Article

As bad as it gets: Well being deprivation of sexually exploited trafficked women

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  • Università di Siena, Italy
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Abstract

The International Organization for Migration has collected data on trafficked individuals. The aim of this paper is to use the sub-sample of sexually exploited women in order to explore the relationship between their well being deprivation, their personal characteristics, and their working locations. We use the theoretical framework of the capability approach to conceptualize well being deprivation and we estimate a MIMIC (Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes) model. The utilized indicators measure abuse, freedom of movement, and access to medical care. This model also allows us to estimate the effects of some covariates on this measure of well being.

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... One commonly mentioned recruiter and method of recruitment is the pimp who gains trust and thus controls the woman by becoming her boyfriend and, in certain situations, by offering marriage (Crawford & Kaufman, 2008;Deshpande & Nour, 2013;Di Tommaso, Shima, Strøm, & Bettio, 2009;Hom & Woods, 2013;Verhoeven et al., 2013;Vindhya & Dev, 2011). The vulnerability of the person trafficked in these situations may be the need for affection and love (Hom & Woods, 2013). ...
... Another commonly used method of recruitment is one in which a woman is offered employment. With this method, the trafficker preys on the woman's economic vulnerability or, alternatively, simply plays into her desire to migrate (Crawford & Kaufman, 2008;Di Tommaso et al., 2009;Hughes, 2000;Jones, Engstrom, Hilliard, & Sungakawan, 2011;Silverman et al., 2007;Surtees, 2008b;Vindhya & Dev, 2011). In these situations, the recruiter may be someone the woman knows personally, such as a friend, or the recruiter could be a stranger (Di Tommaso et al., 2009). ...
... With this method, the trafficker preys on the woman's economic vulnerability or, alternatively, simply plays into her desire to migrate (Crawford & Kaufman, 2008;Di Tommaso et al., 2009;Hughes, 2000;Jones, Engstrom, Hilliard, & Sungakawan, 2011;Silverman et al., 2007;Surtees, 2008b;Vindhya & Dev, 2011). In these situations, the recruiter may be someone the woman knows personally, such as a friend, or the recruiter could be a stranger (Di Tommaso et al., 2009). In addition, this method of recruitment can occur through the Internet, TV, or newspaper advertisements (Di Tommaso et al., 2009;Hughes, 2000). ...
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Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration.
... Literatürde mülteci kadınların şiddet (12), cinsel taciz, tecavüz, cinsel yolla bulaşan enfeksiyonlar (CYBE) (13), insan ticareti, prenatal, yetersiz antenatal ve postnatal bakım, riskli gebelik, doğum komplikasyonları, adölesan evililik, adölesan gebelik, istenmeyen gebelik, istemli düşükler, yüksek doğurganlık gibi gebelik ve doğumla ilgili sorunlar yönünden riskli grubu oluşturduğu belirlenmiştir (4,13,14). ...
... Seks işçiliğine zorlanan mülteci kadınlar şiddet (12), cinsel istismar, HIV / AIDS de dahil olmak üzere CYBE, istenmeyen gebelikler ve sosyal izolasyon ile karşı karşıya kalmaktadır. Kontraseptif kullanımı hakkında bilgi eksikliği olan ya da kullanmak istemeyen mülteci kadınlar, istenmeyen gebelik ve sağlıksız koşullarda düşük yaşamaktadır (13). Uluslararası Kurtarma Komitesi, göç sırasında erkeklerin kendilerini koruyacak olmaları ümidiyle kadınların cinsel birlikteliği kabul etmek zorunda olduklarını ifade etmektedir (18). ...
... Türkiye'de yapılan bir araştırmada, Suriyeli mülteci kadınların erkeğin şanı, iş gücü ve toprağın işlenmesi gerekliliği ve dini inanışlar nedeniyle çocuk sahibi oldukları belirlenmiştir (20). Mülteci kadınların sosyoekonomik düzeylerinin düşük olması, daha az prenatal bakım almaları, sağlıksız yaşam biçimleri, bulaşıcı hastalığa yakalanma oranlarının yüksek olması, şiddete maruz kalmaları, yoğun stres altında olmaları ve sağlıksız koşullarda doğum yapmaları nedeniyle (19) düşük doğum ağırlıklı bebek, preterm doğum, ölü doğum, konjenital malformasyonlu bebek doğurma, erken gebelik kaybı riski, perinatal morbidite ve mortalite oranları (4,13) diğer kadınlara göre daha fazladır. Akhavan ve Lundgren (21)'in çalışmasında, Somali ve Etiyopya gibi ülkelerden İsveç'e göç eden kadınların prenatal bakım kalitesinin İsveçli kadınlara göre daha düşük olduğu, düşük doğum ağırlıklı bebek ve ölü doğumların ise daha yüksek oranda görüldüğü belirtilmiştir (21). ...
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Toplu yaşamın getirdiği zorluklar, barınma sorunları, yasal sorunlar, göç eden bireylerin sağlığını sosyal, kültürel, psikolojik ve fiziksel açıdan olumsuz etkilemektedir. Kadınlar, toplumsal statü, toplumsal cinsiyet ve düşük sosyo-ekonomik düzey gibi nedenlerle erkeklere göre daha fazla etkilenmekte ve sağlık hizmetlerinden yaralanmada daha dezavantajlı konumda olmaktadır. Tüm bu sorunlar mülteci kadınların, üreme sağlığı sorunları açısından riskli gruplar içinde yer almasına neden olmakta ve şiddet, cinsel taciz, tecavüz, cinsel yolla bulaşan enfeksiyonlar, gebelik ve doğumla ilgili üreme sağlığı sorunları ortaya çıkmaktadır. Ayrıca mülteci kadınlar, dil problemi, sağlık kurumlarına ulaşımda yaşanan zorluklar, sağlık sigortasının olmaması, göç alan bölgelerde yeterli sağlık kuruluşu ve nitelikli personelin ve tercümanın olmaması gibi nedenlerle sağlık hizmetlerine ulaşmada sorun yaşamaktadır. Mülteci kadınların artan sağlık problemleri içerisinde üreme sağlığı hizmetlerine yönelik gereksinimleri giderek artmaktadır. Bu doğrultuda mülteci kadınların, üreme sağlığı sorunları ve sağlık hizmetlerini kullanma durumlarının öncelikli ele alınması, değerlendirilmesi ve sorunlarına kalıcı çözüm getirilmesi için üreme sağlığını geliştirme programlarının düzenlenmesi oldukça önemlidir.
