software vendors are developing tools to support such collaboration. But what are we doing? What is the nature of collaboration and what are the implications for tools that support this work?
Conference Paper
The GAMA pattern language provides patterns for supporting dynamic teams with computer technology. In this document, a small subset of the GAMA language is presented that deals with spontaneous group formation based on common interests.
Conference Paper
Pattern languages are primarily literate instructions that support practitioners in solving practical problems. Besides its strength of narrative unfolding, the literate form has the problem of complicating the identification of the semantic relations between parts of the pattern language. In this paper, we discuss requirements for better supporting the creation and application of pattern language visualizations. We relate the process of diagram creation to the overall authoring process and discuss the key elements of pattern language visualization. Our proposed visualization forms were implemented in the pattern authoring environment CoPE1 that supports authors with visual tools throughout the authoring process and assists them in pattern language composition. To illustrate its impact, we demonstrate how the CoPE tool can be used to visualize some examples of pattern languages.
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Students%2C as well as teachers%2C have different cognitive styles%2C and so styles of learning vary as much as styles of teaching. The teaching strategies can be design education %2C their learning can be severely impaired if they are mismatched with teacher who prefer%2C or teaching programmes which impose%2C a different learning style. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pebelajar%2C sama seperti pembelajar%2C memiliki gaya kognitif yang berbeda-beda. Variasi gaya pengajaran sebanyak gaya belajar. Gaya pengajaran yang distrukturkan bagi pebelajar bisa cocok atau tidak cocok dengan gaya belajar pebelajar. Dalam pendidikan desain konvensional%2C belajar dan pembelajaran dapat sangat terganggu bila gaya belajar pebelajar tidak cocok dengan gaya pengajaran pembelajar atau program pembelajaran yang memiliki gaya yang berbeda. design education%2C teaching styles%2C learning styles%2C design strategies.
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CLUSTR is a computer program which assists the designer in finding the structure inherent in his design problem. The designer supplies the list of elements which define the design problem, and then decides which of these elements are related. The computer decomposes the problem into subsets in which each element is related to every other element. In theory each of these subsets represents the smallest “structural” component of the problem: a coherent functional or behavioral sub-system. The most closely related subsets are then combined into larger clusters. This process continues until all clusters have been recombined. The computer then draws a diagram to show how these subsets are combined to form the final problem structure. The computer also identifies the dominant elements at each node in the structure to assist the designer in finding the solutions to each sub-problem.
Conference Paper
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The first of two, related projects, The Garden of the Cool Change is a project for a hypothetical garden in suburban Melbourne, designed on Chinese principles – though it is NOT a classical Chinese garden. The project explores connections between poetry, painting, the garden and architecture in China and inklings of similar connections in Australia. The Garden of the Cool Change uses Australian means to do what a naturalised Song, Ming or early Qing, Jiangnan Chinese transported to the present might have attempted: to make an allusive, condensed picture of European Australia and some of its iconic experiences that are peculiar to its place. At the same time, the garden is a (curious) suburban dwelling, a private place of contemplation, art and writing and a centre for entertaining friends. It is not any Chineseness that matters, but the potential for experiential and intellectual richness as an unfolding, inhabited and embodied place. We think that designing is a particularly fruitful way to study something. The whole enigma of design is in its synthetic, nonreductive character – necessary in art – as opposed to the logical exploration or analysis in scientific thinking. Our project is an ongoing, open-ended experiment.
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This paper describes an investigation of the pattern language used by Christopher Alexander and his colleagues in the case of Oregon University. This pattern language is considered as a characteristic structural approach to explanation in architecture and as a powerful apparatus for design. Part 1 of this article is concerned with the development of Alexander's method, part 2 with some general features of The Oregon Experiment, and part 3 with the nature of patterns and their structure as seen through a simple taxonomic hypothesis. Finally, part 4 contains some notes on the ability of the Oregon pattern language to express the dynamics of university structures.
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This study aims to make a method that user of design information can use design information actively, after grasped a demerit that the exiting design information is passively given to user of design information for library architecture. This study with the study purpose has significations as following. Firstly, user of design information is able to use the information proposed in this study more actively than the exiting design information, because the design information in this study is proposed as the relative structures for design solution. Secondly, user of design information is able to have a participation chance for design of public library as a community facility, because the design information in this study plays not only a role in a check list for library space but also a role in normative design information for library design.
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A classification of various measurement techniques used to capture behavioral dimensions related to environmental design is presented. The techniques are categorized into a taxonomy in which each entry is noted and evaluated as to its relevance for the development of practical design information. Six distinct categories of measurement techniques are identified: survey-attitude instruments and simulation mechanisms, interview techniques, instrumented observations, direct observations, sensory stimuli observations and indirect or unobtrusive methods. The entries under each category are described and evaluated as to the subjective scale of observation and the general response categories. A general discussion then follows noting limitations of measurement methods and their relationship to suggested man-environment paradigms. In conclusion the problem of creating a measurement technology is addressed and suggestions for future development are explored.
