Family Antecedents and Consequences of Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: A Life Course Investigation

Department of Human Development and Family Studies/Institute of Social and Behavioral Research, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010, USA.
Journal of Health and Social Behavior (Impact Factor: 2.72). 01/2009; 49(4):468-83. DOI: 10.1177/002214650804900407
Source: PubMed


Using prospective data from 485 adolescents over a 10-year period, the present study identifies distinct segments of depressive symptom trajectories--a nonsignificant slope during adolescence and a significant negative slope during the transition to adulthood. The study hypothesized that different age-graded life experiences would differentially influence these depressive symptom growth parameters. The findings show that early stressful experiences associated with family-of-origin SES affect the initial level of depressive symptoms. Experiences with early transitional events during adolescence explain variation in the slope of depressive symptoms during the transition to adulthood. The growth parameters of depressive symptoms and an early transition from adolescence to adulthood constrain young adult social status attainment. Consistent with the life-course perspective, family-of-origin adversity is amplified across the life-course by successively contingent adverse circumstances involving life-transition difficulties and poor mental health. The findings also provide evidence for intergenerational transmission of social adversity through health trajectories and social pathways.

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    • "Moreover, very few studies have examined the effect of enacted stigma and anticipated stigma on trajectories of depressive symptoms across time. Emerging adulthood is characterized by multiple types of depressive symptom trajectories—with some individuals experiencing no change, some experiencing increased symptoms, and some experiencing decreased symptoms—as a result of their unique cognitive and emotional processing styles and discrete life events (e.g., Prinzie, van Harten, Deković, van den Akker, & Shiner, 2014; Wickrama, Conger, Lorenz, & Jung, 2008). Enacted stigma or anticipated stigma attributable to a concealable stigmatized identity could, therefore, have deleterious effects on depressive symptoms by modifying their underlying trajectory. "
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    ABSTRACT: People living with concealable stigmatized identities are vulnerable to experiencing greater depressive symptoms as a result of occupying a lower social status. In the present research, we examine the effect of changes in enacted stigma and changes in anticipated stigma on trajectories of depressive symptoms over time. A sample of 192 college-aged emerging adults (81.0% female, 81.9% Caucasian, Mage = 18.82 years) living with a concealable stigmatized identity (e.g., mental illness and sexual minority status) completed measures of enacted stigma, anticipated stigma, and depressive symptoms at two time points across eight weeks. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicate that increases in anticipated stigma, but not enacted stigma, predicted poorer trajectories of depressive symptoms, controlling for the effect of baseline rumination and other identity-related variables. These data are among the first to demonstrate that worries about future devaluation predict poorer depressive symptom trajectories over time among college-aged emerging adults.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Self and Identity
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    • "Examples of childhood adversities which showed to be risk factors for mental health problems and poor educational attainment are parental death or illness [12] [13], bully victimization [14] [15], and family poverty [16] [17]. Adolescents suffering from mental health problems are at higher risk of poor school performance, school dropout, and low educational attainment [1] [18] [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aims of this study were to examine whether the association between childhood adversities and educational attainment in young adulthood can be explained by mental health problems in adolescence and whether associations and pathways differ for boys and girls. Methods: Data were used of 2,230 participants from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey, a Dutch prospective cohort study with a 9-year follow-up. Childhood adversities were measured at age 11 years, mental health problems (i.e., externalizing, internalizing and attention problems with Youth Self-Report) at age 16 years, and educational attainment at age 19 years. Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data, overall and stratified by gender. Results: Only among boys, childhood adversities were associated with low educational attainment in young adulthood. Externalizing problems in adolescence explained 5% of the association between childhood adversities and educational attainment. Furthermore, for both boys and girls, externalizing problems in adolescence had a direct effect on educational attainment in young adulthood. Conclusions: Among boys, childhood adversities are associated with poorer educational outcomes of young adults. A part of this association runs via adolescent externalizing problems. The results suggest that boys, compared with girls, are less capable to cope with childhood adversities. Monitoring of exposed boys to childhood adversities is of utmost importance.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Adolescent Health
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    • "The results also reveal constant mental health differences based on sex/ gender and SES where men and those of high-SES background are advantaged. The results on general and sex/gender patterns in mental health from late adolescence to young adulthood support previous findings (Bell and Lee 2003; Copeland et al. 2014; Wickrama et al. 2008; Wilkins 2013). The drop in mental health in part mirror the findings by Patton et al. (2014), suggesting that young people may be vulnerable to poorer mental health at these ages. "
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    ABSTRACT: This article discusses patterns in mental health of young Australians from age 19 through 25 and explores changes in mental health over these years. Data are derived from five waves of the Australian Life Patterns longitudinal study. The outcome variable in focus was self-reported mental health. Analyses were conducted in two steps using linear mixed models with both fixed and random effects. The analysis shows a negative linear trend in mental health status. The mental health of women was worse than that of men though a negative trend was found in both men and women. Though high socio-economic status (SES) individuals reported best mental health compared to their mid and low-SES peers, a negative trend was identified for them as well as for mid-SES participants. There is weak support for a negative trend among those of low-SES backgrounds. The study adds to evidence that there is a negative trend in mental health in young Australians but that this trend is not uniform across all young people. In light of this we argue the need for further research that analyses patterns of poor mental health in relation to social systems and institutions.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Youth Studies
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