... Alternatively, in a more novel fashion, women are tricked into falling in love with incognito recruiters, whose real intentions are only revealed once sexual exploitation begins (Coster van Voorhout 2009;Reid 2016). It is also often documented that victims' families may push them to accept offers to work abroad (Aghatise 2004;Skilbrei and Tveit 2008), or that victims themselves meet their recruiters because of their own initiatives, or while inquiring through relatives, friends, and acquaintances about pathways to work abroad without necessarily being aware of what exactly awaits them (Di Tommaso et al. 2009;Englund et al. 2008;Lebov 2010). Nonetheless, the underlying motivations of victims for accepting offers to work abroad vary, depending on push factors such as political instability, poverty, unemployment, sexual discrimination, and domestic abuse (Duong 2014;Hoefinger 2016) and pull factors like adventure, brighter future and quality of life, or simply better working conditions and salary (El-Cherkeh et al. 2004;Vandekerckhove et al. 2001). ...
... On the other hand, the study findings converged with research that demonstrates that usually recruitment of victims is achieved within highmigration areas wherein recruitment costs are low and opportunities to recruit vulnerable women are high (Mahmoud and Trebesch 2010). Most importantly, the findings were consistent with other studies which affirm that victims themselves meet their recruiters-who often "instill a sense of loyalty" in their victims (Moore et al. 2017, p. 3)-upon their own initiatives, while inquiring through friends and acquaintances into pathways to work abroad, without necessarily being aware of what exactly awaits them (Andrijasevic 2004;Cyrus 2005;Di Tommaso et al. 2009;Englund et al. 2008;Lebov 2010;Zimmerman et al. 2003); with the recruiters being usually nationals of the origin countries (Eurostat 2014;UNODC 2014). ...
Article
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While the preponderance of delineation, exploration, and analysis of human trafficking concentrates on the victimization of trafficked people, the offenders’ criminal partaking is often left unexplored. That said, this study aims to examine the conundrum of human trafficking by exploring the traffickers’ demographics, tactics, connections, and collaborations. In order to accomplish this, data are drawn from the content analysis of 102 police interviews (Cyprus Police) with victims of trafficking and the study of police files of 18 persons convicted for human trafficking and sexual exploitation. In short (and contrary to widely held beliefs), the findings point out that human trafficking in Cyprus is not premised on well-established criminal syndicates with deep roots and solid networking, nor is dominated by cruel tactics actuated by meticulous crooks, linked to corrupt officials.
... The literature widely points out that the vulnerable position of women in society is a powerful push factor of human trafficking outflows (Bettio & Nandi, 2010;Clawson & Layne, 2007;Danailova-Trainor & Belser, 2006;Di Tommaso, Shima, Strøm, & Bettio, 2009). Human trafficking is apparently gender-based violence, the majority of victims being females exploited in the sex industry (UNODC, 2006;IOM, 2012). ...
... The IOM CTM provides enriched information on the characteristics of victims; however, this dataset is not suitable for a macro-analysis given that it is micro-survey data without a reference to the magnitude of the problem at the country level.3 Akee et al. (2010Akee et al. ( , 2012Akee et al. ( , 2014,Bales (2007),Belser (2005),Bettio and Nandi (2010),Cho (2013),Cho et al. (2013),Clawson and Layne (2007),Danailova-Trainor and Belser (2006), Di Tommaso et al. (2009), Frank (2011, Jac-Kucharski (2012), Jakobsson and Kotsadam (2013),Mahmoud and Trebesch (2010), ...
Article
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This study aims to identify robust push and pull factors of human trafficking. I test for the robustness of 70 push and 63 pull factors suggested in the literature. In doing so, I employ an extreme bound analysis, running more than two million regressions with all possible combinations of variables for up to 153 countries during the period of 1995–2010. My results show that crime prevalence robustly explains human trafficking both in destination and origin countries. Income level also has a robust impact, suggesting that the cause of human trafficking shares that of economic migration. Law enforcement matters more in origin countries than destination countries. Interestingly, a very low level of gender equality may have constraining effects on human trafficking outflow, possibly because gender discrimination limits female mobility that is necessary for the occurrence of human trafficking.
... For instance, girls who are smuggled from Nepal are usually illiterate (Simkhada, 2008), and in the Ukraine, the majority of women who have been smuggled have low educational levels (Vijeyarasa, 2012). However, we should not neglect existing research showing that there are women with high-school or college-level educations who are also victims of sex trafficking networks (Adoratrices, 2012;Di Tommaso, Shima, Strøm, & Bettio, 2009). ...
... Contrary to expectations, scientific research highlights the influence of social relationships in the recruitment process. Traffickers rely on personal relationships to make contacts that may lead to the recruitment of potential victims (Di Tommaso et al., 2009), particularly in contexts of poverty, by grooming victims or deceiving families with false promises of a better future for their daughters (Hodge, 2008). The involvement of a family member in the process of the sex trafficking of youth has also been found in studies conducted in different countries, such as the US, Vietnam and Nigeria (Sprang & Colle, 2018;Molland, 2010, Okonofua, Obgomwan, Alutu, Kufre & Eghosa, 2004. ...
Article
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The information currently available about girls and women who are trafficked worldwide for the purpose of sexual exploitation only shows us one part of the picture. In the Puigvert (2012–2014) TRATA: Life trajectories that move away or bring closer to the trafficking processes of sexual exploitation, through 25 qualitative techniques conducted with social service providers with a communicative orientation, we have identified a group of Moroccan adolescent girls between 12 and 18 years old who are particularly vulnerable to sex trafficking: the petites bonnes or young housemaids. Sexual exploitation, as well as sexual abuse that sometimes leads to pregnancy, can result in the flight or expulsion of these girls from their homes. These results unveil two recruitment elements that are used by trafficking networks: the irregular situation in which girls have arrived in a city and the circumstances of inequality in which they find themselves, including having low education levels and poor work experience. Furthermore, these elements make these girls invisible to the authorities and other professionals who could assist them. Based on these results, we conclude that tackling these challenges requires primary prevention measures that will increase the financial viability of the social groups at risk, establish programs that ensure successful educational trajectories for girls in their places of origin, and raise the awareness of people about this reality in their environments.
... Such framework leads to the specification of two systems of equations. Following Krishnakumar and Ballon (2008) and Di Tommaso et al. (2009), their formalization is the following: ...
... See the seminal examples ofKuklys, 2003;Krishnakumar, 2007;Di Tommaso, 2007;Di Tommaso et al., 2009; Krishnakumar and Ballon, 2008. 5 In the wider formulation of such models is also possible to include a system of causes for the indicators; this would allow better approaching the individual heterogeneity in converting resources into well-being achievements. ...