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Though various starting points could be defined for different design problems; in architecture practices often the problem solving process starts by having a "context or site" and a "function or program chart". These two are the very initial inputs of this problem solving process, which both have the potential to be represented as quantitative values to some extent. And the major important final output of this whole process, in an architecture practice, is the drawings. With the existence of drawings, the spatial qualities and function can be presented as well. This final output, also have the capacity to be expressed as numeric values. Thus, if the process in between, also could be defined in an algorithmic way, then to automate this process becomes feasible. This proposal is about simulating this conventional design process that happens in architectural practice, as a computer model.
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Various conceptions of pattern from biology, computer science, and mathematics to environmental design, psychology, and sociology give rise to the multiplicity of definitions, descriptions, applications, scales, and common features of spatial patterns in urban environments. Considering the complex relations between spatiality and sociality in place theory, the study tends to explore a growing body of knowledge in conceptions of urban crime and pattern. Placing the investigations of urban crime in relation to sociality and spatiality, the paper advocates for departuring from spatiality that is the common ground between urban crime and pattern conceptions. Hence, dismissing both deterministic and free-will approaches to environmental design and addressing the urban crime as a complex city problem, the study argues that adopting a kind of spatial knowledge and possibilistic approach is critical for both understanding and transforming the city in order to investigate the issue of urban crime in relation to spatial patterns.
Conference Paper
During the last decades, the pattern movement has been dominated by patterns describing the design of technology or matter, especially when it focused on the design of software or buildings. Positioned in the physical world, patterns are technical, full of formal instructions, and often building on a rational understanding of the world they act on. We argue that technical and formal pattern structures support the rational line of thought very well but also limit creativity of people applying the patterns. In contrast to this, a creative and performative account to design does at least not prevent the emergence of new structures not yet formalized in design patterns. In order to start a discussion about this distinction in the pattern community, this paper proposes eight theses that may serve as a research agenda towards a better understanding of the role of patterns for creative and performative design.
Chapter
This chapter provides a general overview of group model building and key aspects that are used in community-based system dynamics, including the importance of teamwork, the use of scripts, and the role of boundary objects. The chapter then provides a brief overview of the three stages of community-based system dynamics projects including problem scoping and problem identification, core modeling team planning and capacity building, and facilitation of the actual group model building workshop.
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With the thinking paradigm shifting on the evolution of complex adaptive systems, a pattern-based design approach is reviewed and reinterpreted. Although a variety of long-term and lasting explorations on patterns in geographical analysis, environmental planning, and design exist, in-depth investigations into a formalized framework, the process and mechanics of pattern formation, and pattern-based planning and design methodologies are still absent. To face this challenge, our research focuses on spatial cognition-based pattern design (for an intelligent and adaptive/interactive environment in planning and design), inspired by the information theory of complex systems and formal semantics of spatial information. A computational analysis method and design methodology is presented using the spatial graph grammars (SGG) formalism, for the structural complexity of two-dimensional spatial layouts. The proposed model consists of abstract syntax, together with the consistent rules of spatial-semantic compositionality, within a unified and formalized framework. In our model, pattern formation results from dynamic hierarchies and adaptive layouts (driven by complex dynamics and controlled by relevant spatial-semantic specifications) within multiple cognitive levels. Our work demonstrates the application potential of incorporating a novel computational tool (in the field of software engineering, data mining, and information visualization/visual analytics) into environmental planning and design.
Article
This study reviews the process of creating the patterns through the Christopher Alexander`s books to discover the fundamental rules for creation of the pattern language. The essential ideas of 11 rules describing the characteristics of the pattern language are organized by keyword depending on the characteristics of each rule. Then, this study analyzes which keyword was applied importantly and how it had been developed chronologically in the Alexander`s books. As a result, 5 keywords - reflection of cultural difference, reflection of human desires, solving the repeated problem, function suitable for principal purpose, and network structure - are applied to his early books in which the pattern language was theoretically developed, the pattern of traditional society was discovered and the network structure was developed. Another 5 keywords - user participation method, new problem solving, structure preserving transformation, post-mechanization method, and central invariant structure - are applied to the books in his mid-term after completion of the pattern theory which discover new pattern for contemporary society and apply the pattern language to time and space. In his later books which organize the theory of pattern language and suggest the direction for using the pattern language, 5 keywords - wholeness, post-mechanization method, user participation method, new problem solving, and structure preserving transformation - are applied. Users may use the pattern language more precisely if he/she considers the keywords of the early period in searching the patterns of existing environment, the keywords of the intermediate period in searching the patterns of new environment or in regard to time and space, and the keywords of the later period in considering direction of the application of the pattern language.
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This article discusses a proposed exercise in the Course of Architecture and Urbanism of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro. The experience developed in the third semester of graduation among design disciplines and the group of Expression, Representation and Shape Analysis, aims to support a methodology based in the analysis of a cell housing, supported by the investigation of such a reference in the modern or contemporary architectural production. The confrontation between the self-construction – frequently the student's home – and the architecture seen in books, aims to highlight contrasts. To this end, the discipline Introduction to the Project proposes the development of a "dream shelter" in the campus, helped by the analysis of models, which are essentials to the maturation of individual achievement in teaching-learning process.
Article
Thesis (M.S.)--Illinois Institute of Technology, 1973.
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