... Injuries related to violence The frequency of sexual and/or physical assault in sex-trafficked women and girls is high, ranging from 31% to 95%. 23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31 In one study, injuries resulting from physical violence were documented in 146 victims of sexual exploitation; most had been trafficked across borders and within borders of Indonesia, the Philippines, Venezuela and the United States. About 80% reported physical assault and the following injuries: vaginal bleeding in 40%, bruising in 40%, internal pain in about 33%, head trauma in 30%, mouth and teeth injuries in about 30% and other bleeding in 15%. ...
Article
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The American Medical Women’s Association (AMWA) condemns human trafficking and considers it an egregious human rights violation. While human trafficking is a global issue, this AMWA Position Paper addresses the problem of the trafficking of women and girls for commercial sex exploitation in the United States (US) in an effort to provide information and recommendations for physicians and other healthcare providers who may be in a unique position to identify and care for these victims.
... Other studies have documented extreme trafficker-victim relationships. An analysis of questionnaires completed by 4,559 female sex trafficking victims who worked throughout Europe and Central Asia and had received assistance from field missions staffed by the International Organization for Migration revealed manifold victimization (Di Tommaso et al. 2009). Almost all (96%) were denied the freedom to choose clients, 88% were not allowed to determine the kinds of sexual services they would provide, 40% were regularly prevented from using condoms, and 9% were never allowed to use them. ...
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The article begins with a discussion of definitional issues regarding human trafficking andmodern slavery and then briefly critiques some popular claims regarding each problem. Examples ofmacro-level research are critically evaluated, followed by a review of micro-level studies that illustrate tremendous variation and complexity in structural arrangements and individuals' lived experiences. These studies suggest that in this field micro-level research has at least three advantages over grand, macro-level meta-analyses-advantages that are quantitative (i.e., estimating the magnitude of the problem within a measurable universe), qualitative (i.e., documenting complexities in lived experiences), and well suited to formulating contextually appropriate policy and enforcement responses.
... Constructing a representative survey of individuals involved in commercial sex or trafficking is impossible because they constitute a hidden population whose boundaries are unknown. One can, of course, interview victims who come to the attention of the authorities, as was done in the IOM survey mentioned earlier in the article (Di Tommaso et al. 2009), but these surveys are not representative of the victim population. However, representative surveys can be done with the entire population. ...
Article
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This article examines different types of comparative research designs as applied to either prostitution or sex trafficking. I first present several comparative approaches that are found to be deeply flawed either because of the problematic assumptions of the analysts or because the data provided are insufficient to support the conclusions drawn. I then review research designs that compare two to four cases in depth and have the potential to yield stronger evidence-based findings and richer theoretical insights. The article concludes by discussing a set of methodological issues that face researchers who conduct comparative research on sex work.
... A straightforward hypothesis is that discrimination against girls and women in countries with large Muslim populations is likely to exist in tandem with disregard for anti-trafficking policies. The reason is that victims of human trafficking are usually women who are forced into prostitution (Nautz and Sauer 2008;Tommaso et al. 2009;Bettio and Nandi 2010;Omar Mahmoud and Trebesch 2010;Cho et al. 2013;Jakobsson and Kotsadam 2015). 9 Indeed, human trafficking is "a form of extreme exploitations for sexual and labor purposes and the vast majority of victims are marginalized foreign women (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2006)." ...
Article
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I investigate empirically the role of religion and political institutions in policies against human trafficking, using the new 3P Anti-trafficking Policy Index. The dataset contains 170 countries. The results show that governments in countries with Christian majorities implement stricter anti-trafficking policies than countries with Muslim majorities. The differences between countries with Christian and Muslim majorities is pronounced in dictatorships but less so in democracies. The influence of religion on the overall 3P Anti-trafficking Policy Index is driven by protection and prevention policies. As compared to prosecution policies that mainly target the perpetrators of human trafficking, protection and prevention policies mainly protect the victims of human trafficking, i.e. predominantly women. The conclusions are consistent with other empirical findings regarding the association between religion, political institutions, and human development.
... Raviv and Andreani (2004) have found that human tra¢ cking operations have become increasingly invisible in the Balkan region. 2 7 Examples of intimidation used by smugglers, such as a threat to harm the victims' family members, can be found under " Top Stories on Human Tra¢ cking " at the UN Global Initiative to Fight Human Tra¢ cking's website (www.ungift.org). See also Di Tommaso et al. (2009) for the analysis of micro data on the wellbeing of tra¢ cked women who were sexually exploited. 2 8 The model is amenable to the situation where each smuggler o¤ers a package of border crossing plus employment at the destination. ...
Article
We analyze a model of the migrant smuggling market where smugglers differ in the capacity to exploit their clients' labor at the destination. We suggest that destination countries with limited resources may prefer to improve the apprehension of smugglers and their clients at the border rather than inland, although either one of these anti-smuggling measures would reduce migrant exploitation. The reason is twofold. First, even if the resulting improvement in border apprehension alone cannot eliminate smuggling, it can do so when combined with a severe penalty for smuggling. Second, even if it is impracticable to set the penalty for smuggling sufficiently high, improved border apprehension reduces smuggling by discouraging existing exploitative smugglers from smuggling, whereas improved inland apprehension either maintains or even increases it by inducing them and those who are not currently smuggling to take up nonexploitative smuggling.
... 20 Some form of 'biological markets' (Noë and Hammerstein 1994) exist also in other species but the development of exchanges yielding mutual benefits requires fairly complex communication capabilities. 21 This distinction is the basis of the excellent empirical work on the sexual exploitation of trafficked women done Di Tommaso et al. (2009) and by Bettio and Nandi (2010). 22 Other barriers range from the occupational purdah preventing some Indian women from working even in the face of starvation (Chen 1995) to the invisible cultural walls that surround many modern occupations in the world of global finance (van Staveren 2002). ...
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Love, War and Culture have all played an important role in the evolution of human institutions and they have been characterized by complex relationships. War can select unselfish groups ready to sacrifice themselves for the love of their communities that they recognize to be culturally different from the others. At the same time, horizontal cultural differentiation cannot be taken for granted. Culture is the outcome of long evolutionary processes. It requires some human specific characteristics, including a large brain, that are likely to have been influenced by sexual selection and by the peculiar structure of human love affairs. Thus, if war may have generated love, also the reverse may be true: by favoring the development of human culture, love may have produced the conditions for war among culturally differentiated groups. In turn, war may have co-evolved with group solidarity only under the prevailing social arrangements of hunting and gathering economies. In general, human relations have been influenced by the prevailing features of the goods (private, public and positional) that have characterized production in different stages of history. They have been embedded in institutions involving very different levels of inequality, ranging from mostly egalitarian hunting and gathering societies to typically hierarchical agrarian societies and to wealth-differentiated industrial societies. The perspectives of the present-day knowledge-intensive economy can also be seen through the same institutional approach to human evolution. The different nature of contemporary production processes involves a new set of alternative possible arrangements that have different implications for social (in)equality and different capabilities to satisfy basic human needs.
... The literature widely points out that the vulnerable position of women in society is a powerful push factor of human trafficking outflows (Danailova-Trainor and Belser 2006;Di Tommaso et al. 2009;Bettio and Nandi 2010;Clawson and Layne 2007). Human trafficking is apparently gender-based violence, the majority of victims being females exploited in the sex industry (UNODC 2006;IOM 2010). ...
Article
This study aims to identify robust push and pull factors of human trafficking. I test for the robustness of 78 push and 67 pull factors suggested in the literature. By employing an extreme bound analysis, running more than two million regressions with all possible combinations of variables for up to 180 countries during the period of 1995-2010, I show that crime prevalence robustly explains human trafficking prevalence both in destination and origin countries. My finding also implies that a low level of gender equality and development may have constraining effects on human trafficking outflows, contrary to expectations. The linkage between migration and human trafficking is less clear, and institutional quality matters more in origin countries than destinations.
... Among the studies using secondary data, many have adopted latent variable modelling frameworks (e.g. Di Tommaso, 2007;Di Tommaso et al., 2009;Krishnakumar, 2007;Krishnakumar & Ballon, 2008;Kuklys, 2005). ...
Article
How can one assess the quality of life of older people – particularly those with Alzheimer's disease – from the point of view of their opportunities to do valued things in life? This paper is an attempt to answer this question using as a theoretical framework the capability approach. We use data collected on 8841 individuals above 60 living in France (the 2008 Disability and Health Household Survey) and propose a latent variable modelling framework to analyse their capabilities in two fundamental dimensions: freedom to perform self-care activities and freedom to participate in the life of the household. Our results show that living as a couple, having children, being mobile and having access to local shops, health facilities and public services enhance both capabilities. Age, household size and male gender (for one of the two capabilities) act as impediments while the number of impairments reduces both capabilities. We find that people with Alzheimer's disease have a lower level and a smaller range of capabilities (freedom) when compared to those without, even when the latter have several impairments. Hence they need a special attention in policy-making.
... We therefore expect levels of prostitution legislation to play a key role in determining trafficker's choice of destination countries; these levels determine the expected payoffs from and opportunities to exploit. Several empirical studies have already explored this relationship (see Di Tommaso et al., 2009;Akee et al., 2014;Jakobson and Kotsadam, 2013;Cho et al., 2013), but there is still no consensus on the statistical significance or direction of the effect of commercial sex activity legislation and levels of trafficking. There are two diametrically opposed lines of argumentation: abolitionists and supporters. ...
... Existing statistics on human trafficking suggest that it is a gender related crime; more than 70% of victims are females being exploited for sex and domestic services (UNODC, 2006). As female legislators and political representatives tend to be more concerned about women's issues (Chattopadhyay and Duflo, 2004), they are more likely to pursue anti-trafficking policy (Bartilow, 2010), given that sex trafficking against women is the most common form of human trafficking (Di Tommaso et al., 2009). We thus include the female share in parliament as a proxy for gender representation. ...
Article
The Anti-trafficking Protocol reflects the interests of the major countries. Due to the high costs of compliance, countries will strategically select those obligations that will satisfy the major countries most efficiently with lower costs of compliance. Among the three main obligations of the Protocol – prevention, protection and prosecution – we predict that ratification leads to the strongest effect on compliance with the prevention policy because prevention reflects the key interests of the major countries, while triggering less domestic resistance and political costs to implement. Therefore, it is the most ‘efficient’ form of compliance. We empirically test this hypothesis by employing panel data from 147 countries during the period of 2001–2009. As the theory predicts, the ratification of the Protocol has the strongest effect on the prevention policy of a member state compared to protection and prosecution.
... Currently, existing data available across countries – although reflecting fragmented information only – can be divided into three categories: characteristics of victims, trafficking routes, and country reports (Kangaspunta 2003). Extensive data on victims have been collected by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and utilized for microanalyses on the characteristics of human trafficking (Di Tommaso et al. 2009; Mahmoud and Trebesch 2010). The reports by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC 2006, 2009), the US Department of State (2001-2011) and the Protection Project (2002) provide information on trafficking routes; some of them being utilized in recent gravity analyses on human trafficking (Akee et al. 2010a, b). ...
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This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that the scale effect dominates the substitution effect. On average, countries where prostitution is legal experience larger reported human trafficking inflows.
... If the role of the girl or woman is no more than to bear children and to provide satisfaction and services to males, education of girls may not enhance the perceived benefits to men, who are the "strong" and dominate the women, who are the "weak". Women can then also become objects to be purchased for use and traded (Di Tommaso et al., 2009). The uses to which women are subjected may therefore not require education. ...
Article
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We investigate empirically whether political institutions or culture and religion underlie gender inequality in education. The dataset contains up to 157 countries over the 1991-2006 period. The results indicate that political institutions do not significantly influence education of girls: autocratic regimes do not discriminate against girls in denying educational opportunities and democracies do not discriminate by gender when providing educational opportunities. The primary influence on gender inequality in education is through culture and religion. Discrimination against girls is especially pronounced in Muslim dominated countries.
... One part of the literature focuses on the impact and effectiveness of policies combating human trafficking (Di Tommaso et al., 2009;Akee et al., 2014;Avdeyeva, 2010;Simmons and Lloyd, 2010;Cho and Vadlamannati, 2012). In line with this strand of research, Cho et al. (2014) have developed an anti-trafficking policy index measuring the three main dimensions of the fight against trafficking: prosecution, protection and prevention. ...
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Globalization is the tighter integration of the world’s economies and societies through trade, capital and migration flows, and diffusion of ideas. Advances in these areas pose a multitude of challenges on individuals, the nation states, as well as the international community. The motivation to address challenges of globalization for international mobility, social welfare and environmental sustainability from an economic perspective arises from the wish to structure and understand these complex, yet poorly studied phenomena. For that reason each chapter establishes clear hypotheses which are based on economic models explaining the incentive structure of agents or the political economy of institutions. Each empirical analysis uses existing macroeconomic observational evidence to test the predictions and establish meaningful implications for the relevant actors. Taking the multitude of challenges posed by globalization into account, this dissertation contributes to the understanding of three challenges contemporary global politics is facing.
... The feminist movement has skillfully utilized these values not only to publicize but also to challenge the devastating effects of discrimination and exploitation on women's health and well being (Larson 1993). The lack of rights as well as experience of violence are so pervasive that the freedom from these constraints came to be expressed in terms of sexual freedom (Di Tommaso et al. 2009). The concept of sexual freedom is therefore rooted in the experience of being a woman with observable indicators of sexual exploitation and rights deprivation. ...
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Protecting women’s sexual freedom has evolved as a modern value through a long process of social, economic, and institutional changes brought about by the ascend of human rights principles and societal engagements such as the feminist movement. We suggest that the concept of sexual freedom accommodates a more encompassing expression of the simultaneous demand for all aspects of personal, socioeconomic, and political resources related to the pursuit of women’s well-being. The purpose of this study is to develop a construct of women’s sexual freedom in the Mexican context. The data are from the National Survey on the Dynamics of Households Relationships, 2011. We use exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to model women’s sexual freedom and test for invariance between working and non-working women. Results indicate that women’s sexual freedom consists of four factors: reproductive rights, physical intimate partner violence, sexual intimate partner violence, and violence inflicted by others.
... In Scotland, the Prostitution (Public Places) Scotland Act 2007 came into force in October 2007; it criminalised 'loitering or soliciting in any public place for the purpose of obtaining the services of someone engaged in prostitution' (Sanders and Campbell, 2008). Campaigners are now calling for paying for sex to be made a crime. 1 Whilst the focus here is on clients, it is important to acknowledge that the effects on sex workers have been very significant: Sanders and Campbell (2008) illustrate the implications of this shift for the rights, safety and working conditions of sex workers and the increase in their stigmatisation, whilst Di Tommaso et al. (2009) found that women who are trafficked for sexual exploitation were worse off in terms of health, abuse and freedom of movement when they work in a secluded space. ...
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We build on both our theoretical and empirical work on modelling the demand for paid sex (Della Giusta et al., 2009a, 2009b) and examine the demand for paid sex, considering the effects of risky behaviours and attitudes to relationships and to women on demand. We find that those who declare to have purchased sex have both different socio-demographics (older, with fewer children, more educated but with lower professional status), and different sexual and risky behaviours as well as attitudes to relationships. As expected in the light of findings in the literature (well summarised in a 2004 Urban Studies special issue and in more recent literature) a clear city effect in the sample, mostly driven by London, which goes beyond the attitudes captured in the survey and thus combines a mixture of factors related to the supply of paid sex and unobserved characteristics of city-dwelling respondents.
... There has been little research on how different forms of criminalization or regulation affect the working conditions of prostitutes. Di Tommaso et al. (2009) use data from the Anti-Trafficking Unit of the International Organization for Migration and find that the well-being of trafficked women is (further) worsened when having to work in secluded spaces. ...
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The market for sex is a contentious one, and has often been subject to heavy regulation. This chapter goes through factors that are important with regards to the demand for and supply of prostitution. A particular focus is on the relationship between laws and the quantity of sex bought and sold. The most common way that laws have been used to affect the demand for prostitution is by outright criminalization, which may lead to less prostitution, but may also drive the activity further underground. The effect of criminalizing prostitution on trafficking is ambiguous since criminalization may also lead to a substitution effect towards more trafficked prostitutes. Scarcity of reliable data is one of the main challenges for the study of prostitution.
... In this context, the general well-being of trafficked and exploited workers (Di Tommaso et al., 2009), creation and sustenance of illegal immigration and bonded labor (Epstein et al., 1999), specific implications of minimum wage on illegal immigration (Epstein and Heizler, 2007;Tapinos, 1999Tapinos, , 2000, ban on prostitution (Akee et al., 2009), migration reforms and amnesty (Espstein and Weiss, 2001;Chau, 2001;Karlson and Katz, 2003) and debt contract and persistence of exploitation (Friebel and Guriev, 2006) have been discussed. Importantly, Rogers and Swinnerton (2008) develop a model on how (in their case) child workers and employers deal with the subject of information regarding exploitation at the workplace and whether legal sanctions are welfare reducing. ...
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This paper deals with illegal immigration via two distinct activities—smuggling and trafficking of workers. A destination–source model determines economic pay-offs and a standard labor market policy works as a deterrent. Tax paid by legal unskilled workers at the destination is determined endogenously and it finances inland monitoring against illegal immigration, holding the border patrol at a given level. The tax also finances unemployment benefit to legal workers at the destination. The number of immigrant smugglers and traffickers is also determined endogenously along with employer penalty and market wage for illegal immigrants. Higher unemployment benefits may reduce illegal wages, raise traffickers’ rent and reduce flow of illegal immigrants from the source countries.
... Thus, trafficked individuals may present with this symptom. Dissociation is a psychophysiological process that triggers a unique form of consciousness, which is present in all individuals to a greater or lesser degree (Putnam, 1993 (Choi et al., 2009;Di Tommaso et al., 2009;Holmes, 2007) contribute to fatigue, incapacitating physical pain, disfiguring and disabling injuries, and increased risk of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (Bauer, 2007;Bauer & Ramírez, 2010;Dharmadhikari, Gupta, Decker, Raj, & Silverman, 2009;Huffman, Veen, Hennink, & McFarland, 2012). ...
... In addition to the harms survivors experience, they often suffer economic hardships as a product of wage left, fraudulent credit that is taken out in their name, lack of employment history, accumulating criminal histories, and so on [27,56]. Part of acknowledging these long-term, harmful consequences, therefore, includes ensuring survivors have access to compensation or support to address these hardships, including lost wages, actual damages, court costs/fees, and punitive damages (e.g., Tennessee §39- [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. ...
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Human trafficking is an egregious violation of basic human rights that has reached global proportions. Despite the gradual proliferation of social science research and policy endeavors, a contemporary understanding of state human trafficking statutes has received limited discussion. Existing commentary tends to underserve survivor experiences in the law. Using a database of 982 human trafficking state statutes, this study seeks to describe the landscape of how the law acknowledges survivors. In doing so, we found that states acknowledge survivors through 1. formal agency guidelines, 2. survivor rights and services, and 3. education and awareness for the general public. Findings suggest that the nation’s human trafficking statutes are best characterized as a patchwork of laws. We conclude by making recommendations for future legislative reform.
... For example, Scoular (2010, p. 20) reports a drop in prices caused by the de- cline in demand in Sweden, which gives reason to anticipate the effects de- scribed in Proposition 1: Voluntary sex work diminishes and might be re- placed by forced sex worker. Moreover, it is to be feared that the remaining sex worker might have to take more risks and suffer from worse working conditions (ibid., Di Tommaso et al. (2009)). Hence, we cannot rule out that the good intentions with respect to the introduction of the regulation produces an unintended evil. ...
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Internationally, there is no consensus concerning the legal and moral judgment of sex work. Nevertheless, there is an overwhelming agreement on the need to fight against forced sex work. We analyze how a law-introduced to punish clients of commercial sex services-affects market outcomes. More specifically, we examine how the so-called 'neo-abolitionism' or 'Nordic' prostitution regime impacts forced sex work. The theoretical analysis reveals that this effect is ambiguous and crucially depends on the size of the deterrence effect and on local properties of the market demand. In addition, we highlight the conditions under which the composition of clients changes towards more risk-seeking individuals. Policy implications that arise are identified and discussed.
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This chapter examines two major trends in the way governments recently have dealt with sex work: intensified criminalization aimed at eradicating it and liberalization based on principles of harm reduction, labor rights, and civil regulation of commerce. It explains how such policies are influenced by the interplay of forces at the national and international levels and considers the roles played by key actors in shaping policies in three nations: Sweden, New Zealand, and the Netherlands. It explores how a spectrum of approaches to the regulation of sex work evolved in these three nations and how hese public policy outcomes have been shaped by local cultures. Finally, it analyzes the extent to which the prostitution policies of these three countries are evidence-based.
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Sex work was not a prominent public issue in the USA a generation ago. Law and law enforcement were fairly settled. Over the past two decades, however, a robust campaign has sought to intensify the stigmatization and criminalization of the participants involved in all types of sex work, which are now conflated with human trafficking. These efforts have been remarkably successful in reshaping government policy and legal norms and in enhancing penalties for existing offenses. The article analyzes these developments within the framework of a modernized version of moral crusade theory that includes both instrumental and expressive arguments against sex work.
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To update and expand on a 2012 systematic review of the prevalence and risk of violence and the prevalence and risk of physical, mental and sexual health problems among trafficked people. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches of 15 electronic databases of peer-reviewed articles and doctoral theses were supplemented by reference screening, citation tracking of included articles and expert recommendations. Studies were included if they reported on the prevalence or risk of violence while trafficked, or the prevalence or risk of physical, mental or sexual health outcomes among people who have been trafficked. Two reviewers independently screened papers for eligibility and appraised the quality of included studies. Thirty-seven papers reporting on 31 studies were identified. The majority of studies were conducted in low and middle-income countries with women and girls trafficked into the sex industry. There is limited but emerging evidence on the health of trafficked men and the health consequences of trafficking into different forms of exploitation. Studies indicate that trafficked women, men and children experience high levels of violence and report significant levels of physical health symptoms, including headaches, stomach pain and back pain. Most commonly reported mental health problems include depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Although serological data on sexually transmitted infections are limited, women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation self-report symptoms suggestive of a high prevalence of infections. Limitations of the review include methodological weaknesses of primary studies and some differences in definition and operationalisation of trafficking, which hinder comparability and generalisability of the results. There is increasing evidence human trafficking is associated with high prevalence and increased risk of violence and a range of physical and mental health problems. Although more studies have emerged in recent years reporting on the health of trafficked men and people trafficked for forms of exploitation other than in the sex industry, further research is needed in this area. Appropriate interventions and support services to address the multiple and serious medical needs, especially mental health, of trafficked people are urgently needed.
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This chapter examines selected European prostitution and trafficking policies and law enforcement practices. I first present two analytical approaches relevant to European policy regimes, and conclude that they are severely flawed either because of problematic assumptions or because the data are insufficient to support the conclusions drawn by the analysts. I then examine (1) issues regarding sex trafficking, (2) public opinion in various European states, and (3) recent political struggles over prostitution policy in the Netherlands and Germany, which illustrates the kinds of debates that may arise after prostitution has been decriminalized.
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Muthén (1984) formulated a general model and estimation procedure for structural equation modeling with a mixture of dichotomous, ordered categorical, and continuous measures of latent variables. A general three-stage procedure was developed to obtain estimates, standard errors, and a chi-square measure of fit for a given structural model. While the last step uses generalized least-squares estimation to fit a structural model, the first two steps involve the computation of the statistics used in this model fitting. A key component in the procedure was the development of a GLS weight matrix corresponding to the asymptotic covariance matrix of the sample statistics computed in the first two stages. This paper extends the description of the asymptotics involved and shows how the Muthén formulas can be derived. The emphasis is placed on showing the asymptotic normality of the estimates obtained in the first and second stage and the validity of the weight matrix used in the GLS estimation of the third stage.
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AS RECENTLY AS TEN YEARS AGO, the term "human trafficking" was rarely referred to in debates about migration policy. Today, however, it is one of the major concerns of both governments and organizations active in the migration field and has become a priority for those working in many other policy areas such as human rights, health, gender, law enforcement, and social services. The organization of the largest ever EU conference on "Preventing and Combat- ing Trafficking in Human Beings," held in Brussels from 18-20 September 2002, is an example of the growing political priority being accorded to combating human traffick- ing. The conference, organized by International Organization for Migration (IOM) on behalf of the EU, brought together over 1,000 representatives of European institu- tions, EU Member States, candidate countries, and relevant third world countries, drawn from governments, international organizations, and NGOs. The conference produced "The Brussels Declaration," which outlines a set of policy recommendations for the EU in the area of human trafficking. In the United States also, trafficking has been high on the political agenda. In
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In December 1998, the United Nations General Assembly established an intergovernmental, ad-hoc committee and charged it with developing a new international legal regime to fight transnational organized crime. In October 2000, after eleven sessions involving participation from more than 120 states, the ad-hoc committee concluded its work. The centerpiece of the new regime is the Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, supplemented by additional treaties (protocols), dealing respectively with Smuggling of Migrants, Trafficking in Persons - Especially Women and Children, and Trafficking in Firearms. The first three of these instruments were adopted by the General Assembly in November 2007 and opened for signature in December 2000. The significance of these developments should not be underestimated. The Vienna process, as it has come to be known, represented the first serious attempt by the international community to invoke the weapon of international law in its battle against transnational organized crime. Perhaps even more notable was the selection of the highly politicized issues of trafficking and migrant smuggling as the subjects of additional agreements. This article provides an overview of the Vienna Process and its outcomes with particular reference to the issue of trafficking in persons. It summarizes the principal provisions of the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and explains the connection between this instrument and its protocols. The origins of the trafficking and migrant smuggling protocols are then examined and each instrument is described and analyzed in detail. The Article concludes with a first-hand account of the negotiations - providing an insight into the competing interests that drove the drafting process and that ultimately determined its outcome.
Article
This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
Chapter
INTRODUCTIONTHE LINEAR REGRESSION MODEL WITH MEASUREMENT ERRORSOLUTIONS TO THE MEASUREMENT ERROR PROBLEMLATENT VARIABLE MODELS
Article
This paper aims to present a theoretical survey of the capability approach in an interdisciplinary and accessible way. It focuses on the main conceptual and theoretical aspects of the capability approach, as developed by Amartya Sen, Martha Nussbaum, and others. The capability approach is a broad normative framework for the evaluation and assessment of individual well-being and social arrangements, the design of policies, and proposals about social change in society. Its main characteristics are its highly interdisciplinary character, and the focus on the plural or multidimensional aspects of well-being. The approach highlights the difference between means and ends, and between substantive freedoms (capabilities) and outcomes (achieved functionings).
Book
Commodities and Capabilities presents a set of inter-related theses concerning the foundations of welfare economics, and in particular about the assessment of personal well-being and advantage. The argument presented focuses on the capability to function, i.e. what a person can do or can be, questioning in the process the more standard emphasis on opulence or on utility. In fact, a person's motivation behind choice is treated here as a parametric variable which may or may not coincide with the pursuit of self-interest. Given the large number of practical problems arising from the roles and limitations of different concepts of interest and the judgement of advantage and well-being, this scholarly investigation is both of theoretical interest and practical import.
Book
Managing migration promises to be one of the most difficult challenges of the twenty-first century. It will be even more difficult for south European countries, from which emigration has levelled off and to which immigration has become a significant economic issue. Southern Europe is close to other regions where the pressure to emigrate is intense: these regions have a high level of unemployment, above the European Union average, and a large informal sector, often 15–25 per cent of their economies as a whole. This book analyses the southern European migration case using an economic approach. It combines a theoretical and an empirical approach on the fundamental migration issues - the decision to migrate, effects on the country of departure and country of destination, and the effectiveness of policies in managing migration. It also explores the transformation due to migration of southern European countries in the 1980s and 1990s.
Article
A structural equation model is proposed with a generalized measurement part, allowing for dichotomous and ordered categorical variables (indicators) in addition to continuous ones. A computationally feasible three-stage estimator is proposed for any combination of observed variable types. This approach provides large-sample chi-square tests of fit and standard errors of estimates for situations not previously covered. Two multiple-indicator modeling examples are given. One is a simultaneous analysis of two groups with a structural equation model underlying skewed Likert variables. The second is a longitudinal model with a structural model for multivariate probit regressions.
Article
This paper presents estimates of the shadow economy for 110 countries, including developing, transition and developed OECD economies. The average size of the shadow economy as a proportion of official GDP in 1999–2000 in developing countries was 41%, in transition countries 38%, and in OECD countries 17%. An increasing burden of taxation and social security contributions underlies the shadow economy. If the shadow economy increases by 1%, the growth rate of the “official” GDP of developing countries decreases by 0.6%, while in developed and transition economies the shadow economy respectively increases by 0.8% and 1.0%.
Article
Anecdotal evidence suggests that sex workers who use condoms face large income losses because clients have a preference for condom-free sex. This has important implications for AIDS policy. We estimate the compensating differential for condom use employing data from a random sample of sex workers in Calcutta. We rely on a natural experiment—the nonsystematic placement of sex workers in a safe sex information program—to identify the relationship between condom use and the price for sex. We find that sex workers who always use condoms face large losses of between 66% (FIML) and 79% (IV).
Article
Structural equation modeling with latent variables is overviewed for situations involving a mixture of dichotomous, ordered polytomous, and continuous indicators of latent variables. Special emphasis is placed on categorical variables. Models in psychometrics, econometrics and biometrics are interrelated via a general model due to Muthén. Limited information least squares estimators and full information estimation are discussed. An example is estimated with a model for a four-wave longitudinal data set, where dichotomous responses are related to each other and a set of independent variables via latent variables with a variance component structure.
Article
Incl. bibl. notes, index.
Article
We evaluate the introduction of monetary incentives in the market for live and cadaveric organ donations. We show that monetary incentives would increase the supply of organs for transplant sufficiently to eliminate the very large queues in organ markets, and the suffering and deaths of many of those waiting, without increasing the total cost of transplant surgery by more than about 12 percent. We build on the value-of-life literature and other parts of economic analysis to estimate the equilibrium cost of live transplants for kidneys and livers. We also show that market price for kidneys will be determined by the cost of live donations, even though most organs will come from cadavers.
Article
A theory of participation in illegitimate activities is developed and tested against data on variations in index crimes across states in the United States. Theorems and behavioral implications are derived using the state preference approach to behavior under uncertainty. The investigation deals directly with the interaction between offense and defense: crime and collective law enforcement. It indicates the existence of a deterrent effect of law-enforcement activity on all crimes and a strong positive correlation between income inequality and crimes against property. The empirical results also provide some tentative estimates of the effectiveness of law enforcement in reducing crime and the resulting social losses.
Article
I. Introduction Since the turn of the century, legislation in Western countries has expanded rapidly to reverse the brief dominance of laissez faire during the nineteenth century. The state no longer merely protects against violations of person and property through murder, rape, or burglary but also restricts "dis­ crimination" against certain minorities, collusive business arrangements, "jaywalking," travel, the materials used in construction, and thousands of other activities. The activities restricted not only are numerous but also range widely, affecting persons in very different pursuits and of diverse social backgrounds, education levels, ages, races, etc. Moreover, the likeli­ hood that an offender will be discovered and convicted and the nature and extent of punishments differ greatly from person to person and activity to activity. Yet, in spite of such diversity, some common properties are shared by practically all legislation, and these properties form the subject matter of this essay. In the first place, obedience to law is not taken for granted, and public and private resources are generally spent in order both to prevent offenses and to apprehend offenders. In the second place, conviction is not generally considered sufficient punishment in itself; additional and sometimes severe punishments are meted out to those convicted. What determines the amount and type of resources and punishments used to enforce a piece of legislation? In particular, why does enforcement differ so greatly among different kinds of legislation?
Article
This paper investigates how Amartya Sen's capability approach can be applied to conceptualize and assess gender inequality in Western societies. I first argue against the endorsement of a definitive list of capabilities and instead defend a procedural approach to the selection of capabilities by proposing five criteria. This procedural account is then used to generate a list of capabilities for conceptualizing gender inequality in Western societies. A survey of empirical studies shows that women are worse off than men on some dimensions, better off on a few others, and similarly placed on yet others, while for some dimensions the evaluation is unclear. I then outline why, for group inequalities, inequalities in achieved functionings can be taken to reflect inequalities in capabilities, and how an overall evaluation could be arrived at by weighting the different capabilities.
Article
This paper aims at conceptualising the well being of children in developing countries using a capability approach and at measuring well being in a pilot study using a multiple indicator multiple causes model (MIMIC). First, the concept of capabilities for children is defined. Secondly the paper deals with issues related to measurement of functionings. The existence of multiple, inter-related functionings to measure children’s well being raises the question of how to combine them in empirical research. I use the richness of the capability approach and the information in all the indicators selected, to develop a MIMIC (Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes) model. Children well being is also assumed to be caused by other exogeneous variables like for instance gender of the child or income of the family. Lastly, I describe the data set used and provide a pilot empirical application of the MIMIC model.
Article
This article compares current concerns about "trafficking in women" with turn of the century discourses about "white slavery". It traces the emergence of narratives on "white slavery" and their reemergence in the moral panics and boundary crises of contemporary discourses on "trafficking in women". Drawing on historical analysis and contemporary representations of sex worker migration, the paper argues that the narratives of innocent, virginal victims purveyed in the "trafficking in women" discourse are a modern version of the myth of "white slavery". These narratives, the article argues, reflect persisting anxieties about female sexuality and women's autonomy. Racialized representations of the migrant "Other" as helpless, child-like, victims strips sex workers of their agency. This article argues that while the myth of "trafficking in women"/"white slavery" is ostensibly about protecting women, the underlying moral concern is with the control of "loose women". Through the denial of migrant sex workers' agency, these discourses serve to reinforce notions of female dependence and purity that serve to further marginalize sex workers and undermine their human rights.
Article
Drawing on data from a new survey of individual capabilities across a range of life domains, the paper explores gender inequalities in the causes, experiences and consequences of violent crime. Measuring not only experienced violence, but also feelings of fear and vulnerability to future experiences of violence, we attempt to show how these two types of variables interact and how they impact on well-being. Socio-demographic, economic, personality and environmental differences are taken into account. Key empirical findings include: the identification of a particularly vulnerable group using data for men and women separately; gender inequalities in the propensity to experience different forms of violence; gender inequalities in the impact of key factors, such as the number of dependent children, employment status, income (household and personal) and education, on the likelihood of experiencing violence; a strong link between experienced domestic violence and vulnerability to future domestic violence for women; and strong evidence of the negative impact of selfassessed vulnerability on well-being.
Article
as an independent variable. Last in Zellner [10], it is shown that equations of simultaneous equation models can be brought into a regression form involving some observable and some unobservable independent variables. Given that regression relationstcontaining unobservable independent variables occur quite frequently, and -in' fact are a special case of "errors in the variables" models, it is important to have good methods for analyzing them. Previous analyses have almost always involved the use of an instrumental variable approach, an approach which leads to estimators with the desirable large sample property of consistency. However, it is not clear that the instrumental variable approach leads to asymptotically efficient estimators for all parameters of a model and the small sample properties of instrumental variable estimators are for the most part unknown. In the present paper, we first consider the specification and interpretation of the models under consideration in Section 2. Then in Section 3 we apply a least squares approach to generate an estimator which, with a normality assumption, is a maximum likelihood estimator. The relationship of this estimator to certain instrumental variable estimators is set forth. Then in Section 4, a Bayesian analysis of the model is presented. Finally, in Section 5 some concluding remarks are presented.
Article
Summary This paper proposes a suitable theoretical framework for operationalizing the capability approach using the latent variable methodology. A structural equation model is specified to account for the unobservable and multidimensional aspects characterizing the concept of human development and to capture the mutual influence among different capabilities. The model is applied to Bolivian data for studying two "basic" capability domains relating to children: knowledge and living conditions. Individual capability indices are constructed from the estimation results and their empirical distributions analyzed. Our results show a strong interdependence between the above capabilities and confirm the role of exogenous factors in their determination.
Article
This essay examines how repugnance sometimes constrains what transactions and markets we see. When my colleagues and I have helped design markets and allocation procedures, we have often found that distaste for certain kinds of transactions is a real constraint, every bit as real as the constraints imposed by technology or by the requirements of incentives and efficiency. I'll first consider a range of examples, from slavery and indentured servitude (which are much more repugnant now than they once were) to lending money for interest (which used to be widely repugnant but no longer is), and from bans on eating horse meat in California to bans on dwarf tossing in France. An example of special interest will be the widespread laws against the buying and selling of organs for transplantation. The historical record suggests that while repugnance can change over time, it can persist for a very long time, although changes in institutions that reflect repugnance can occur relatively quickly when the underlying repugnance changes.
Article
Crime is a subject of intense emotions, conflicting ideologies. However, economists have generally explained it as a reflection of individual choice and equilibrating market forces. Two major themes of the literature are outlined: the evolution of a 'market model' to explain the diversity of crime across time and space, and the debate about the usefulness of 'positive' versus 'negative' incentives. Systematic analyses generally indicate that crime is affected on the margin by both positive and negative incentives; there are serious limitations to the effectiveness of incapacitation and rehabilitation; and optimal enforcement strategies involve trade-offs between narrow efficiency and equity considerations. Copyright 1996 by American Economic Association.
Article
Over the past few years, there has been a steadily increasing interest on the part of economists in happiness research. We argue that reported subjective well-being is a satisfactory empirical approximation to individual utility and that happiness research is able to contribute important insights for economics. We report how the economic variables income, unemployment and inflation affect happiness as well as how institutional factors, in particular the type of democracy and the extent of government decentralization, systematically influence how satisfied individuals are with their life. We discuss some of the consequences for economic policy and for economic theory.
Book review of Sex Work, Mobility and Health in Europe
  • M L Di Tommaso
Di Tommaso, M.L., 2007a. In: Day, S., Ward, H. (Eds.), Book review of Sex Work, Mobility and Health in Europe. Feminist Economics, vol. 13, pp. 123-127.
Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns
UNODC, 2006. Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns. UNODC, Vienna.
Tacking the Traffickers. The Guardian
  • J Bindel
Bindel, J., 2003. Tacking the Traffickers. The Guardian. 12 August.
The trouble with 'trafficking
  • O'connell Davidson
  • J Anderson
O'Connell Davidson, J., Anderson, B., 2006. The trouble with 'trafficking'. In: Van Den Anker, C.L., Doomernick, J. (Eds.), Trafficking and Women's Rights. Palgrave Macmillan, UK.
The Shadow Economy: Theoretical Approaches, Empirical Studies, and Political Implications
  • S Schneider
  • D H Enste
Schneider, S., Enste, D.H., 2002. The Shadow Economy: Theoretical Approaches, Empirical Studies, and Political Implications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.